Fort Worth, Texas

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Fort Worth
City
City of Fort Worth
Montage of Fort Worth, Top: View of Downtown Fort Worth from Amon Carter Museum, Middle left: Fort Worth Modern Art Museum, Middle right: Fort Worth Stockyards Saloon, Bottom left: Tarrant County Courthouse, Bottom right: T&P Railroad Station
Montage of Fort Worth, Top: View of Downtown Fort Worth from Amon Carter Museum, Middle left: Fort Worth Modern Art Museum, Middle right: Fort Worth Stockyards Saloon, Bottom left: Tarrant County Courthouse, Bottom right: T&P Railroad Station
Official seal of Fort Worth
Seal
Nickname(s): Cowtown, Funky Town, Panther City,[1] The Fort
Motto: "Where the West begins"[1]
Location of Fort Worth in Tarrant County, Texas
Location of Fort Worth in Tarrant County, Texas
Map of USA
Map of USA
Fort Worth
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 32°45′26.49″N 97°19′59.45″W / 32.7573583°N 97.3331806°W / 32.7573583; -97.3331806Coordinates: 32°45′26.49″N 97°19′59.45″W / 32.7573583°N 97.3331806°W / 32.7573583; -97.3331806
Country United States
State Texas
Counties Tarrant, Denton, Parker, Wise[2]
Government
 • Type Council-Manager
 • Body Fort Worth City Council
 • Mayor Betsy Price (R)
 • City Manager David Cooke
 • City Council
Area
 • City 349.2 sq mi (904.4 km2)
 • Land 342.2 sq mi (886.3 km2)
 • Water 7.0 sq mi (18.1 km2)
Elevation 653 ft (216 m)
Population (2013)[3]
 • City 792,727 (US: 17th)
 • Density 2,166.0/sq mi (835.2/km2)
 • Metro 6,810,913 (US: 4th)
 • Demonym Fort Worthians
Time zone CST (UTC-6)
 • Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)
ZIP Codes 76101-76124, 76126-76127, 76129-76137, 76140, 76147-76148, 76150, 76155, 76161-76164, 76166, 76177, 76179, 76180-76182, 76185, 76191-76193, 76195-76199, 76244, 76247
Area code(s) 682, 817
FIPS code 48-27000
GNIS feature ID 1380947[4]
Website www.fortworthtexas.gov

Fort Worth is the 17th-largest city in the United States of America and the fifth-largest city in the state of Texas.[5] Located in North Central Texas, the city is a cultural gateway into the American West[citation needed] and covers nearly 350 square miles (910 km2) in Tarrant, Denton, Parker, and Wise counties—serving as the seat for Tarrant County. According to the 2013 census estimates, Fort Worth had a population of 792,727.[3] The city is the second-largest in the Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington metropolitan area.

The city was established in 1849 as an Army outpost on a bluff overlooking the Trinity River. Today Fort Worth still embraces its Western heritage and traditional architecture and design.[6][7] USS Fort Worth (LCS-3) is the first ship of the United States Navy named after the city.

Fort Worth is home to the Kimbell Art Museum, considered to have one of the best collections in Texas, and housed in what is widely regarded as one of Texas' foremost works of modern architecture. Also of note are the Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth and the Amon Carter Museum, the latter of which houses one of the most extensive collections of American art in the world, in a building designed by Philip Johnson. The city is also home to Texas Christian University, Texas Wesleyan University, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Texas A&M University School of Law, and many multinational corporations including Bell Helicopter, Lockheed Martin, American Airlines, Radio Shack, and others.

History[edit]

The Mexican–American War[edit]

Fort Worth Texas Historical Marker
Lithograph (1876)

A line of seven army posts were established in 1848-49 after the Mexican War to protect the settlers of West Texas and included Fort Worth, Fort Graham, Fort Gates, Fort Croghan, Fort Martin Scott, Fort Lincoln and Fort Duncan.[8]

Major General William Jenkins Worth (1794–1849) was second in command to General Zachary Taylor at the opening of the Mexican–American War in 1846. After the war, Worth was placed in command of the Department of Texas in 1849. In January 1849 Worth proposed a line of ten forts to mark the western Texas frontier from Eagle Pass to the confluence of the West Fork and Clear Fork of the Trinity River. One month later Worth died from cholera. General William S. Harney assumed command of the Department of Texas and ordered Major Ripley A. Arnold (Company F, Second United States Dragoons)[8] to find a new fort site near the West Fork and Clear Fork. On June 6, 1849, Arnold established a camp on the bank of the Trinity River and named the post Camp Worth in honor of the late General Worth. In August 1849 Arnold moved the camp to the north-facing bluff which overlooked the mouth of the Clear Fork of the Trinity River.

Although Native American attacks were still a threat in the area, pioneers were already settling near the fort. E. S. Terrell (1812–1905) claimed to be the first resident of Fort Worth.[9] The fort was flooded the first year and moved to the top of the bluff where the courthouse sits today. No trace of the original fort remains. The fort was abandoned September 17, 1853.[8]

1920 panorama

The town[edit]

Fort Worth went from a sleepy outpost to a bustling town when it became a stop along the legendary Chisholm Trail, the dusty path on which millions of head of cattle were driven north to market. Fort Worth became the center of the cattle drives, and later, the ranching industry. Its location on the Old Chisholm Trail helped establish Fort Worth as a trading and cattle center and earned it the nickname "Cowtown".

During the 1860s Fort Worth suffered from the effects of the Civil War and Reconstruction. The population dropped as low as 175, as money, food, and supply shortages burdened the residents. Gradually, however, the town began to revive.

By 1872, Jacob Samuels, William Jesse Boaz, and William Henry Davis had opened general stores. The next year Khleber M. Van Zandt established Tidball, Van Zandt, and Company, which became Fort Worth National Bank in 1884.

Panther City[edit]

In 1875, the Dallas Herald published an article by a former Fort Worth lawyer, Robert E. Cowart, who wrote that the decimation of Fort Worth's population, caused by the economic disaster and hard winter of 1873, had dealt a severe blow to the cattle industry. He further stated that the harm to the cattle industry, combined with the railroad stopping the laying of track 30 miles (48 km) outside of Fort Worth, had caused Fort Worth to become such a drowsy place that he saw a panther (cougar, mountain lion) asleep in the street by the courthouse. Although an intended insult, the name Panther City was enthusiastically embraced when in 1876 Fort Worth recovered economically.[10] Many businesses and organizations continue to use Panther in their name. The Fort Worth police have a panther prominently set at the top of their badge.[11]

Entrance to Fort Worth Stockyards, 1999

In 1876, the Texas and Pacific Railway arrived in Fort Worth, causing a boom and transforming the Fort Worth Stockyards into a premier cattle industry in wholesale trade.[12] The arrival of the railroad ushered in an era of astonishing growth for Fort Worth, as migrants from the devastated war-torn South continued to swell the population, and small, community factories and mills yielded to larger businesses. Newly dubbed the "Queen City of the Prairies," Fort Worth supplied a regional market via the growing transportation network.

Texas and Pacific Passenger Station, Fort Worth, Texas (postcard, circa 1909)

Fort Worth became the westernmost railhead and a transit point for cattle shipment. With the city's main focus being on cattle and the railroads, local businessman, Louville Niles, formed the Fort Worth Stockyards Company in 1893. Shortly thereafter, the two biggest cattle slaughtering firms at the time, Armour and Swift, both established operations in the new stockyards.

Pioneer Tower

With the boom times came some problems. Fort Worth had a knack for separating cattlemen from their money. Cowboys took full advantage of their last brush with civilization before the long drive on the Chisholm Trail from Fort Worth up north to Kansas. They stocked up on provisions from local merchants, visited the colorful saloons for a bit of gambling and carousing, then galloped northward with their cattle only to whoop it up again on their way back. The town soon became home to Hell's Half Acre, the biggest collection of bars, dance halls and bawdy houses south of Dodge City, Kansas (the northern terminus of the Chisholm Trail), giving Fort Worth the nickname of "The Paris of the Plains".[13]

Crime was rampant, and certain sections of town were off-limits for proper citizens. Shootings, knifings, muggings and brawls became a nightly occurrence. Cowboys were joined by a motley assortment of buffalo hunters, gunmen, adventurers, and crooks. As the importance of Fort Worth as a crossroads and cowtown grew, so did Hell's Half Acre.

The Acre grew until it sprawled across four of the city's main north-south thoroughfares. These boundaries, which were never formally recognized, represented the maximum area covered by the Acre, around 1900. Occasionally, the Acre was also referred to as "the bloody Third Ward" after it was designated one of the city's three political wards in 1876.

Long before the Acre reached its maximum boundaries, local citizens had become alarmed at the level of crime and violence in their city. In 1876 Timothy Isaiah (Longhair Jim) Courtright was elected city marshal with a mandate to tame the Acre's wilder activities.

Courtright cracked down on violence and general rowdiness by sometimes putting as many as 30 people in jail on a Saturday night, but allowed the gamblers to operate unmolested. After receiving information that train and stagecoach robbers, such as the Sam Bass gang, were using the Acre as a hideout, local authorities intensified law-enforcement efforts. Yet certain businessmen placed a newspaper advertisement arguing that such legal restrictions in Hell's Half Acre would curtail the legitimate business activities there.

Despite this tolerance from business, however, the cowboys began to stay away, and the businesses began to suffer. City officials muted their stand against vice. Courtright lost support of the Fort Worth Democrat and consequently lost when he ran for reelection in 1879.

At one time or another reform-minded mayors like H. S. Broiles and crusading newspaper editors like B. B. Paddock declared war on the district but with no long-term results. The Acre meant income for the city (all of it illegal) and excitement for visitors. This could possibly be why the reputation of the Acre was sometimes exaggerated by raconteurs which longtime Fort Worth residents claimed the place was never as wild as its reputation.

The loudest outcries during the periodic clean-up campaigns were against the dance halls, where men and women met, as opposed to the saloons or the gambling parlors, which were virtually all male.

B-24 Very Long Range Liberators at the Consolidated-Vultee Plant, Fort Worth, 1943

A major reform campaign in the late 1880s was brought on by Mayor Broiles and County Attorney R. L. Carlock after two events. In the first of these, on February 8, 1887, Luke Short and Jim Courtright had a shootout on Main Street that left Courtright dead and Short the "King of Fort Worth Gamblers."

This event, combined with the first prohibition campaign in Texas, helped to shut down the Acre's worst excesses in 1889. More than any other factor, urban growth began to improve the image of the Acre, as new businesses and homes moved into the south end of town.

Another change was the influx of black residents. Excluded from the business end of town and the nicer residential areas, Fort Worth's black citizens, who numbered some 7,000 out of a total population of 50,000 around 1900, settled into the southern portion of the city. Though some joined in the profitable vice trade (to run, for instance, the Black Elephant Saloon), many others found legitimate work and bought homes.

A third change was in the popularity and profitability of the Acre, which was no longer attracting cowboys and out-of-town visitors. Its visible populace was now more likely to be derelicts and the homeless.

By 1900, most of the dance halls and gamblers were gone. Cheap variety shows and prostitution became the chief forms of entertainment. The Progressive Era was similarly making its reformist mark felt in districts like the Acre all over the country.

President Kennedy in Fort Worth on November 22, 1963. He was assassinated later in the day.

In 1911, the Reverend J. Frank Norris launched an offensive against racetrack gambling in the Baptist Standard and used the pulpit of the First Baptist Church of Fort Worth to attack vice and prostitution. Norris used the Acre to scourge the leadership of Fort Worth. When he began to link certain Fort Worth businessmen with property in the Acre and announce their names from his pulpit, the battle heated up.

On February 4, 1912, Norris's church was burned to the ground; that evening his enemies tossed a bundle of burning oiled rags onto his porch, but the fire was extinguished and caused minimal damage. A month later the arsonists succeeded in burning down the parsonage.

In a sensational trial lasting a month, Norris was charged with perjury and arson in connection with the two fires. He was acquitted, but his continued attacks on the Acre accomplished little until 1917. A new city administration and the federal government, which was eying Fort Worth as a potential site for a major military training camp, joined forces with the Baptist preacher to bring down the curtain on the Acre finally.

The police department compiled statistics showing that 50% of the violent crime in Fort Worth occurred in the Acre, a shocking confirmation of long-held suspicions. After Camp Bowie was located on the outskirts of Fort Worth in the summer of 1917, martial law was brought to bear against prostitutes and barkeepers of the Acre. Fines and stiff jail sentences curtailed their activities. By the time Norris held a mock funeral parade to "bury John Barleycorn" in 1919, the Acre had become a part of Fort Worth history. The name, nevertheless, continued to be used for three decades thereafter to refer to the depressed lower end of Fort Worth.[14]

Late 20th and early 21st centuries[edit]

On March 28, 2000, at 6:15 pm, an F3 (some estimates claim an F4) tornado smashed through downtown, tearing many buildings into shreds and scrap metal. One of the hardest hit structures was Bank One Tower, which was one of the dominant features of the Fort Worth skyline and which had on its top floor a popular restaurant. It has since been converted to upscale condominiums and officially renamed "The Tower". This was the first major tornado to strike Fort Worth proper since the early 1940s.[15]

When oil began to gush in West Texas in the early twentieth century, and again in the late 1970s, Fort Worth was at the center of the wheeling and dealing. In July 2007, advances in horizontal drilling technology made vast natural gas reserves in the Barnett Shale available directly under the city, helping many residents receive royalty checks for their mineral rights.[16] Today the city of Fort Worth and many residents are dealing with the benefits and issues associated with the natural gas reserves under ground.[17][18]

Fort Worth was the fastest-growing large city in the United States from 2000 to 2006[19] and was voted one of "America's Most Livable Communities."[20]

View of Downtown from the West 7th district, June 2010

Geography and climate[edit]

Fort Worth is located in North Texas, and has a generally humid sub-tropical climate.[21] It is part of the Cross Timbers region;[22] this region is a boundary between the more heavily forested eastern parts and the rolling hills and prairies of the central part. Specifically, the city is part of the Grand Prairie ecoregion within the Cross Timbers.

The Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex is the hub of the North Texas region. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 298.9 square miles (774 km2), of which 292.5 square miles (758 km2) is land and 6.3 square miles (16 km2) (2.12%) is water.

A large storage dam was built in 1913 on the West Fork of the Trinity River, 7 miles (11 km) from the city, with a storage capacity of 30 billion US gallons (110,000,000 m³) of water. The lake formed by this dam is known as Lake Worth. The cost of the dam was nearly US$1,500,000 – a handsome sum at the time.[citation needed]

Cityscape[edit]

Aerial view of Sundance Square in 2008.

Architecture[edit]

Downtown is mainly known for its Art Deco-style buildings. The Tarrant County Courthouse was created in the American Beaux Arts design, which was modeled after the Texas State Capitol building. Most of the structures about Sundance Square have preserved their early 20th-century façades. Downtown has a unique rustic Architecture.

Natural gas wells[edit]

The city of Fort Worth contains over 1000 natural gas wells (December 2009 count) tapping the Barnett Shale. Each well site is a bare patch of gravel 2–5 acres (8,100–20,200 m2) in size. As city ordinances permit them in all zoning categories, including residential, well sites can be found in a variety of locations. Some wells are surrounded by masonry fences but most are secured by chain link.

Climate[edit]

Fort Worth has a humid subtropical climate according to the Köppen climate classification system. The hottest month of the year is July, when the average high temperature is 95 °F (36 °C), and overnight low temperatures average 72 °F (23 °C), giving an average temperature of 84 °F (29 °C).[23] The coldest month of the year is January, when the average high temperature is 55 °F (13 °C), and low temperatures average 31 °F (−1 °C).[23] The average temperature in January is 43 °F (6 °C).[23] The highest temperature ever recorded in Fort Worth is 113 °F (45 °C), on June 26, 1980, during the Great 1980 Heat Wave,[24] and June 27, 1980.[25] The coldest temperature ever recorded in Fort Worth was −8 °F (−18.3 °C) on February 12, 1899.[26] Because of its position in North Texas, Fort Worth is very susceptible to supercell thunderstorms, which produce large hail and can produce tornados.

The average annual precipitation for Fort Worth is 34.01 in (863.8 mm).[23] The wettest month of the year is May, when an average of 4.58 in (116.3 mm) of precipitation falls.[23] The driest month of the year is January, when only 1.70 in (43.2 mm) of precipitation falls.[23] The average annual snowfall in Fort Worth is 2.6 in (66.0 mm).[27]

Climate data for Fort Worth, Texas
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 80
(27)
79
(26)
87
(31)
92
(33)
97
(36)
102
(39)
110
(43)
113
(45)
111
(44)
103
(39)
89
(32)
83
(28)
113
(45)
Average high °F (°C) 54.1
(12.3)
60.1
(15.6)
68.3
(20.2)
75.9
(24.4)
83.2
(28.4)
91.1
(32.8)
95.4
(35.2)
94.8
(34.9)
87.7
(30.9)
77.9
(25.5)
65.1
(18.4)
56.5
(13.6)
75.84
(24.35)
Daily mean °F (°C) 44.1
(6.7)
49.4
(9.7)
57.4
(14.1)
65.0
(18.3)
73.1
(22.8)
80.9
(27.2)
85.0
(29.4)
84.4
(29.1)
77.5
(25.3)
67.2
(19.6)
55.1
(12.8)
46.7
(8.2)
65.48
(18.6)
Average low °F (°C) 34.0
(1.1)
38.7
(3.7)
46.4
(8)
54.0
(12.2)
63.0
(17.2)
70.7
(21.5)
74.6
(23.7)
74.0
(23.3)
67.2
(19.6)
56.4
(13.6)
45.1
(7.3)
36.8
(2.7)
55.08
(12.83)
Record low °F (°C) −7
(−22)
−5
(−21)
−2
(−19)
21
(−6)
32
(0)
43
(6)
52
(11)
59
(15)
31
(−1)
24
(−4)
−3
(−19)
−5
(−21)
−7
(−22)
Precipitation inches (mm) 1.89
(48)
2.37
(60.2)
3.06
(77.7)
3.20
(81.3)
5.15
(130.8)
3.23
(82)
2.12
(53.8)
2.03
(51.6)
2.42
(61.5)
4.11
(104.4)
2.57
(65.3)
2.57
(65.3)
34.72
(881.9)
Avg. precipitation days 7.2 6.1 7.5 7.2 9.3 7.2 4.7 4.5 5.8 7.1 6.7 6.5 79.8
Source: National Climatic Data Center[28]

Demographics[edit]

Main article: People of Fort Worth
Historical population
Census Pop.
1880 6,663
1890 23,076 246.3%
1900 26,668 15.6%
1910 73,312 174.9%
1920 106,482 45.2%
1930 163,447 53.5%
1940 177,662 8.7%
1950 278,778 56.9%
1960 356,268 27.8%
1970 393,476 10.4%
1980 385,164 −2.1%
1990 447,619 16.2%
2000 534,697 19.5%
2010 741,206 38.6%
Est. 2013 792,727 7.0%
U.S. Decennial Census[29]
2013 Estimate[30]
Racial composition 2010[31] 1990[32] 1970[32] 1940[32]
White 61.6% 63.8% 79.4% 85.7%
—Non-Hispanic 41.7% 56.5% 72.0%[33] n/a
Black or African American 18.9% 22.0% 19.9% 14.2%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 34.1% 19.5% 7.9%[33] n/a
Asian 3.7% 2.0% 0.1% -
Downtown Fort Worth at night
Fort Worth skyline from the Amon Carter Museum

According to the 2010 census, the racial composition of Fort Worth was:

As of the census of 2000, 534,694 people, 195,078 households, and 127,581 families resided in the city. The July 2004 census estimates have placed Fort Worth in the top 20 most populous cities (# 19) in the U.S. with the population at 604,538. Fort Worth is also in the top five cities with the largest numerical increase from July 1, 2003 to July 1, 2004, with 17,872 more people or a 3.1% increase.[34] The population density was 1,827.8 people per square mile (705.7/km²). There were 211,035 housing units at an average density of 721.4 per square mile (278.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 59.69% White, 20.26% Black or African American, 0.59% Native American, 2.64% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 14.05% from other races, and 2.72% from two or more races. About 29.81% of the population were Hispanics or Latinos of any race.

In 1970, the Census Bureau reported Fort Worth's population as 7.9% Hispanic, 19.9% Black, and 72% non-Hispanic White.[32]

Of the 195,078 households, 34.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.8% were married couples living together, 14.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.6% were not families; 9,599 were unmarried partner households: 8,202 heterosexual, 676 same-sex male, and 721 same-sex female households. About 28.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.33.

In the city, the population was distributed as 28.3% under the age of 18, 11.3% from 18 to 24, 32.7% from 25 to 44, 18.2% from 45 to 64, and 9.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.5 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $37,074, and for a family was $42,939. Males had a median income of $31,663 versus $25,917 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,800. About 12.7% of families and 15.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.4% of those under age 18 and 11.7% of those age 65 or over.

Fort Worth stands as the ninth-safest U.S. city among those with a population over 500,000 in 2006.[35]

Economy[edit]

Major companies based in Fort Worth include American Airlines Group (and subsidiaries American Airlines and Envoy Air), the John Peter Smith Hospital, Pier 1 Imports, RadioShack, the BNSF Railway, and Lockheed Martin.

In 2013, Fort Worth-Arlington ranked No. 15 on Forbes' list of the Best Places for Business and Careers.[36]

Top employers[edit]

According to the City's 2011 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[37] the top employers in the Fort Worth area are:

# Employer Number of
employees
1 Lockheed Martin Aeronautics 13,500
2 Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base Fort Worth 11,400
3 Fort Worth Independent School District 10,100
4 American Airlines Group 6,500
5 City of Fort Worth 6,100
6 JPS Health Network 4,300
7 Harris Methodist Hospital 4,000
8 Bell Helicopter 3,800
9 Alcon 3,300
10 Cook Children's Health Care System 3,100

Culture[edit]

Building on its frontier western heritage and a history of strong local arts patronage, Fort Worth has, in recent years, begun promoting itself as the "City of Cowboys and Culture".[38] Fort Worth has the world's largest indoor rodeo.

Arts and sciences[edit]

Theatre

Bass Performance Hall, Casa Mañana, Stage West Theatre, Kids Who Care Inc., Jubilee Theater, Circle Theatre

Museums
Fort Worth Museum of Science and History is adjacent to the National Cowgirl Museum and Hall of Fame

Kimbell Art Museum, Amon Carter Museum of American Art, Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, Sid Richardson Museum, Fort Worth Museum of Science and History, National Cowgirl Museum and Hall of Fame, Military Museum of Fort Worth, Texas Civil War Museum, Texas Cowboy Hall of Fame, Fort Worth Stockyards Museum

Music

Fort Worth Symphony Orchestra, Billy Bob's, Texas Ballet Theater, Van Cliburn International Piano Competition (Bass Performance Hall), Fort Worth Opera (Scott Theater), Live Eclectic Music (Ridglea Theater[39])

The Academy of Western Artists, based in Gene Autry, Oklahoma presents its annual awards in Fort Worth in fields related to the American cowboy, including music, literature, and even chuckwagon cooking.[40]

Nature

The Fort Worth Zoo is home to over 5000 animals and has been named as a top zoo in the nation by Family Life magazine, the Los Angeles Times and USA Today and one of the top zoos in the South by Southern Living Reader's Choice Awards; it has been ranked in the top 10 zoos in the United States.

The Fort Worth Botanic Garden and the Botanical Research Institute of Texas are also in the city. For those interested in hiking, birding, or canoeing, the Fort Worth Nature Center and Refuge in northwest Fort Worth is a 3621-acre preserved natural area designated by the Department of the Interior as a National Natural Landmark Site in 1980. Established in 1964 as the Greer Island Nature Center and Refuge, it will celebrate its 50th Anniversary in 2014. The Nature Center has small, genetically pure bison herd, a resident prairie dog town, and the prairie upon which they live. It is one of the largest urban parks of its type in the US.

Sports and recreation[edit]

While much of Fort Worth's sports attention is focused on the Metroplex's professional sports teams, the city has its own athletic identity. The TCU Horned Frogs compete in NCAA Division I Athletics, including the football team, consistently ranked in the Top 25, and the baseball team, which has competed in the last six NCAA Tournaments and came within a win of making the College World Series in 2009. The women's basketball team has competed in the last seven NCAA Tournaments. Texas Wesleyan University competes in the NAIA, and won the 2006 NAIA Div. I Men's Basketball championship and three-time National Collegiate Table Tennis Association (NCTTA) team championships (2004–2006). Fort Worth is also home to the NCAA football Bell Helicopter Armed Forces Bowl, as well as four minor-league professional sports teams. One of these minor league teams, the Fort Worth Cats baseball team, was reborn in 2001. The original Cats were a very popular minor league team in Fort Worth from the 19th century (when they were called the Panthers) until 1960, when the team was merged into the Dallas Rangers.

TCU Horned Frogs[edit]

Main article: TCU Horned Frogs

The presence of Texas Christian University less than 5 miles (8 km) from downtown and national competitiveness in football, baseball, and men's and women's basketball have sustained TCU as an important part of Fort Worth's sports scene.

The Horned Frog football team produced two national championships in the 1930s and remained a strong competitor in the Southwest Conference into the 1960s before beginning a long period of underperformance. The revival of the TCU football program began under Coach Dennis Franchione with the success of running back LaDainian Tomlinson. Under Head Coach Gary Patterson, the Horned Frogs have developed into a perennial Top-10 contender, and a Rose Bowl winner in 2011. Notable players include Sammy Baugh, Davey O'Brien, Bob Lilly, LaDainian Tomlinson, Jerry Hughes, and Andy Dalton.[41] The Horned Frogs, along with their rivals and fellow non-AQ leaders the Boise State Broncos and University of Utah Utes were deemed the quintessential "BCS Busters", having appeared in both the Fiesta and Rose Bowls. Their "BCS Buster" role ended in 2012 when they joined the Big 12 athletic conference in all sports. The Horned Frog football teams have one of the best winning percentages of any school in the Football Bowl Subdivision in recent years.

Colonial National Invitational Golf Tournament[edit]

Fort Worth hosts an important professional men's golf tournament every May at the Colonial Country Club. The Colonial Invitational Golf Tournament, now officially known as Crowne Plaza Invitational at Colonial, is one of the more prestigious and historical events of the Tour calendar. The Colonial Country Club was the home course of golfing legend Ben Hogan, who was from Fort Worth.

Professional sports teams[edit]

The Fort Worth Cats are a professional baseball team founded in 2001 as part of the All-American Association. Their home venue is LaGrave Field. As of 2013, the team is affiliated with United League Baseball.

Fort Worth Vaqueros FC are a minor league soccer team[42] which began play in the summer of 2014. They are part of the National Premier Soccer League and will play their home games at LaGrave Field.

Motor racing[edit]

Fort Worth is home to Texas Motor Speedway, also known as "The Great American Speedway." Texas Motor Speedway is a 1.5 mile quad-oval track located in the far northern part of the city in Denton County. The speedway opened in 1997, and currently hosts an IndyCar event and six NASCAR events among three major race weekends a year.[43][44]

Amateur sports-car racing in the greater Fort Worth area occurs mostly at two purpose-built tracks: Motorsport Ranch and Eagles Canyon Raceway. Sanctioning bodies include the Porsche Club of America, the National Auto Sports Association (NASA) and the Sports Car Club of America (SCCA).

Cowtown Marathon[edit]

The annual Cowtown Marathon has been held every last weekend in February since 1978. The two-day activities include two 5Ks, a 10K, the half marathon, marathon and ultra marathon. With just under 27,000 participants in 2013, the Cowtown is the largest multiple-distance event in Texas.

Government[edit]

City Hall in Fort Worth
Downtown U.S. Post Office in Fort Worth

City government[edit]

Fort Worth has a council-manager government, with elections held every two years for a mayor, elected at large, and eight council members, elected by district. The mayor is a voting member of the council and represents the city on ceremonial occasions. The council has the power to adopt municipal ordinances and resolutions, make proclamations, set the city tax rate, approve the city budget, and appoint the city secretary, city attorney, city auditor, municipal court judges, and members of city boards and commissions. The day-to-day operations of city government are overseen by the city manager, who is also appointed by the council.[45]

City Departments[edit]

Fort Worth Fire Department - provides fire and emergency services.

State representation[edit]

The Texas Department of Transportation operates the Fort Worth District Office in Fort Worth.[46]

The North Texas Intermediate Sanction Facility, a privately operated prison facility housing short-term parole violators, was in Fort Worth. It was operated on behalf of the Texas Department of Criminal Justice. In 2011 the state of Texas decided not to renew its contract with the facility.[47]

State Senator Wendy Davis (D) Represents Fort Worth (district 10) and is currently running for Governor of Texas in 2014.

Federal representation[edit]

Fort Worth is split between Texas's 6th congressional district, represented by Republican Joe Barton; Texas's 12th congressional district, represented by Republican Kay Granger; Texas's 24th congressional district, represented by Republican Kenny Marchant; Texas's 26th congressional district, represented by Republican Michael Burgess and Texas's 33rd congressional district, represented by Democrat Marc Veasey.

Federal facilities[edit]

Fort Worth is home to one of the two locations of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. In 1987, construction on this second facility began. In addition to meeting increased production requirements, a western location was seen to serve as a contingency operation in case of emergencies in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area; as well, costs for transporting currency to Federal Reserve banks in San Francisco, Dallas, and Kansas City would be reduced. Currency production began in December 1990 at the Fort Worth facility, the official dedication took place April 26, 1991.

Federal Medical Center, Carswell, a federal prison and health facility for women, is located in the Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base Fort Worth.[48] Carswell houses the federal death row for female inmates.[49]

The Federal Aviation Administration and Federal Bureau of Investigation have offices in Fort Worth.

Education[edit]

Public libraries[edit]

Fort Worth Library is the public library system.

Public schools[edit]

Most of Fort Worth is served by the Fort Worth Independent School District.

Other school districts that serve portions of Fort Worth include:

The portion of Fort Worth within the Arlington Independent School District contains a wastewater plant. No residential areas are in the portion.

Pinnacle Academy of the Arts (K-12) is a state charter school.

Private schools[edit]

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Fort Worth oversees several Catholic elementary and middle schools.[50]

Institutes of higher education[edit]

Other institutions:

Media[edit]

Fort Worth is shared by Dallas's media market.

Magazines[edit]

The city's magazine is Fort Worth, Texas Magazine - FWTX.com. FWTX.com has a wealth of information about happenings in Fort Worth.

Radio stations[edit]

There are many radio stations in and around Fort Worth, with many different formats.

AM[edit]

On the AM dial, like in all other markets, political talk radio is prevalent, with WBAP 820, KLIF 570, KSKY 660, KRLD 1080, KVCE 1160 the conservative talk stations serving Fort Worth and KMNY 1360 the sole progressive talk station serving the city. KFXR 1190 is a news/talk/classic country station. Sports talk can be found on KTCK 1310 ("The Ticket"). WBAP, a 50,000-watt clear-channel station which can be heard over much of the country at night, was a long-successful country music station before converting to its current talk format.

There are also several religious stations on AM in the Dallas/Fort Worth area; KHVN 970 and KGGR 1040 are the local urban gospel stations and KKGM 1630 has a Southern gospel format.

Fort Worth's Spanish-speaking population is served by many stations on AM:

There are also a few mixed Asian language stations serving Fort Worth:

Other formats found on the Fort Worth AM dial are Radio Disney KMKI 620, urban KKDA 730, business talk KJSA 1120, country station KCLE 1460.

FM[edit]

KLNO is a commercial radio station licensed to Fort Worth. Long-time Fort Worth resident Marcos A. Rodriguez operated Dallas Fort Worth radio stations KLTY and KESS on 94.1 FM.

Non-commercial stations serve the city fairly well. There are three college stations that can be heard--KTCU 88.7, KCBI 90.9, and KNTU 88.1, with a variety of programming. There is also local NPR station KERA 90.1, along with community radio station KNON 89.3. Downtown Fort Worth also hosts the Texas Country radio station KFWR 95.9 The Ranch.

A wide variety of commercial formats, mostly music, are on the FM dial in Fort Worth, also.

Internet radio stations and shows[edit]

When local radio station KOAI 107.5 FM, now KMVK, dropped its smooth jazz format, fans set up smoothjazz1075.com, an internet radio station, to broadcast smooth jazz for disgruntled fans.

There are a couple of internet radio shows in the Fort Worth area, like DFDubbIsHot and The Broadband Brothers.

Television stations[edit]

Newspapers[edit]

Fort Worth has one newspaper published daily, the Fort Worth Star-Telegram. The Star-Telegram is the forty-fifth most widely circulated newspaper in the United States, with a daily circulation of 210,990 and a Sunday circulation of 304,200.

The Fort Worth Weekly is an alternative weekly newspaper that serves the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex. The newspaper has an approximate circulation of 50,000.[citation needed] The Fort Worth Weekly publishes every Wednesday and features, among many things, news reporting, cultural event guides, movie reviews, and editorials.

Fort Worth Business Press is a weekly publication that chronicles news in the Fort Worth business community. Fort Worth, Texas magazine is a monthly publication that highlights the social and cultural life of the city.

The Fort Worth Press was a daily newspaper, published weekday afternoons and on Sundays from 1900 until 1975. It was owned by the E. W. Scripps Company and published under the then-prominent Scripps-Howard Lighthouse logo. The paper reportedly last made money in the early 1950s. Scripps Howard stayed with the paper until mid 1975. Circulation had dwindled to fewer than 30,000 daily, just more than 10% of that of the Fort Worth Star Telegram. The name Fort Worth Press was resurrected briefly in a new Fort Worth Press paper operated by then-former publisher Bill McAda and briefer still by William Dean Singleton, then-owner of the weekly Azle (Texas) News, now owner of the Media Central news group. The Fort Worth Press operated from offices and presses at 500 Jones street in downtown Fort Worth.[51]

Transportation[edit]

Like most cities that grew heavily after World War II, Fort Worth's main mode of transportation is the automobile. But Fort Worth offers bus transportation via The T, as well as an interurban train service to Dallas via the Trinity Railway Express.

History[edit]

Electric streetcars[edit]

Interurban Line between Fort Worth and Dallas, Texas (postcard, circa 1902-1924)

The first streetcar company in Fort Worth was the Fort Worth Street Railway Company. Its first line began operating in December 1876, and traveled from the courthouse down Main Street to the T&P Depot.[52] By 1890, there were more than 20 private companies operating streetcar lines in Fort Worth. The Fort Worth Street Railway Company bought out many of its competitors, and was eventually itself bought out by the Bishop & Sherwin Syndicate in 1901.[53] The new ownership changed the company's name to the Northern Texas Traction Company. The Northern Texas Traction Company operated 84 miles of streetcar railways in 1925, and their lines connected downtown Fort Worth to TCU, the Near Southside, Arlington Heights, Lake Como, and the Stockyards.

Electric interurban railways[edit]

At its peak, the electric interurban industry in Texas, consisted of almost 500 miles of track, making Texas the second in interurban mileage in all states west of the Mississippi River. Electric interurban railways were prominent in the early 1900s, peaking in the 1910s and fading until all electric interurban railways were abandoned by 1948. Close to three-fourths of the mileage was in the Dallas-Fort Worth Area, running between Fort Worth and Dallas and to other area cities including Cleburne, Denison, Corsicana and Waco. The depicted in the associated image was the second to be constructed in the State of Texas and ran thirty-five miles between Fort Worth and Dallas. Northern Texas Traction Company built the railway, which was operational from 1902 to 1934.[54]

Current transport[edit]

Roads[edit]

Fort Worth is served by four Interstates and two US highways. It also contains a number of arterial streets in a grid formation.

Interstate highways 30, 20, 35W, and 820 all pass through the city limits.

Interstate 820 is a spur of Interstate 20 and serves as a beltway for the city. Interstate 30 and Interstate 20 connect Fort Worth to Arlington, Grand Prairie, and Dallas. Interstate 35W connects Fort Worth with Hillsboro to the south and the cities of Denton and Gainesville to the north.

I-20 in southern Fort Worth

U.S. Route 287 runs southeast through the city connecting Wichita Falls to the north and Mansfield to the south. U.S. Route 377 runs south through the northern suburbs of Haltom City and Keller through the central business district.

Notable state highways:

(List of Dallas-Fort Worth area freeways)

Public transportation[edit]

The Fort Worth Transportation Authority, better known as The T, serves Fort Worth with dozens of different bus routes throughout the city, including a downtown bus circulator known as Molly the Trolley. The T operates busses in the suburbs of Richland Hills (route 41) and Arlington (MAX). [55]

In 2010, Fort Worth won a $25 million Federal Urban Circulator Grant to build a streetcar system.[56] But in December 2010, city council forfeited the grant by voting to end the streetcar study.[57]

Rail transportation[edit]

"The T" bus in Ft. Worth, April 2005

Airports[edit]

  • Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport is a major commercial airport located between the major cities of Fort Worth and Dallas. DFW Airport is the world's third busiest airport based on operations and tenth busiest airport based on passengers. [59]

Fort Worth is home to these four airports within city limits:

Walkability[edit]

A 2011 study by Walk Score ranked Fort Worth 47th most walkable of fifty largest U.S. cities.[60]

Notable people[edit]

Sister cities[edit]

Fort Worth is a part of the Sister Cities International program and maintains cultural and economic exchange programs with its eight sister cities.[61][62]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "From a cowtown to Cowtown". Retrieved 2011-10-06. 
  2. ^ "Fort Worth Geographic Information Systems". Retrieved 2009-02-14. 
  3. ^ a b "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2014-06-06. 
  4. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  5. ^ McCann, Ian (2008-07-10). "McKinney falls to third in rank of fastest-growing cities in U.S.". The Dallas Morning News. [dead link]
  6. ^ "Fort Worth, from uTexas.com". Retrieved 30 December 2008. 
  7. ^ "International Programs: Fort Worth". Retrieved 30 December 2008. [dead link]
  8. ^ a b c Crimmins, M.L., 1943, The First Line of Army Posts Established in West Texas in 1849, Abilene: West Texas Historical Association, Vol. XIX, pp. 121-127
  9. ^ Image of E. S. Terrell with note: "E. S. Terrell. Born May 24, 1812, in Murry [sic] County, Tenn. The first white man to settle in Fort Worth, Texas in 1849. His wife was Lou Preveler. They had 7 children. In 1869 the Terrells took up residence in Young County Texas where he died Nov 1, 1905. He is buried at True, Texas." Image on display in historical collection at Fort Belknap, Newcastle, Texas. Viewed 13 November 2008.
  10. ^ "History of Panther Mascot". The Panther Foundation. May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-09. 
  11. ^ "Badge of Fort Worth Police Department". Fort Worth Police Department. May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-09. [dead link]
  12. ^ [1][dead link]
  13. ^ BIBLIOGRAPHY: Verana E. Berrong, History of Tarrant County: From Its Beginnings until 1875 (M.A. thesis, Texas Christian University, 1938). David Ross Copeland, Emerging Young Giant: Fort Worth, 1877–1880 (M.A. thesis, Texas Christian University, 1972). Macel D. Ezell, Progressivism in Fort Worth Politics, 1935–38 (M.A. thesis, Texas Christian University, 1963). James Farber, Fort Worth in the Civil War (Belton, Texas: Peter Hansborough Bell Press, 1960). Fort Worth Star-Telegram, October 30, 1969. Julia Kathryn Garrett, Fort Worth: A Frontier Triumph (Austin: Encino, 1972). Thomas Albert Harkins, A History of the Municipal Government of Fort Worth, Texas (M.A. thesis, Texas Christian University, 1937). Donald Alvin Henderson, Fort Worth and the Depression, 1929–33 (M.A. thesis, Texas Christian University, 1937). Delia Ann Hendricks, The History of Cattle and Oil in Tarrant County (M.A. thesis, Texas Christian University, 1969). Oliver Knight, Fort Worth, Outpost on the Trinity (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1953). Richard G. Miller, "Fort Worth and the Progressive Era: The Movement for Charter Revision, 1899–1907", in Essays on Urban America, ed. Margaret Francine Morris and Elliot West (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1975). Ruth Gregory Newman, The Industrialization of Fort Worth (M.A. thesis, North Texas State University, 1950). Buckley B. Paddock, History of Texas: Fort Worth and the Texas Northwest Edition (4 vols., Chicago: Lewis, 1922). J'Nell Pate, Livestock Legacy: The Fort Worth Stockyards, 1887–1987 (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1988). Warren H. Plasters, A History of Amusements in Fort Worth from the Beginning to 1879 (M.A. thesis, Texas Christian University, 1947). Leonard Sanders, How Fort Worth Became the Texasmost City (Fort Worth: Amon Carter Museum, 1973). Robert H. Talbert, Cowtown-Metropolis: Case Study of a City's Growth and Structure (Fort Worth: Texas Christian University, 1956). Joseph C. Terrell, Reminiscences of the Early Days of Fort Worth (Fort Worth, 1906). Mack H. Williams, In Old Fort Worth: The Story of a City and Its People as Published in the News-Tribune in 1976 and 1977 (1977). Mack H. Williams, comp., The News-Tribune in Old Fort Worth (Fort Worth: News-Tribune, 1975). Janet Schmelzer.
  14. ^ BIBLIOGRAPHY: Fort Worth Daily Democrat, April 10, 1878, April 18, 1879, July 18, 1881. Oliver Knight, Fort Worth, Outpost on the Trinity (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1953). Leonard Sanders, How Fort Worth Became the Texasmost City (Fort Worth: Amon Carter Museum, 1973). Richard F. Selcer, Hell's Half Acre: The Life and Legend of a Red Light District (Fort Worth: Texas Christian University Press, 1991). F. Stanley Stanley F. L. Crocchiola, Jim Courtright (Denver: World, 1957). Richard F. Selcer
  15. ^ National Weather Service statistics, "Tornados in North Texas, 1920–2009"
  16. ^ "Barnett Shale – Fort Worth Texas". Maysrealty.com. Retrieved 2010-08-07. 
  17. ^ "In Fort Worth, gas boom fuels public outreach plan". Reuters. July 11, 2007. 
  18. ^ "Drilling for Natural Gas Faces Hurdle: Fort Worth". RealEstateJournal. 2005-04-29. Retrieved 2010-08-07. 
  19. ^ Christie, Les (June 28, 2007). "The fastest growing U.S. cities". CNN. Retrieved May 2, 2010. 
  20. ^ "America's Most Livable: Fort Worth, Texas". Archived from the original on 2007-07-11. Retrieved 2007-07-19. 
  21. ^ http://www.srh.noaa.gov/fwd/?n=dnarrative
  22. ^ "Cross Timbers and Prairies Ecological Region". 
  23. ^ a b c d e f Average and record temperatures and precipitation, Fort Worth, Texas, The Weather Channel. [2]
  24. ^ "Summer Heat of 1980 (Houston, Dallas, Denton: homes, movie theater, living in) – Texas (TX) – Page 2 – City-Data Forum". City-data.com. 2008-06-25. Retrieved 2010-08-07. 
  25. ^ Daily and average temperatures for July, Fort Worth, Texas, The Weather Channel. [3]
  26. ^ "Temperature High and Low (weather, year, time) – Fort Worth – Texas (TX) – City-Data Forum". City-data.com. Retrieved 2010-08-07. 
  27. ^ Average annual snowfall by month, NOAA. [4]
  28. ^ "NOW Data-NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-02. 
  29. ^ United States Census Bureau. "Census of Population and Housing". Retrieved June 14, 2013. 
  30. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013". Retrieved June 6, 2014. 
  31. ^ "Fort Worth (city), Texas". State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau. 
  32. ^ a b c d "Texas - Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved April 20, 2012. 
  33. ^ a b From 15% sample
  34. ^ United States Census BureauPort St. Lucie, Fla., is Fastest-Growing City, Census Bureau Says[dead link]." Published 30 June 2005. Retrieved 20 November 2006.
  35. ^ Morgan Quitno Awards America's Safest Cities Ranked
  36. ^ "Best Places For Business and Careers - Forbes". Forbes. Retrieved 15 January 2014. 
  37. ^ "City of Fort Worth CAFR". Retrieved 2012-11-17. 
  38. ^ "Fort Worth Visitor and Vacation Guide – Hotels, Restaurants, Things to Do and more from the Official Fort Worth Convention and Visitors Bureau". Fortworth.com. Retrieved 2010-08-07. 
  39. ^ "Ridglea Theater". Ridglea Theater. Retrieved 2010-08-07. 
  40. ^ "About the Academy". awaawards.org. Retrieved July 13, 2012. 
  41. ^ "TCU Horned Frogs football – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia". En.wikipedia.org. Retrieved 2010-08-07. 
  42. ^ http://www.nationalpremiersoccerleague.com/home/781398.html
  43. ^ http://www.indycar.com/Schedule/2014/IndyCar-Series/Texas
  44. ^ http://www.nascar.com/en_us/sprint-cup-series/schedule/tracks/texas-motor-speedway.html
  45. ^ "City Government," City of Fort Worth official website, accessed 18 September 2013.
  46. ^ "Fort Worth District Office." Texas Department of Transportation. Retrieved on January 11, 2010.
  47. ^ Mitchell, Mitch. "Texas prison boom going bust." Fort Worth Star-Telegram. Saturday September 3, 2011. Retrieved on September 23, 2011.
  48. ^ "FMC Carswell Contact Information." Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved on October 14, 2010.
  49. ^ Marshall, John. "Lisa Montgomery gets death penalty for killing pregnant woman." Associated Press at the Southeast Missourian. Friday April 4, 2008. Retrieved on October 3, 2010. "Department of Justice spokesman Don Ledford said Montgomery will likely be sent to the Federal Medical Center Carswell in Fort Worth, Texas, a women's correctional facility that has medical services for inmates."
  50. ^ The Catholic Diocese of Fort Worth[dead link]Catholic Schools[dead link]. Retrieved 20 November 2006.
  51. ^ "MAYBORN, WARD CARLTON | The Handbook of Texas Online| Texas State Historical Association (TSHA)". Tshaonline.org. Retrieved 2012-02-13. 
  52. ^ Knight, Oliver. Fort Worth: Outpost on the Trinity. Fort Worth: Texas Christian University Press. p. 85. ISBN 0-87565-077-5. 
  53. ^ Knight, Oliver. Fort Worth: Outpost on the Trinity. Fort Worth: Texas Christian University Press. p. 133. ISBN 0-87565-077-5. 
  54. ^ Robert A. Rieder, "Electric Interurban Railways," Handbook of Texas Online <http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/eqe12>, accessed March 23, 2012. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.
  55. ^ http://www.the-t.com/
  56. ^ Freemark, Yonah. "Fort Worth Wins Grant for Streetcar, But Whether It’s Ready Is Another Question". Retrieved 30 April 2012. 
  57. ^ Wolinsky, Robert (8 December 2010). "Fort Worth Council Votes Against Streetcar Project, Gives Up $25 Million in Federal Grant". Retrieved 30 April 2012. 
  58. ^ http://www.trinityrailwayexpress.org/stations.html
  59. ^ http://www.dfwairport.com/visitor/P1_009559.php
  60. ^ "2011 City and Neighborhood Rankings". Walk Score. 2011. Retrieved Aug 28, 2011. 
  61. ^ Mae Ferguson, Executive Director Fort Worth Sister Cities International. "The Programs and Exchanges of Fort Worth Sister Cities". Retrieved 2009-08-02. [dead link]
  62. ^ "Fort Worth". Sister Cities International. Retrieved 11 April 2014. 
  63. ^ "Budapest - Testvérvárosok" [Budapest - Twin Cities]. Budapest Főváros Önkormányzatának hivatalos oldala [Official site of the Municipality of Budapest] (in Hungarian). Archived from the original on 2013-08-09. Retrieved 2013-08-14. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Farber, James (1960). Fort Worth in the Civil War. Belton, Texas: Peter Hansborough Bell Press. 
  • Garrett, Julia Kathryn (1972). Fort Worth: A Frontier Triumph. Austin: Encino. 
  • Knight, Oliver (1953). Fort Worth, Outpost on the Trinity. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. 
  • Miller, Richard G. (1975). "Fort Worth and the Progressive Era: The Movement for Charter Revision, 1899–1907". In Morris, Margaret Francine; West, Elliot. Essays on Urban America. Austin: University of Texas Press. 
  • Pate, J'Nell (1988). Livestock Legacy: The Fort Worth Stockyards, 1887–1987. College Station: Texas A&M University Press. 
  • Pinkney, Kathryn Currie (2003). From stockyards to defense plants, the transformation of a city: Fort Worth, Texas, and World War II. Ph.D. thesis, University of North Texas. 
  • Sanders, Leonard (1973). How Fort Worth Became the Texasmost City. Fort Worth: Amon Carter Museum. 
  • Talbert, Robert H. (1956). Cowtown-Metropolis: Case Study of a City's Growth and Structure. Fort Worth: Texas Christian University. 

External links[edit]

Official sites and resources[edit]

Digital collections[edit]