Fort Nassau (North River)
|Part of New Netherland|
|Albany, New York|
|Built by||Hendrick Christiaensen|
surrounded by stockade
|Garrison||10 or 12 men|
|Occupants||Dutch traders and soldiers|
|Events||First Dutch settlement
in North America
First treaty between natives and Dutch
|New Netherland series|
|The Patroon System|
|Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions|
|Directors of New Netherland:|
|People of New Netherland|
Fort Nassau was the first Dutch settlement in North America, located beside the "North River" (the modern Hudson) within present-day Albany, New York, in the United States. The factorij was a small fortification which served as a trading post and warehouse. It was sited on an earlier French fortification from 1540.
Henry Hudson explored what would be known as the Hudson River for the Dutch in 1609, including Castle Island which was at the center of Native American fur trading routes from the interior. Castle Island was so named for the ruins of a French fortification which was dated from 1540 and had been abandoned due to flooding. Hendrick Christiaensen chose this same location to build Fort Nassau in 1614 or 1615 as a dual warehouse and military defense structure and named the fort in honor of the stadtholder of the United Netherlands, who was of the House of Orange-Nassau. This was the first Dutch settlement in North America. Jacob Eelkens became commander on Christiaensen's death in 1616.
In 1617 a freshet damaged the fort to such an extent that it was abandoned and rebuilt on more secure ground at the mouth of the Normans Kill (called the Tawasentha by the natives) with the Hudson River. This new fortification was built by Eelkens on a prominence called Tawass-gunshee by the natives. Once the new fort was completed the first treaty between natives of North America and the Dutch was concluded. In 1618 a freshet destroyed the new fort and it was abandoned for good.
Fort Nassau was built on what is now called Westerlo Island, which has been the Port of Albany-Rensselaer since 1932. The island was part of the town of Bethlehem until 1926 when it was annexed to the city of Albany.
Fort Nassau was a 36-foot (11 m) long by 26-foot (7.9 m) wide building enclosed by a 58-foot (18 m) square stockade surrounded by an 18-foot (5.5 m) wide moat. The fort was defended by two large cannon and eleven swivel guns. The fort was garrisoned by 10-12 men.
See also 
- Fort Nassau (South River)
- Fortifications of New Netherland
- History of Albany, New York
- New Netherland settlements
- "A Virtual Tour of New Netherland: Fort Nassau". New Netherland Institute.
- Reynolds, Cuyler (1906). Albany Chronicles: A History of the City Arranged Chronologically. J.B. Lyon Company.
- Brodhead, John Romeyn (1853). ScqT&sig=QigCG7FfnN9xLNNA60rDtpTuETs&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=10&ct=result#v=onepage&q=fort%20orange%20hotel%20albany%20ny&f=false History of the State of New York: First Period 1609-1664. Harper & Brothers. p. 55.
- Ramerini, Marco. "The Dutch Settlements in North America".
- "Castle Island". New York State Museum Colonial Albany Social History Project. 2001-12-11.
- "Cutting Ice: Big Business in Bethlehem". Town of Bethlehem.
- The Trading House 1615 Artist Len Tantillo's vision of what Fort Nassau may have looked like
|Forts of Albany, New York