Fort Philip (Sydney)
Governor Hunter ordered a fort to be built on the site of Windmill Hill to defend the colony from rebellious convicts and possible French attack in 1803. The fort was never fully completed and never fired a single shot in anger.
In 1840 a new signal station, designed by the colonial architect Mortimer Lewis, was built to replace the flagstaff. The fort was subsequently demolished leaving the eastern rampart as the only remaining evidence of the fort's existence.
Sydney Observatory was built on the site in 1858 to provide accurate time readings for the colony and to observe stars in the southern sky.
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