Fort Lee, New Jersey
|Fort Lee, New Jersey|
|— Borough —|
|Coordinates: Coordinates: |
|Incorporated||March 29, 1904|
|• Mayor||Mark Sokolich (D, term ends December 31, 2015)|
|• Administrator||Peggy E. Thomas|
|• Clerk||Neil Grant|
|• Total||2.888 sq mi (7.478 km2)|
|• Land||2.541 sq mi (6.581 km2)|
|• Water||0.347 sq mi (0.898 km2) 12.00%|
|Area rank||342nd of 566 in state
29th of 70 in county
|Elevation||289 ft (88 m)|
|Population (2010 Census)|
|• Rank||67th of 566 in state
3rd of 70 in county
|• Density||13,910.9/sq mi (5,371.0/km2)|
|• Density rank||16th of 566 in state
5th of 70 in county
|Time zone||Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||Eastern (EDT) (UTC-4)|
|GNIS feature ID||0885223|
Fort Lee is a borough in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States, in the New York City Metropolitan Area. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 35,345, reflecting a decline of 116 (-0.3%) from the 35,461 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 3,464 (+10.8%) from the 31,997 counted in the 1990 Census. Located atop the Hudson Palisades, the borough is the western terminus of the George Washington Bridge, located across the Hudson River from the Manhattan borough of New York City. Named for the site of an early American Revolutionary War military encampment, it later became the birthplace of the American film industry.
Fort Lee is located at United States Census Bureau, the borough had a total area of 2.888 square miles (7.478 km2), of which, 2.541 square miles (6.581 km2) of it is land and 0.347 square miles (0.898 km2) of it (12.00%) is water.(40.85064,-73.971007). According to the
It is west and north of Edgewater, New Jersey, on the peninsula between the Hackensack River and the Hudson River, and atop the escarpment known as the Palisade Cliffs. The borough is bisected by the confluence of roads at GWB Plaza leading to the George Washington Bridge, and lies opposite from the Washington Heights neighborhood of Upper Manhattan.
Fort Lee is named for General Charles Lee after George Washington and his troops had camped at Mount Constitution overlooking Burdett's Landing, in defense of New York City. It was during Washington's retreat in November 1776 (beginning along a road which is now Main Street) that Thomas Paine composed his pamphlet, The American Crisis, which began with the recognized phrase, "These are the times that try men's souls". These events are recalled at Monument Park and Fort Lee Historic Park.
Fort Lee was formed by an Act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 29, 1904, from the remaining portions of Ridgefield Township. With the creation of Fort Lee, Ridgefield Township became defunct and was dissolved as of March 29, 1904. The Fort Lee Police Department was formed under borough ordinance on August 9, 1904, and originally consisted of six marshals.
At the turn of the 21st century, Fort Lee saw a large Korean migration which has converted much of the town into a large Koreatown, in that many traditional Korean stores and restaurants may be seen in Fort Lee, and the hangul letters of the Korean alphabet are as common as signs in English in parts of the downtown area. This Koreatown is separate from the similar Korean enclave in the adjacent town of Palisades Park.
The rapid increase of the Korean population has seen the decline of many other immigrant communities once centered in Fort Lee, notably the Greek and Italian communities, once quite large but now all but extinct. A sizable Russian immigrant community has also sprung up in recent years, also attracted by the urban setting of Fort Lee.
Given its evolving cosmopolitan ambience and adjacent proximity to Manhattan, Fort Lee has been called New York City's Sixth Borough, although not the only claimant of this title amongst Northern New Jersey's Hudson Waterfront communities.
America's first motion picture industry 
The history of cinema in the United States can trace its roots to the East Coast where, at one time, Fort Lee was the motion picture capital of America. The industry got its start at the end of the 19th century with the construction of Thomas Edison's "Black Maria", the first motion picture studio in West Orange, New Jersey. New Jersey offered land at costs considerably less than New York City, and the cities and towns on the North River (Hudson River) and Hudson Palisades benefited greatly as a result of the phenomenal growth of the film industry at the turn of the 20th century.
Film-making began attracting both capital and an innovative workforce, and when the Kalem Company began using Fort Lee in 1907 as a location for filming in the area, other filmmakers quickly followed. In 1909, a forerunner of Universal Studios, the Champion Film Company, built the first studio. They were quickly followed by others who either built new studios or who leased facilities in Fort Lee. In the 1910s and 1920s, film companies such as the Independent Moving Pictures Company, Peerless Studios, The Solax Company, Éclair Studios, Goldwyn Picture Corporation, American Méliès (Star Films), World Film Company, Biograph Studios, Fox Film Corporation, Pathé Frères, Metro Pictures Corporation, Victor Film Company, and Selznick Pictures Corporation were all making pictures in Fort Lee. Such notables as Mary Pickford and Miles Remy got their start at Biograph Studios.
With the offshoot businesses that sprang up to service the film studios, for nearly two decades Fort Lee experienced unrivaled prosperity. However, just as the development of Fort Lee production facilities was gaining strength, Nestor Studios of Bayonne, New Jersey, built the first studio in Hollywood in 1911. Nestor Studios, owned by David and William Horsley, later merged with Universal Studios; and William Horsley's other company, Hollywood Film Laboratory, is now the oldest existing company in Hollywood, now called the Hollywood Digital Laboratory. California's more hospitable and cost-effective climate led to the eventual shift of virtually all filmmaking to the West Coast by the 1930s. At the time, Thomas Edison owned almost all the patents relevant to motion picture production and movie producers on the East Coast acting independently of Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company were often sued or enjoined by Edison and his agents, while movie makers working on the West Coast could work independently of Edison's control.
Television and film in New Jersey remains an important industry. Since 2000, the Fort Lee Film Commission has been charged with celebrating the history of film in Fort Lee, as well as attracting film and television production companies to the borough.
Birthplace of subliminal advertising 
In 1957, market researcher James Vicary claimed that quickly flashing messages on a movie screen, in Fort Lee, had influenced people to purchase more food and drinks. Vicary coined the term subliminal advertising and formed the Subliminal Projection Company based on a six-week test. Vicary claimed that during the presentation of the movie Picnic he used a tachistoscope to project the words "Drink Coca-Cola" and "Hungry? Eat popcorn" for 1/3000 of a second at five-second intervals. Vicary asserted that during the test, sales of popcorn and Coke in that New Jersey theater increased 57.8 percent and 18.1 percent respectively.
However, in 1962 Vicary admitted to lying about the experiment and falsifying the results, the story itself being a marketing ploy. An identical experiment conducted by Henry Link showed no increase in cola or popcorn sales. The claim that the small cinema handled 45,699 visitors in 6 weeks has led people to believe that Vicary actually did not conduct his experiment at all.
1900-1990 2000 2010
2010 Census 
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 35,345 people, 16,371 households, and 9,364 families residing in the borough. The population density was 13,910.9 inhabitants per square mile (5,371.0 /km2). There were 17,818 housing units at an average density of 7,012.7 per square mile (2,707.6 /km2). The racial makeup of the borough was 53.49% (18,905) White, 2.75% (973) Black or African American, 0.14% (50) Native American, 38.44% (13,587) Asian, 0.02% (7) Pacific Islander, 3.08% (1,090) from other races, and 2.07% (733) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.97% (3,877) of the population.
There were 16,371 households out of which 21.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.6% were married couples living together, 8.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 42.8% were non-families. 38.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.16 and the average family size was 2.89.
In the borough the population was spread out with 17.0% under the age of 18, 5.3% from 18 to 24, 28.1% from 25 to 44, 27.7% from 45 to 64, and 21.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44.7 years. For every 100 females there were 86.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.8 males.
The Census Bureau's 2006–2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $72,341 (with a margin of error of +/- $4,502) and the median family income was $86,489 (+/- $11,977). Males had a median income of $66,015 (+/- $3,526) versus $55,511 (+/- $3,404) for females. The per capita income for the borough was $44,996 (+/- $2,903). About 5.5% of families and 7.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.1% of those under age 18 and 9.0% of those age 65 or over.
2000 Census 
As of the 2000 United States Census there were 35,461 people, 16,544 households, and 9,396 families residing in the borough. The population density was 14,001.7 people per square mile (5,411.7/km2). There were 17,446 housing units at an average density of 6,888.5 per square mile (2,662.4/km2). The racial makeup of the borough was 62.75% White, 1.73% African American, 0.07% Native American, 31.43% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 1.69% from other races, and 2.26% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.87% of the population.
There were 16,544 households out of which 22.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.7% were married couples living together, 7.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 43.2% were non-families. 39.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.14 and the average family size was 2.88.
In the borough the age distribution of the population shows 17.5% under the age of 18, 5.1% from 18 to 24, 32.6% from 25 to 44, 24.7% from 45 to 64, and 20.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 87.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.1 males.
The median income for a household in the borough was $58,161, and the median income for a family was $72,140. Males had a median income of $54,730 versus $41,783 for females. The per capita income for the borough was $37,899. About 5.7% of families and 7.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.9% of those under age 18 and 7.9% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2000 census, 17.18% of Fort Lee's residents identified themselves as being of Korean ancestry, which was the fifth highest in the United States and third highest of any municipality in New Jersey; behind neighboring Palisades Park (36.38%) and Leonia (17.24%) — for all places with 1,000 or more residents identifying their ancestry. In the same census, 5.56% of Fort Lee's residents identified themselves as being of Chinese ancestry, and 6.09% of Fort Lee's residents identified themselves as being of Japanese ancestry, the highest of any municipality in New Jersey for all places with 1,000 or more residents identifying their ancestry. In the 2010 Census, 23.5% of residents (8,318 individuals) identified themselves as being of Korean ancestry, 7.5% (2,653) as Chinese and 3.7% (1,302) as Japanese.
Local government 
Fort Lee is governed under the Borough form of New Jersey municipal government. The government consists of a Mayor and a Borough Council comprising six council members, with all positions elected at large. A Mayor is elected directly by the voters to a four-year term of office, and only votes to break a tie. The Borough Council consists of six members elected to serve three-year terms on a staggered basis, with two seats coming up for election each year.
As of 2012[update], the Mayor of Fort Lee is Mark J. Sokolich (D, term ends December 31, 2015). Members of the Borough Council are Council President Joseph L. Cervieri, Jr. (D, 2012), Jan Goldberg (D, 2013), Ila Kasofsky (D, 2013), Armand Pohan (D, 2014), Michael Sargenti (D, 2014) and Harvey Sohmer (D, 2012).
Federal, state and county representation 
Fort Lee is located in the 9th Congressional District and is part of New Jersey's 37th state legislative district. Prior to the 2011 reapportionment following the 2010 Census, Fort Lee had been in the 38th state legislative district.
New Jersey's Ninth Congressional District is represented by Bill Pascrell (D, Paterson). New Jersey is represented in the United States Senate by Frank Lautenberg (D, Cliffside Park) and Bob Menendez (D, Hoboken).
The 37th Legislative District of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Loretta Weinberg (D, Teaneck) and in the General Assembly by Valerie Huttle (D, Englewood) and Gordon M. Johnson (D, Englewood). The Governor of New Jersey is Chris Christie (R, Mendham Township). The Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey is Kim Guadagno (R, Monmouth Beach).
Bergen County is governed by a directly elected County Executive, with legislative functions performed by a seven-member Board of Chosen Freeholders. The County Executive is Kathleen Donovan (R, Rutherford; term ends December 31, 2014). The seven freeholders are elected at-large in partisan elections on a staggered basis, with two or three seats coming up for election each year, with a Chairman, Vice Chairman and Chairman Pro Tempore selected from among its members at a reorganization meeting held each January. As of 2013[update], Bergen County's Freeholders are Freeholder Chairman David L. Ganz (D, 2014; Fair Lawn), Vice Chairwoman Joan Voss (D, 2014; Fort Lee), Chairman Pro Tempore John A. Felice (R, 2013; River Edge), Maura R. DeNicola (R, 2013; Franklin Lakes), John D. Mitchell (R, 2013; Cliffside Park), Steve Tanelli (D, 2015; North Arlington) and Tracy Silna Zur (D, 2015; Franklin Lakes). Countywide constitutional officials are Sheriff Michael Saudino (R), Surrogate Michael R. Dressler (D, Cresskill) and County Clerk John S. Hogan (D, Northvale).
As of Election Day, November 4, 2008, there were 16,838 registered voters. Of registered voters, 7,457 (44.3% of all registered voters) were registered as Democrats, 2,318 (13.8%) were registered as Republicans and 7,056 (41.9%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were seven voters registered to other parties.
In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 60.9% of the vote here (7,873 ballots received), outpolling Republican John McCain, who received 37.9% of the vote (4,895 ballots cast), with 77.2% of registered voters participating. In the 2004 election, Democrat John F. Kerry received 61.1% of the vote here (8,367 ballots cast), outpolling Republican George W. Bush, who received 37.7% of the vote (5,161 ballots), with 13,692 of the 18,294 registered voters participating (for turnout of 74.8%).
Emergency services and public safety 
Emergency medical services 
The Fort Lee Volunteer Ambulance Corps, founded in 1971, provides emergency medical services to the Borough of Fort Lee, the George Washington Bridge, and the Palisades Interstate Parkway. One of the largest EMS agencies in the surrounding area, the Fort Lee Volunteer Ambulance Corps operates a fleet of four medium-duty ambulances, one first responder vehicle, and two command vehicles from its headquarters on the corner of Main Street and Anderson Avenue. In 2011, the agency purchased a new state-of-the-art ambulance, designated FLA-1, in order to begin retiring some of its aging ambulances. The agency plans to purchase a second ambulance sometime in 2013. With approximately 50 active members, the corps operates 24 hours a day on weekends and from 7 PM to 6 AM on weekdays, with paid borough employees staffing the ambulances during the day on weekdays. The Fort Lee Volunteer Ambulance Corps responds to approximately 3,400 emergency medical calls annually. The corps is a member agency of the East Bergen Ambulance Association (EBAA) with a standing mutual aid agreement with surrounding East Bergen boroughs.
Fire department 
Fort Lee is protected around the clock by the volunteer firefighters of the Fort Lee Fire Department, which was founded in 1888 when the borough was still a part of Ridgefield Township and operates out of four fire stations. The Fort Lee Fire Department operates a fire apparatus fleet of six engines, two trucks, one rescue, one quad, two support services units, two support vans, a mobile air unit, four command vehicles and six fire prevention units. The Fort Lee Fire Department's volunteer fire companies respond to, on average, approximately 1,800 emergency calls annually.
|Engine company||Truck company||Special unit||Address|
|Engine 1, Engine 5||146 Main Street|
|Engine 2||Rescue 2, Squad 2||Lemoine Avenue|
|Engine 3||Truck 1, Truck 2||557 Main Street|
|Engine 4, Engine 6||S.S.U. 1, S.S.U. 2||4 Brinkerhoff Avenue|
The Fort Lee School District serves public school students in Pre-Kindergarten through twelfth grade. Schools in the district (with 2010-11 enrollment data from the National Center for Education Statistics) are four K-6 elementary schools — School 1 (grades PreK-6; 629 students), School 2 (K-6; 421), School 3 (K-6; 510) and School 4 (K-6; 526) — Lewis F. Cole Middle School (7&8; 483) and Fort Lee High School (9-12; 1,015).
During the 2010-11 school year, School #3 was awarded the Blue Ribbon School Award of Excellence by the United States Department of Education, the highest award an American school can receive, one of only ten schools statewide to be honored. The school was one of three in Bergen County honored that year.
Private schools 
Private schools in the area include Christ the Teacher (PK-8, 314 students), First Step Day Care Center (PK, 101 students), Fort Lee Education Center (7-12, 78 students), Fort Lee Montessori Pre-School (PK, 49 students), Fort Lee Youth Center Playgroup (PK, 30 students), Futures Best Nursery Academy (PK, 98 students), Green House Preschool and Kindergarten (PK-K, 125 students), Happy Kids Pre-School (PK, 75 students), Hooks Lane School (PK, 54 students), Les Enfants Day Care Center (PK, 60 students), Palisades Pre-School (PK, 108 students), Rainbow School DC (PK, 88 students), and Small World Montessori School (PK, 51 students). Christ the Teacher Interparochial School operates under the supervision of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Newark.
Companies based in Fort Lee include the American Bank Note Company.
Fort Lee is served by the Palisades Interstate Parkway, Route 4, Route 5, Route 67, Interstate 95 (the northern terminus of the New Jersey Turnpike), U.S. Route 9W, U.S. Route 1-9, U.S. Route 46, and County Route 505. The George Washington Bridge (signed as I-95/US 1-9/US 46) crosses the Hudson River from Fort Lee to the Washington Heights neighborhood of Upper Manhattan in New York City and is the world's busiest motor vehicle bridge. Many of these roads converge at GWB Plaza, a busy crossroads at the northern end of the borough.
Fort Lee is also served by New Jersey Transit buses 154, 156, 158 and 159 to the Port Authority Bus Terminal in Midtown Manhattan; the 171, 175, 178, 181, 182, 186 and 188 lines to the George Washington Bridge Bus Terminal; and local service on the 751, 753, 755 and 756.
In media 
- Martin Scorsese directed several scenes of Goodfellas in Fort Lee.
- Chabad of Fort Lee, a synagogue, was used as the filming location for the Queens, New York residence of Detective Elliot Stabler on Law & Order: Special Victims Unit.
- In late March 2011, a group of teenagers reported that they had been detained by the Fort Lee Police Department who left them in a police van parked for 14 hours overnight at headquarters. The detainees, who said that they had no food, water or access to bathrooms during that time, were released after passers-by heard their screams.
- On March 2, 2012, The show Morning Joe on MSNBC aired live from Fort Lee High School. Joe Scarborough and Mika Brzezinski joined Gov. Chris Christie, Rev. Al Sharpton, Michelle Rhee, Harold Ford Jr., Howard Dean, Interim Superintendent of Fort Lee Schools (Steven Engravalle) and other invited guests to discuss New Jersey's Education Reform.
Notable people 
- Albert Anastasia (1902–1957), Mafia boss.
- Mickey Appleman (born 1946), professional poker player.
- Allan Arkush (born 1948), film director and television producer known for Rock and Roll High School and the NBC series Heroes.
- Barbara Bennett (1906-1959), silent screen actress and literary representative.
- Constance Bennett (1904–1965), stage and film actress.
- Joan Bennett (1910–1990), stage and film actress.
- Mike Berniker (1935–2008), record producer.
- Balfour Brickner (1926–2005), rabbi emeritus of the Stephen Wise Free Synagogue in Manhattan.
- Dr. Joyce Brothers (1927-2013), psychologist, television personality.
- Cam'ron (born 1976), rapper.
- Jay Chiat (1931–2002), advertising agency executive.
- Liz Claman (born 1963), Fox Business Network anchor.
- Émile Cohl (1857–1938), French caricaturist, cartoonist, and animator.
- Celia Cruz (1925–2003), Cuban-born singer.
- Bill Evans (1929–80), jazz pianist and composer.
- Mr. Richard Feder, a fictional person who often wrote to Roseanne Roseannadanna, a character played by Gilda Radner on Saturday Night Live.
- Phil Foster (1913-1985), actor who played Frank De Fazio in Laverne & Shirley.
- Buddy Hackett (1924–2003), comedian and actor.
- Jay-Z (born 1969), rapper.
- Ali Khatami (born 1953), former Iranian Presidential Chief of Staff.
- Ron Johnson (born 1947), former NFL running back for the Cleveland Browns and New York Giants.
- Samm Levine (born 1982), actor on Freaks and Geeks.
- D. Bennett Mazur (c. 1925-1994), member of the New Jersey General Assembly.
- Richard Reines, co-owner of Drive-Thru Records, a record label specializing largely in pop punk music.
- Freddie Roman (born 1937), comedian, New York Friars' Club notable.
- Joe Rosario (born 1959), actor, writer, director.
- Ray Sepúlveda (born 1956), Salsa singer, recording artist and orchestra leader.
- Anton Sikharulidze (born 1976), gold medal-winning pairs figure skater.
- Phoebe Snow (1950–2011), singer.
- Alfonso Soriano (born 1976), outfielder who played for the New York Yankees.
- Darryl Strawberry (born 1962), Major League Baseball outfielder who played for both the New York Mets and New York Yankees.
- Lyle Stuart (1922–2006), independent publisher of controversial books.
- Chien-Ming Wang (born 1980), pitcher for the Washington Nationals.
- Glen Zipper (born 1974), writer, film producer and former New Jersey assistant state prosecutor known for the Academy Award-winning film Undefeated.
See also 
- Westervelt, Frances A. (Frances Augusta), 1858–1942, History of Bergen County, New Jersey, 1630-1923
- Municipal Incorporations of the State of New Jersey (according to Counties) prepared by the Division of Local Government, Department of the Treasury (New Jersey); December 1, 1958
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
- Gazetteer of New Jersey Places, United States Census Bureau. Accessed October 16, 2012.
- 2005 New Jersey Legislative District Data Book, Rutgers University Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, April 2005, p. 160.
- 2013 New Jersey Mayors Directory, New Jersey Department of Community Affairs. Accessed May 12, 2013.
- Borough Administrator's Office, Borough of Fort Lee. Accessed June 30, 2012.
- Borough Clerk's Office, Borough of Fort Lee. Accessed June 30, 2012.
- U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Borough of Fort Lee, Geographic Names Information System. Accessed March 5, 2013.
- DP-1 - Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 for Fort Lee borough, Bergen County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 5, 2012.
- Table DP-1. Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2010 for Fort Lee borough, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed February 5, 2012.
- GCT-PH1 Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - State -- County Subdivision from the 2010 Census Summary File 1 for New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed October 9, 2012.
- Look Up a ZIP Code, United States Postal Service. Accessed September 26, 2011.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
- A Cure for the Common Codes: New Jersey, Missouri Census Data Center. Accessed October 9, 2012.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. October 25, 2007. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
- Municipalities Grouped by 2011-2020 Legislative Districts, New Jersey Department of State, p. 14. Accessed January 6, 2013.
- Table 7. Population for the Counties and Municipalities in New Jersey: 1990, 2000 and 2010, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development, February 2011. Accessed June 30, 2012.
- Lefkowitz, Melanie. "Bergen County's Fort Lee: Town With a View", The Wall Street Journal. April 30, 2011. Accessed September 16, 2012. "The cliff-top 33-acre Fort Lee Historic Park, on a Revolutionary War fort site named for Gen. Charles Lee from whom the borough also takes its name, offers educational programs as well as bridge and river views."
- Snyder, John P. The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries: 1606-1968, Bureau of Geology and Topography; Trenton, New Jersey; 1969. p. 78. Accessed February 14, 2012.
- "History of Bergen County", Vol. 1, pp. 361-364 shows a creation date of April 18, 1904, for Fort Lee.
- "Municipal Incorporations", Extinct List p. 81.
- "Police Department History". Retrieved 2008-10-23.
- Asian Americans: Contemporary Trends and Issues Second Edition, Edited by Pyong Gap Min. Pine Forge Press - An Imprint of Sage Publications, Inc. 2006. ISBN 978-1-4129-0556-5. Retrieved 2010-11-08.
- Asian Americans: Contemporary Trends and Issues Second Edition, Edited by Pyong Gap Min. Pine Forge Press - An Imprint of Sage Publications, Inc. 2006. Retrieved 2012-12-12.
- Lefkowitz, Melanie. "Bergen County's Fort Lee: Town With a View". The Wall Street Journal - Copyright ©2012 Dow Jones & Company, Inc. All Rights Reserved. April 30, 2011. Accessed September 16, 2012.
- Linh Tat (2012-06-12). "Fort Lee grapples with questions on future development". © 2012 North Jersey Media Group Inc. All rights reserved. Retrieved 2012-09-16.
- Vera Haller (2012-09-07). "Living In Fort Lee, N.J. Close to the City, but With a Life of Its Own". © 2012 The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2012-09-16.
- "Getting the Big Picture; The Film Industry Started Here and Left. Now It's Back, and the State Says the Sequel Is Huge.". The New York Times. October 4, 1998.
- Amith, Deninis (January 1, 2011). "Before there was Hollywood there was Fort Lee, NJ". J!-ENT.
- Rose, Liza (April 29, 2012), "100 years ago, Fort Lee was the first town to bask in movie magic", The Star-Ledger, retrieved 2012-11-11
- Before Hollywood, There Was Fort Lee, Fort Lee Film Commission. Accessed April 16, 2011.
- Koszarski, Richard (2004), Fort Lee: The Film Town, Rome, Italy: John Libbey Publishing -CIC srl, ISBN 0-86196-653-8
- "Studios and Films". Fort Lee Film Commission. Retrieved 2011-05-30.
- Fort Lee Film Commission (2006), Fort Lee Birthplace of the Motion Picture Industry, Arcadia Publishing, ISBN 0-7385-4501-5
- Staff. "Memorial at First Studio Site Will Be Unveiled Today", Los Angeles Times, September 29, 1940. Accessed February 14, 2012. "The site of the Nestor Studios today is the Hollywood home of the Columbia Broadcasting System."
- Bishop, Jim. "How movies got moving...", The Lewiston Journal, November 27, 1979. Accessed February 14, 2012. "Movies were unheard if in Hollywood, even in 1900 The flickering shadows were devised in a place called Fort Le, N.J. It had forests, rocks cliffs for the cliff-hangers and the Hudson River. The movie industry had two problems. The weather was unpredictable, and Thomas Edison sued producers who used his invention.... It was not until 1911 that David Horsley moved his Nestor Co. west."
- Home page, Fort Lee Film commission. Accessed November 6, 2011.
- The Straight Dope: Does subliminal advertising work?. The Straight Dope. Retrieved 2006-08-11.
- Urban Legends Reference Pages: Business (Subliminal Advertising). The Urban Legends Reference Pages. Retrieved 2006-08-11.
- Boese, Alex (2002). The Museum of Hoaxes: A Collection of Pranks, Stunts, Deceptions, and Other Wonderful Stories Contrived for the Public from the Middle Ages to the New Millennium, E. P. Dutton, ISBN 0-525-94678-0. pp. 137-38.
- The Committee for Skeptical Inquiry: The Cargo-Cult Science of Subliminal Persuasion by Anthony R. Pratkanis
- Asian Americans: Contemporary Trends and Issues Second Edition, Edited by Pyong Gap Min. Pine Forge Press - An Imprint of Sage Publications, Inc. 2006. Retrieved 2012-03-28.
- Census Estimates for New Jersey April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2011, United States Census Bureau. Accessed November 26, 2012.
- Fifteenth Census of the United States : 1930 - Population Volume I, United States Census Bureau, p. 714. Accessed February 14, 2012.
- New Jersey Resident Population by Municipality: 1930 - 1990, Workforce New Jersey Public Information Network, backed up by the Internet Archive as of May 2, 2009. Accessed February 5, 2012.
- Bergen County Census Data, Bergen County, New Jersey. Accessed February 14, 2012.
- Census 2000 Profiles of Demographic / Social / Economic / Housing Characteristics for Fort Lee borough, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed March 5, 2013.
- DP-1: Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000 - Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data for Fort Lee borough, Bergen County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed March 5, 2013.
- HARVY LIPMAN AND DAVE SHEINGOLD (2011-08-14). "North Jersey sees 30% growth in same-sex couples". © North Jersey Media Group Inc. All rights reserved. Retrieved 2012-12-12.
- DP03: Selected Economic Characteristics from the 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates for Fort Lee borough, Bergen county, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 14, 2012.
- Korean Communities, EPodunk. Accessed June 28, 2006.
- Chinese Communities, EPodunk. Accessed June 28, 2006.
- Japanese Communities, EPodunk. Accessed June 28, 2006.
- Efrati, Amir; and Frank, Robert. "Madoff Set to Plead Guilty to 11 Felonies", The Wall Street Journal, March 11, 2009. Accessed November 6, 2011. "1,119 - Number of investors in Fort Lee, N.J., who filed claims to recover lost money. The largest total for any ZIP code."
- Mayor Mark Sokolich, Borough of Fort Lee. Accessed February 14, 2012.
- Governing Body, Borough of Fort Lee. Accessed February 14, 2012.
- Bergen County Directory 2011-2012, Bergen County, New Jersey, p. 44. Accessed February 14, 2012.
- Almenas, Maxim. "Fort Lee Council looks to a new year", Fort Lee Suburbanite, January 12, 2012. Accessed February 14, 2012. "After Sokolich was sworn in for a second term, along with councilmen Armand Pohan and Michael Sargenti, Democratic Chairwoman Kay Nest told attendees the Borough was fortunate to have the best mayor and council in the state of New Jersey."
- Plan Components Report, New Jersey Redistricting Commission, December 23, 2011. Accessed January 6, 2013.
- 2012 New Jersey Citizen's Guide to Government, p. 57, New Jersey League of Women Voters. Accessed January 6, 2013.
- Districts by Number for 2011-2020, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed January 6, 2013.
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- Directory of Representatives: New Jersey, United States House of Representatives. Accessed January 5, 2012.
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- "About the Governor". State of New Jersey. Retrieved 2010-01-21.
- "About the Lieutenant Governor". State of New Jersey. Retrieved 2010-01-21.
- Bergen County Overview, p. 20. Bergen County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
- Bergen County Executive, Bergen County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013
- What Is a Freeholder?, Bergen County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
- David L. Ganz, Bergen County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
- Joan M. Voss, Bergen County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
- John A. Felice, Bergen County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
- Maura R. DeNicola, Bergen County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
- John D. Mitchell, Bergen County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
- Ensslin, John C. "Bergen County Freeholders choose Ganz as chairman; Democrat gives Republicans 2 top slots", The Record (Bergen County), January 3, 2013. Accessed January 10, 2013. "The swearing-in of Freeholders Tracy Silna Zur and Steve Tanelli gave the Democrats a 4-3 majority and control of the board for the first time in two years. The board elected David Ganz as chairman, as expected.... The reorganization meeting drew several top Democrats from across the state, with U.S. Sen. Bob Menendez swearing in Tanelli, a former North Arlington councilman, and Mayor Cory Booker of Newark swearing in Zur, an attorney from Franklin Lakes."
- Freeholder Home Page, Bergen County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013. As of date accessed, John D. Mitchell is listed as Chairman, John A. Felice is shown as Vice Chairman, and both John Driscoll, Jr. and Robert G. Hermansen are listed as members despite having terms of office that ended in 2012.
- Constitutional Officers, Bergen County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
- 2008 General Election Results for Fort Lee", The Record (Bergen County). Accessed September 26, 2011.
- 2004 Presidential Election results: Bergen County, New Jersey Department of Law and Public Safety: Division of Elections, dated December 13, 2004. Accessed September 26, 2011.
- Home page, Fort Lee Volunteer Ambulance Corps. Accessed June 29, 2012.
- Department History, Fort Lee Fire Department. Accessed March 11, 2012.
- Department Apparatus, Fort Lee Fire Department. accessed March 11, 2012.
- Home page, Fort Lee Fire Department. Accessed March 11, 2012.
- Data for the Fort Lee School District, National Center for Education Statistics. Accessed October 9, 2012.
- 2010 Blue Ribbon Schools: All Public and Private Schools, United States Department of Education. Accessed April 5, 2011.
- Alex, Patricia. "3 Bergen elementary schools given Blue Ribbon designation", The Record (Bergen County), January 6, 2011. Accessed April 5, 2011.
- Greatschools.net "Fort Lee Private Schools". Accessed May 13, 2009.
- Bergen County Elementary Schools, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Newark. Accessed November 6, 2011.
- "Port Authority of New York and New Jersey - George Washington Bridge". Retrieved 2011-07-17.
- "Port Authority of New York and New Jersey - George Washington Bridge". Retrieved 2010-10-02.
- Bergen County Bus / Rail Connections, New Jersey Transit, backed up by the Internet Archive as of May 22, 2009. Accessed September 26, 2011.
- "Complimentary Bus Service Provided To/From JFK International Airport Terminal One", China Airlines
- Fort Lee Film Commission. "Fort Lee: Birthplace of the Motion Picture Industry", Accessed May 14, 2007. "The most interesting film shot in Fort Lee in the modern era was Goodfellas (Warner Brothers, 1990). Director Martin Scorsese, who is a leading film scholar, knows the history of film in Fort Lee and shot key scenes of this film blocks away from locations used by D. W. Griffith in the first classic gangster film, The Musketeers of Pig Alley (Biograph, 1912)."
- Filming Locations for Goodfellas, Internet Movie Database. Accessed May 14, 2007.
- Kimpton, Roger. "Hollywood on the Palisades"; Palisade magazine; Summer 2010; Page 14
- "Police Leave Teens Locked in Van For Hours: 'It was the worst thing that ever possibly happened to me,' one boy says.", WNBC, March 29, 2011. Accessed April 5, 2011.
- "Broadcasting live from Fort Lee High School", MSNBC, March 2, 2012. Accessed March 3, 2012.
- King of the Brooklyn Docks, accessed March 29, 2007. "In the mid-1940s, Anastasia decided to move away from Brooklyn and follow his longtime friend Joe Adonis to the country setting of Fort Lee, New Jersey. The Brooklyn home held in the name of his wife was sold for $25,000. The Anastasias built a new, 35-room, 5-bathroom house, valued at more than $75,000 at #75 Bluff Road in Fort Lee."
- "Frank closer to big money", The Record (Bergen County), August 3, 2006. "All were eliminated along with pros Mickey Appleman of Fort Lee and Teaneck native David Sklansky."
- Coutros, Evonne. "Hoboken story, made in Toronto", The Record (Bergen County), March 12, 1995. Accessed June 30, 2010.
- Kellow, Brian (c2004), The Bennetts: An Acting Family, University Press of Kentucky, pp. 34-35.
- via Associated Press. "Joan Bennett dead at 80", The Daily News (Kentucky), December 6, 1990. Accessed June 30, 2012. "The actress, born in Fort Lee, N.J., made her 1928 debut in the Broadway play Jarnegan."
- Levin, Jay. "Grammy winner M. Berniker", The Record (Bergen County), September 23, 2008. Accessed September 23, 2008.
- Saxon, Wolfgang. "Balfour Brickner, Activist Reform Rabbi, Dies at 78", The New York Times, September 1, 2005. Accessed November 4, 2007. "Rabbi Balfour Brickner, a voice of Reform Judaism on issues like race and abortion and the rabbi emeritus of the Stephen Wise Free Synagogue in Manhattan, died on Monday at Mount Sinai Hospital. He was 78 and lived in Fort Lee, N.J., and Stockbridge, Mass."
- Ft. Lee's Dr. Brothers to be honored, The Record (Bergen County), December 3, 2006. "But right now, she's getting ready for a photo shoot at her spacious Fort Lee co-op."
- "It's not easy being pink: Cameron Giles, better known as Cam'ron, triggered the pink fad. Now he wants to change color and cash in as a trendsetter", Taipei Times, October 18, 2004. Accessed May 13, 2007. "In a gated condominium community in Fort Lee, New Jersey, the dense shrubbery suggests a botanical garden more than a residential one.... That is how you can tell the house of Cameron Giles. For the better part of two years, pink has been the dominant color in the life of Giles, a rapper who performs as Cam'ron."
- The Last Adman, New York (magazine), April 8, 2002. "When I started to get friendly with Jay, he couldn't explain either, at least not with any clear logic, how he went from being a Jewish kid from the Bronx and Fort Lee, New Jersey, to ending up in the agency business."
- Spelling, Ian. "From Bulls & Bears to Bergen: Fox Business Network anchor Liz Claman loves coming home to Edgewater", (201) magazine, October 2009. Accessed October 12, 2009. "I love Edgewater. I lived in Fort Lee and jogged into the Edgewater Colony, and I thought 'One day, I'd love to live here.'"
- Latin music icon Celia Cruz dies, CNN.com, July 17, 2003. "But she spent her final days at her home in Fort Lee, New Jersey, trying to recover from a December surgery to remove a brain tumor."
- [Peter Pettinger. Bill Evans: How My Heart Sings. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999.],
- Wilson, John S. "Bill Evans, Jazz Pianist Praised For Lyricism and Structure, Dies; 'In Touch With His Feelings' Trouble With Scales", The New York Times, September 17, 1980. Accessed June 30, 2009. "Mr. Evans, who lived in Fort Lee, N.J., toured in Europe this summer."
- via Associated Press. "'Richard Feder' exists", Merced Sun-Star, February 11, 1980. Accessed November 6, 2011. "Letters from the troubled Mr. Feder are a regular item onan NBC-TV Saturday Night Live segment devoted to the popular consumer affairs reporter played by Gilda Radner. And Richard Feder is a real person who really lives in Fort Lee. Only he doesn't write the letters."
- Saturday Night Live Transcripts - Season 4: Episode 1 - Weekend Update with Jane Curtin & Bill Murray, Accessed November 6, 2011. "Roseanne Roseannadanna: Thanks a lot, Jane! Thank you! A Mr. Richard Fader from Frot [sic] Lee, New Jersey writes..."
- Kraushar, Jonathan P. "Bergen: Comics' Haven", The New York Times, March 21, 1976. Accessed December 17, 2012. "In the view of Phil Foster, a star of the television comedy Laverne and Shirley, there is no such thing as New Jersey humor. If it exists, said Mr. Foster, who lives in Fort Lee, it is like Staten Island humor -- that is, simplay a question of speaking slower."(subscription required)
- "Comedian buys home; Buddy Hackett New Owner of Anastasia House in Fort Lee", The New York Times, August 30, 1958. "Buddy Hackett is the owner of Albert Anastasia's Spanish stucco home on the edge of the Palisades in Fort Lee."
- Barboza, Craigh. "Friend Or foe?", USA Weekend, January 28, 2001. "Jay-Z, himself, has a two-floor penthouse in Fort Lee, N.J., with a view of Manhattan."
- Ross, Barbara; Singleton, Don; Santiago, Roberto; and Marzulli, John. "Jay-Z accused of knifing rival at party", Daily News (New York), December 4, 1999. Accessed January 5, 2012. "all, Jay-Z, 29, who now lives in Fort Lee, N.J., was charged with two counts of first-degree assault and two counts of second-degree assault. Posner set a return date for Jan. 31."
- Sciolino, Elaine. "Beneath the turban: A special report.; Mullah Who Charmed Iran Is Struggling to Change It", The New York Times, February 1, 1998. Accessed June 30, 2012. "Still, the Khatami children were encouraged to earn their own money, said Ali Khatami, 44, the President's brother, a businessman who lived in Fort Lee, N.J., for a year and a half while he was getting his master's degree in industrial engineering."
- Harvin, Al. "An Offseason Game; New Jersey Sports", The New York Times, January 12, 1973. Accessed November 16, 2008. "Some of the other Jersey residents on the team, according to Davis, are Bob Tucker, the New York Giants' tight end from Lincroft; Phil Villapiano, Oakland Raider linebacker from Ocean Township, and Ron Johnson, Giant running back, now a resident of Fort Lee."
- Super Sunday tallies up a record $5,165,961 in contributions for United Jewish Fund, The Jewish Journal of Greater Los Angeles, March 3, 2000. "Levine, who was present at the opening of Valley Alliance's Milken Gym, told The Journal that Super Sunday reminded him of the community spirit of his home town -- Fort Lee, New Jersey."
- Sullivan, Joseph F. "D. Bennett Mazur, a Professor And New Jersey Legislator, 69", The New York Times, October 13, 1994. Accessed February 14, 2012. "He began his political career as a tenant activist after moving to Fort Lee a few years after the war. He served on the Bergen County Board of Freeholders from 1965 to 1967 and again from 1975 to 1980 before winning his first election to the State Assembly the following year."
- La Gorce, Tammy. "Finding Emo", The New York Times, August 14, 2005. Accessed October 22, 2007. "Richard Reines, who owns Drive-Thru Records, which is based in the San Fernando Valley in California, believes in the New Jersey scene; Drive-Thru's roster includes Hidden in Plain View from Stanhope and the Early November from Hammonton. We came back, because as label owners we couldn't be away from it, said Mr. Reines, who is from Fort Lee."
- Strauss, Robert. "In person; In a Club Full of Comics, The King Is Also a Jester", The New York Times, December 11, 2005. Accessed June 30, 2012. "Three or four times a week, Mr. Roman travels into Manhattan from his house in Fort Lee, where he has lived for six years, and holds court in one of the dining rooms at the Friars Club, formerly a doctor's town house on East 55th Street."
- Kim, Jennifer. "Fort Lee man continues film legacy", Fort Lee Suburbanite, October 16, 2009. Accessed September 26, 2011. "Though Rosario's profile in the film industry is steadily rising and Hollywood is on his horizon, he hasn't forgotten about his birthplace in Fort Lee. 'The cool thing about living in Fort Lee is living so close to New York City,' said Rosario."
- Araton, Harvey. "Sports of The Times; Golden Windfall for the Russians", The New York Times, February 17, 2002. Accessed February 14, 2012. "At 25, Anton Sikharulidze is already a citizen of the world, more than familiar with the culture of the West. He lived in Fort Lee, N.J., for two years, trained in Hackensack."
- Friedman, Roger. "Brad Pitt, Angelina Jolie Likely Guests at Cannes", Fox News, March 22, 2007. "Phoebe and Valerie lived in a small apartment in Fort Lee."
- Borden, Sam. "Soriano 'Tired' Of Trade Talk", Daily News (New York), June 17, 2006. Accessed February 14, 2012. "The Yankees have made inquiries about Soriano's availability but have been turned off by the Nationals' requests for top pitching prospect Phil Hughes or Chien-Ming Wang. Soriano, who still maintains the Fort Lee, N.J., apartment he had during his tenure in the Bronx, seemed lukewarm about the possibility of returning to the Yankees."
- Darryl Strawberry leaves hospital after cancer surgery, CNN.com, October 16, 1998. "He will convalesce at his home in Fort Lee, New Jersey."
- Ramirez, Anthony. "Lyle Stuart, Publisher of Renegade Titles, Dies at 83", The New York Times, June 26, 2006. Accessed November 4, 2007. "He was 83 and lived in Fort Lee, N.J."
- Chen, Albert. "Chien-Ming Wang Has A Secret", Sports Illustrated, April 15, 2008. Accessed February 14, 2012. "During the baseball season Chien-Ming and his wife, Chia-Ling, whom he met in his first year of college and married in December 2003, live in a modest three-bedroom house in Fort Lee, N.J."
- Sholnikova, Svetlana. "Fort Lee natives win big at Academy Awards", Fort Lee Suburbanite, March 16, 2012. Accessed October 7, 2012. "Glen Zipper stands with his fellow crewmembers for the football documentary 'Undefeated,' which took the Oscar for Best Documentary at this year's Academy Awards. He and his brother Ralph grew up in Fort Lee, and worked together on the film. Glen, who worked as a criminal prosecutor in Hudson County for three years."
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Fort Lee, New Jersey|
- Borough of Fort Lee web site
- Fort Lee Police Department
- Fort Lee Volunteer Fire Department
- Fort Lee Volunteer Ambulance Corps
- Fort Lee School District
- Fort Lee School District's 2010–11 School Report Card from the New Jersey Department of Education
- Data for the Fort Lee School District, National Center for Education Statistics
- Fort Lee Online community web site
- Fort Lee Film Commission web site
- An enlarged view of road jurisdiction at the Fort Lee approaches to the George Washington Bridge