Fort Stockton, Texas
|Fort Stockton, Texas|
|Nickname(s): "Stockton; Stakitas; FS"|
|• Mayor||Ruben Falcon|
|• Total||5.1 sq mi (13.3 km2)|
|• Land||5.1 sq mi (13.3 km2)|
|• Water||0.0 sq mi (0.0 km2)|
|Elevation||2,972 ft (906 m)|
|• Density||1,531.3/sq mi (591.3/km2)|
|Time zone||Central (CST) (UTC-6)|
|• Summer (DST)||CDT (UTC-5)|
|GNIS feature ID||1357597|
Fort Stockton is a city in Pecos County, Texas, United States. It is the county seat of Pecos County, located on Interstate Highway 10, U.S. Highways 67, 285, and 385, and the Santa Fe Railroad, 329 miles (529 km) northwest of San Antonio and 240 miles (390 km) east of El Paso.
Fort Stockton is located at (30.891383, -102.885032).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.1 square miles (13 km2), all of it land.
As of the census of 2010, there were 8,535 people, 2,790 households, and 2,106 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,531.3 people per square mile (591.7/km²). There were 3,189 housing units at an average density of 622.4 per square mile (240.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 70.06% White, 0.89% African American, 0.57% Native American, 0.76% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 25.16% from other races, and 2.54% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 71% of the population.
There were 2,790 households out of which 39.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.1% were married couples living together, 13.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 24.5% were non-families. 21.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.78 and the average family size was 3.25.
In the city, the population was spread out with 30.1% under the age of 18, 9.9% from 18 to 24, 25.6% from 25 to 44, 20.8% from 45 to 64, and 13.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 92.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.9 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $27,713, and the median income for a family was $30,941. Males had a median income of $25,735 versus $17,885 for females. The per capita income for the city was $12,834. About 19.7% of families and 22.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.6% of those under age 18 and 17.7% of those age 65 or over.
Fort Stockton (named Camp Stockton until 1860) grew up around Comanche Springs, at one time the third largest source of spring water in Texas, and near the military fort founded in 1859 and named for Robert Field Stockton. Comanche Springs was a favorite rest stop on the Comanche Trail to Chihuahua, San Antonio-El Paso Road, The Butterfield Overland Mail Route, and the San Antonio-Chihuahua freight-wagon road. The fort was originally garrisoned by Company H of the First United States Infantry.
The Confederates took possession of the fort at the outbreak of the Civil War but abandoned it the next year. In 1867 the army rebuilt the fort on a larger and more permanent basis to protect travelers and settlers from Indians. Until abandoned in 1886, the fort provided employment for freighters and laborers and a market for farmers, stockmen, and merchants.
Other forts in the frontier fort system were Forts Griffin, Concho, Belknap, Chadbourne, Richardson, Fort Davis, Fort Bliss, McKavett, Clark, Fort McIntosh, Fort Inge and Phantom Hill in Texas, and Fort Sill in Oklahoma. There were "sub posts or intermediate stations" including Bothwick's Station on Salt Creek between Fort Richardson and Fort Belknap, Camp Wichita near Buffalo Springs between Fort Richardson and Red River Station, and Mountain Pass between Fort Concho and Fort Griffin.
Fort Stockton was garrisoned by companies of the 9th Cavalry, known as "Buffalo Soldiers." In July 1867, Fort Stockton was re-established by four Companies of the 9th U.S. Cavalry Regiment on 960 acres (3.88 km2) leased from civilian landowners, one-half mile northeast of the first post. Companies A, B, E, and K of the 9th Cavalry began construction under the command of Colonel Edward Hatch. The 9th was one of the new regiments organized after the Civil War staffed with Black enlisted men. When the 9th Cavalry was moved to New Mexico in 1875, Colonel Benjamin Grierson's 10th Cavalry took over the duties of protecting the westward migration and trade routes.
About 87 percent of all soldiers garrisoned at Fort Stockton from 1867 until 1886 were Buffalo Soldiers of the 9th and 10th Cavalry Regiments and the 41st, 24th and 25th Infantry Regiments. Surmounting obstacles of harsh living conditions, low pay, and racial prejudice, they gained a reputation for tenacity and bravery. Stationed continuously on the frontier during the years of Indian hostility, Black regiments played a major role in the settlement and development of America's western frontier.
San Antonio entrepreneurs, convinced that the water from Comanche and nearby Leon springs could be used for irrigation, purchased large tracts of land for agricultural development. In 1868, Peter Gallagher bought the land that included the military garrison and Comanche Springs, platted 160 acres (0.65 km2) for a townsite named Saint Gaul, and established two stores at Comanche Springs. Later, Gallagher and John James purchased 5,500 acres (22.3 km2) along Comanche Creek. By 1870, the Saint Gaul region had a population of 420 civilians, predominantly Irish, German, and Mexican Catholics who had come by way of San Antonio. The first church in Saint Gaul was Catholic. When Pecos County was organized in 1875, Saint Gaul became the county seat. The name, however, was never popular with the citizens, and on August 13, 1881, it was changed officially to Fort Stockton.
By 1870, some settlers were using the water from the Pecos River for irrigation. Seven years later, irrigated farmland comprised 7,000 acres (28 km2), and by 1945 the total reached 12,900 acres (52.2 km2). After the military post was abandoned on June 30, 1886, and both the Texas and Pacific and the Southern Pacific railroads had bypassed it, Fort Stockton experienced a decline. By then, however, it was rapidly becoming the center for an extensive sheep and cattle ranching industry, and in 1926, the opening of the nearby Yates oil field brought on an economic boom. Fort Stockton was served by the Kansas City, Mexico and Orient Railway.
Today, the original fort's guardhouse remains, and some of the officers' quarters have become private dwellings. Several other buildings of the fort have been refurnished to the 1880s. The refurbished fort site includes a row of officers' quarters, enlisted men's barracks, and the parade grounds. A museum and visitor's center can be found at the site.
Since the 1920s, Fort Stockton has experienced the economic boom-bust cycle of the petroleum drilling industry. As of 2012, Fort Stockton is in a state of economic expansion as oilfield drilling and production has increased.
Fort Stockton is 100 miles (160 km) southwest of Midland International Airport. The town is within driving distance of the Big Bend country, including Big Bend National Park, 137 miles (220 km), and the Big Bend Ranch State Park, 171 miles (275 km).
The City of Fort Stockton is served by the Fort Stockton Independent School District.
Fort Stockton has two elementary schools, Alamo Elementary and Apache Elementary, both of which house grades K-3. Fort Stockton Intermediate School houses grades 4-5, while Fort Stockton Middle School houses grades 6-8 and Fort Stockton High School houses grades 9-12.
Williams Regional Technical Training Center
Fort Stockton is also home to the Midland College Williams Regional Technical Training Center (WRTTC). The center was built in 1996 through a joint effort by Midland College, and by leaders of Fort Stockton education, business, and government as a means to enhance higher education and workforce development in this part of West Texas. Fort Stockton and Pecos County are part of the Midland College service area. After just four years, the facility, named in honor of Fort Stockton native and WRTTC donor Clayton Williams, Jr., doubled in size through fundraising and program development.
The sprawling 320,000 acres (1,290 km2) La Escalera Ranch is located south of Fort Stockton on Highway 385 (Marathon Highway). The Fort Stockton Division was owned by the Giddings family for 100 years and operated as the Elsinore Ranch. The ranch is now owned by La Escalera Limited Partnership. La Escalera Ranch extends over much of Pecos County and portions of Reeves, Brewster, Archer and Baylor counties. It is known for its herd of Black Angus cattle and its abundant wildlife. Located near the entrance to the ranch is the Sierra Madera crater.
- Vice Admiral Kendall L. Card, United States Navy 
- Walter L. Buenger (born 1951), historian of Texas and the American South at Texas A&M University, was reared in Fort Stockton.
- Cecil Lang Casebier (1922–1996), Artist known for portrait and still-life paintings and murals, mosaics, and stain-glass designs
- Blaine McCallister, Professional golfer
- Annie Frazier Johnson Riggs (1858–1931)local business woman 
- Barney K. Riggs, 19th-century Gunfighter
- Andrew Jackson Royal, 19th-century Pecos County Sheriff
- Clayton Wheat Williams, Jr.
- Clayton Wheat Williams, Sr.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- Carter, R.G., On the Border with Mackenzie, 1935, Washington D.C.: Enyon Printing Co., p. 48
- Carter, R.G., On the Border with Mackenzie, 1935, Washington D.C.: Enyon Printing Co., p. 49
- "Vice Admiral Kendall L. Card". U. S. Navy Biographies. United States Navy. 3 June 2011. Retrieved 4 September 2011.
- "Cecil Lang Casebier (1922 - 1996)". Ask Art. Retrieved 2 December 2009.
- [Laura] (14 March 2004). "Annie Riggs Museum". RV travels across North America with Bob and Laura Madigan. Retrieved 2 December 2009.
- O'Neal, Billy (1991). Encyclopedia of Western Gunfighters. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 261–262. ISBN 978-0-8061-2335-6.
- DeArment, Robert K. (1996). George Scarborough: The Life and Death of a Lawman on the Closing Frontier. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 54–55. ISBN 978-0-8061-2850-4.
- Fort Stockton in the Handbook of Texas
- The Fort Stockton Pioneer
- La Escalera Ranch - Official Website
- Midland College/Williams Regional Technical Center (WRTTC)