Fort St. James

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District of Fort St. James
District municipality
FORT ST. JAMES NATIONAL HISTORIC SITE , BRITISH COLUMBIA.jpg
Location of Fort St. James in British Columbia
Location of Fort St. James in British Columbia
Coordinates: 54°26′35″N 124°15′15″W / 54.44306°N 124.25417°W / 54.44306; -124.25417
Country  Canada
Province  British Columbia
Region Omineca Country
Regional district Regional District of Bulkley Nechako
Founded 1806
Incorporated 1952
Government
 • Governing body Municipal Council
 • Mayor Rob MacDougall
Area
 • Total 23.47 km2 (9.06 sq mi)
Elevation 700 m (2,300 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 1,691
 • Density 72.0/km2 (186/sq mi)
Time zone PST (UTC−8)
 • Summer (DST) PDT (UTC−7)
Postal code span V0J 1P0
Area code(s) +250, +778
Highways 27
Waterways Stuart Lake, Stuart River, Necoslie River, Nahounli Creek
Website District of Fort St. James
Official name: Fort St. James National Historic Site of Canada
Designated: 1948

Fort St. James is a district municipality and former fur trading post in north-central British Columbia, Canada. It is located on the south-eastern shore of Stuart Lake in the Omineca Country, at the northern terminus of Highway 27, which connects to Highway 16 at Vanderhoof.

Founded by the North West Company explorer and fur trader Simon Fraser in 1806, it came under the management of the Hudson's Bay Company in 1821 with the forced merger of the two battling fur companies. Also known historically as Stuart Lake Post, it is one of British Columbia's oldest permanent European settlements and was the administrative centre for the Hudson's Bay Company's New Caledonia fur district.[1] The fort, rebuilt four times, continued as an important trading post well into the twentieth century. Now the fort is a National Historic Site of Canada[2][3] with some buildings dating to the 1880s.

The community celebrated its bicentennial in 2006 and is incorporated as a district municipality.

History[edit]

Fort St. James National Historic Site

As part of his commission from the North West Company, Fraser and his assistants John Stuart and James McDougall explored potential river routes to the Pacific Ocean from 1805 through 1808. Explorations in the Winter of 1805-06 by McDougall resulted in the discovery of Carrier's Lake, now known as Stuart Lake. In the heart of territory inhabited by the Carrier or Dakelh First Nation, this proved to be a lucrative locale for fur trading and so a post - Fort St. James - was built on its shore in 1806. In 1821, the fort came under the control of the Hudson's Bay Company, when the North West Company merged with it. It subsequently became the administrative headquarters of the Company's vast New Caledonia District.

The fur trade was slow to take route in the area, since the economy of the Dakelh people had been based on the fishery, rather than on trapping. In addition, there were customary and ceremonial restrictions which placed obstacles in the way of an efficient fur economy. Nonetheless, eventually the post became profitable, and continued to function until its closure in 1952.

The community is located on the south-eastern shore of Stuart Lake, at the head of the Stuart River. Both the lake and the river are named for Fraser's assistant John Stuart, who would later become head of the New Caledonia District of the North West Company.

Climate[edit]

Fort St. James is located in the sub-boreal spruce zone of British Columbia, a sub-division of the hemiboreal climatic zone. It is characterised by severe, snowy winters and short, warm summers. The region is rich in wildlife.

Climate data for Fort St. James (Perison) Airport
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high Humidex 10.7 11.1 12.2 20.6 34.1 30.8 32.6 33.7 33.1 25.3 14.1 11.1 34.1
Record high °C (°F) 11.3
(52.3)
12.6
(54.7)
12.9
(55.2)
21.7
(71.1)
34.9
(94.8)
31.2
(88.2)
31.9
(89.4)
33.4
(92.1)
30.3
(86.5)
25.9
(78.6)
14.5
(58.1)
11.4
(52.5)
34.9
(94.8)
Average high °C (°F) −4.4
(24.1)
−1.6
(29.1)
4.3
(39.7)
10.0
(50)
15.5
(59.9)
18.7
(65.7)
21.4
(70.5)
21.1
(70)
16.2
(61.2)
9.2
(48.6)
−0.3
(31.5)
−5.2
(22.6)
8.7
(47.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) −8.6
(16.5)
−6.5
(20.3)
−1.5
(29.3)
3.8
(38.8)
9.0
(48.2)
12.2
(54)
14.6
(58.3)
14.0
(57.2)
9.5
(49.1)
4.2
(39.6)
−4.1
(24.6)
−9.4
(15.1)
3.1
(37.6)
Average low °C (°F) −12.6
(9.3)
−11.3
(11.7)
−7.4
(18.7)
−2.5
(27.5)
2.3
(36.1)
5.6
(42.1)
7.7
(45.9)
6.9
(44.4)
2.8
(37)
−0.8
(30.6)
−7.9
(17.8)
−13.5
(7.7)
−2.6
(27.3)
Record low °C (°F) −44.0
(−47.2)
−38.3
(−36.9)
−32.9
(−27.2)
−18.5
(−1.3)
−5.1
(22.8)
−2.1
(28.2)
−1.6
(29.1)
−1.4
(29.5)
−7.3
(18.9)
−23.0
(−9.4)
−39.9
(−39.8)
−43.6
(−46.5)
−44.0
(−47.2)
Wind chill −45.0 −45.6 −31.2 −16.7 −6.2 −2.9 −2.2 −2.5 −8.7 −28.6 −44.7 −51.9 −51.9
Precipitation mm (inches) 41.5
(1.634)
26.8
(1.055)
22.0
(0.866)
26.8
(1.055)
39.2
(1.543)
54.2
(2.134)
47.4
(1.866)
43.9
(1.728)
40.4
(1.591)
44.1
(1.736)
45.2
(1.78)
35.9
(1.413)
467.3
(18.398)
Rainfall mm (inches) 3.0
(0.118)
3.9
(0.154)
3.0
(0.118)
18.5
(0.728)
38.3
(1.508)
54.2
(2.134)
47.4
(1.866)
43.9
(1.728)
40.4
(1.591)
35.6
(1.402)
11.0
(0.433)
3.6
(0.142)
302.8
(11.921)
Snowfall cm (inches) 45.9
(18.07)
28.5
(11.22)
23.1
(9.09)
8.7
(3.43)
0.6
(0.24)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
9.0
(3.54)
40.2
(15.83)
39.1
(15.39)
195.2
(76.85)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 15.1 10.7 8.5 9.7 14.5 14.8 13.8 13.0 11.7 16.2 16.4 12.5 156.9
Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 1.7 2.9 2.6 7.1 14.3 14.8 13.8 13.0 11.7 14.1 4.9 1.5 174.1
Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 14.4 9.2 7.2 3.9 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 3.5 12.8 11.8 63.6
 % humidity 81.6 72.6 57.0 45.0 44.1 48.0 47.3 47.7 52.7 62.9 79.8 84.2 60.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 51.3 85.5 151.3 207.6 245.7 260.2 275.3 256.8 177.7 116.0 60.2 41.0 1,928.6
Percent possible sunshine 20.8 31.3 41.3 49.3 49.5 50.6 53.4 55.6 46.4 35.4 23.5 17.9 39.6
Source: [4]

Demographics[edit]

The population of the Fort St. James area is around 5000, of whom about one quarter identify as being of First Nations origin[5] The town is surrounded by numerous, small First Nations communities and Indian reserves, including Pinchie, Tachie, and Nak'azdli.

Economy[edit]

The local economy is well diversified, although resource-oriented. The forest industries constitute the leading sector followed by mining, agriculture and tourism. Recent developments also include a small high technology sector .

Notables[edit]

  • Jim Playfair, Associate Coach of the Phoenix Coyotes, NHL
  • Brian Spencer "Spinner", former player in the National Hockey League and the subject of the film, 'Gross Misconduct'.
  • Chief Kwah (aka Chief Kw’eh), (ca. 1755-1840), leading Dakelh chief of the Stuart Lake area.

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 54°26′35″N 124°15′15″W / 54.44306°N 124.25417°W / 54.44306; -124.25417