|The Municipality of Fortaleza|
Skyline of Beira-mar avenue in the Meireles neighborhood of Fortaleza
|Founded||April 13, 1726|
|• Mayor||Roberto Cláudio (PROS)|
|• Municipality||313.8 km2 (121.2 sq mi)|
|Elevation||21 m (69 ft)|
|• Density||8,100/km2 (21,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||BST (UTC-3)|
|Area code(s)||+55 85|
Fortaleza (Portuguese pronunciation: [foʁtaˈlezɐ], Fortress) is the state capital of Ceará, located in Northeastern Brazil. With a population close to 2.55 million (metropolitan region over 3.6 million), Fortaleza is the 5th largest city in Brazil. It has an area of 313 square kilometres (121 sq mi) and the highest demographic density of any state capital in the country (8,001 per km²). To the north of the city lies the Atlantic Ocean; to the south are the municipalities of Pacatuba, Eusébio, Maracanaú and Itaitinga; to the east is the municipality of Aquiraz and the Atlantic Ocean; and to the west is the municipality of Caucaia. Residents of the city are known as Fortalezenses. The current mayor is Roberto Cláudio, a doctor who graduated from the Federal University of Ceará. Fortaleza is one of the three leading cities in the Northeast region together with Recife and Salvador.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Economy
- 5 Education
- 6 Culture
- 7 Tourism
- 8 Transport
- 9 Notable people
- 10 International relations
- 11 City gallery
- 12 References
- 13 External links
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (May 2014)|
Fortaleza's history began on February 2, 1500, when Spaniard Vicente Pinzón landed in Mucuripe's cove and named the new land Santa Maria de la Consolación. Because of the Treaty of Tordesillas, the discovery was never officially sanctioned. Colonisation began in 1603, when the Portuguese Pero Coelho de Souza constructed the Fort of São Tiago and founded the settlement of Nova Lisboa (New Lisbon). After a victory over the French in 1612, Martins Soares Moreno expanded the Fort of São Tiago and changed its name to Forte de São Sebastião.
In 1630 the Dutch invaded the Brazilian Northeast and in 1637 they took the Fort of São Sebastião and ruled over Ceará. In battles with the Portuguese and natives in 1644 the fort was destroyed. Under captain Matthias Beck the Dutch West Indies Company built a new fortress by the banks of river Pajeú. Fort Schoonenborch ("graceful stronghold") officially opened on August 19, 1649. After the capitulation of Pernambuco in 1654, the Dutch handed over this fortress to the Portuguese, who renamed it Fortaleza da Nossa Senhora de Assunção ("Fort of Our Lady of the Rising"), after which the city of Fortaleza takes its name.
During the 19th century, Fortaleza was consolidated as an urban centre in Ceará, supported by the cotton industry. In 1824, the city was targeted by the revolutionaries of Confederation of the Equator. Between the years 1846 and 1877, the city went through a period of enrichment, economic and infrastructural improvement. This included the export of cotton and the development of diverse workmanships, such as the creation of the 2 secondary schools, the Ceará and Mucuripe Lighthouse in 1845, Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Fortaleza in 1861, Prainha Seminary in 1864, Public Library in 1867 and the Public transportation network in 1870, which began with the construction of Railroad of Baturité.
In the twentieth century, Fortaleza underwent significant urban changes, with improvements and the rural exodus to the city, with growth mostly towards the end of the decade of 1910, this made the city the seventh most populated city in Brazil. In 1922, Fortaleza reached its first hundred thousand inhabitants with the annexation of the cities of Messejana and Parangaba, now important districts of the city.
During the years of 1964–1985 several changes took place in Fortaleza which made the city a central region for industries. Governor Virgílio Távora (1963–1966) initiated the implantation of Industrial District of Fortaleza (DIF I). One decade later, the city already had about a million inhabitants, Metropolitan areas were created Brazil (1973), making the city one of them. In 1983 DIF I started to integrate the territory of the new city of Maracanaú, which, just some years ago, was made again part of the Greater Fortaleza (the city's Metropolitan area). In the 1980s, Fortaleza exceeded Recife in population terms, becoming the second most populous city in Northeastern Brazil, with 1,308,919 inhabitants.
During the political awakening that followed the military regime, the people elected the city's first woman mayor, Maria Luíza Fontenele of the Workers' Party (Partido dos Trabalhadores), which meant that the city administration was controlled by a party of the centre-left. At the end of the twentieth century, the administration of the city hall and the city underwent a range of structural changes with the opening of several avenues, hospitals, cultural spaces and it became one of the main tourist destinations in the Northeast and in Brazil.
Fortaleza has a typical tropical climate, specifically a tropical wet and dry climate, with high temperatures and high relative humidity throughout the year. However, these conditions are usually relieved by pleasant winds blowing from the ocean. Average temperatures are not much different throughout the year. December is the warmest month, with a high of 30.7 °C (87.3 °F) and low of 24.6 °C (76.3 °F). The rainy season spans from February to May (locally called "winter" due to the rain, not the temperature), with rainfall particularly prodigious in March and April. The average annual temperature is 26.6 °C (79.9 °F). The relative humidity in Fortaleza is 79%, with average annual rainfall of 1,608.4 millimetres (63.32 in).
Fortaleza weather is unique in that there is usually rain during the first seven months of the year from January to July. During this period, relative humidity is high. Fortaleza's climate is usually very dry from August to December, with very little rainfall.
|Climate data for Fortaleza (1961–1990)|
|Record high °C (°F)||37.7
|Average high °C (°F)||30.5
|Daily mean °C (°F)||27.1
|Average low °C (°F)||24.4
|Record low °C (°F)||20
|Rainfall mm (inches)||119.1
|Avg. rainy days (≥ ≥ 1 mm)||11||15||22||21||19||14||10||5||5||4||3||6||132|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||225.2||182.3||150||157.1||208.4||238.7||268.3||295.9||281.6||291.4||282.2||262.3||2,843.4|
|Source: Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (INMET).|
According to the 2010 IBGE Census, there were 2,315,116 people residing in the city of Fortaleza. The census revealed the following numbers: 1,403,292 Pardo (multiracial) people (57.2%), 901,816 white people (36.8%), 110,811 black people (4.5%), 33,161 Asian people (1.4%), 3,071 Amerindian people (0.1%).
The prevailing religion of Fortaleza is Roman Catholicism, due to the influence of Portuguese settlers and missionaries during the colonial rule of Brazil.
Fortaleza's GDP is R$28 billion, arising from its diversified commerce and tourism. Downtown Fortaleza, or Centro, is where most commercial activities happen. Monsenhor Tabosa Avenue, near Iracema Beach, is another commercial district. Among the largest shopping malls are Iguatemi, North Shopping, Aldeota, Del Paseo and Via Sul.
The manufacturing industry produces footwear, textiles, leather-derived items, and processed food and beverages. Presently, Fortaleza offers a wide variety of event spaces, allowing different kinds of events to be promoted, ranging from small business meetings to national and international conventions and fairs that receive thousands of people. The biggest and best-equipped event venue available in the Northeast of Brazil is the Event Center of Ceará (CEC) in Fortaleza, opened in 2012. Additionally, many hotels, business centers and other venues also offer adequate spaces for different types of gatherings. Now-defunct TAF Airlines used to have its headquarters in Fortaleza.
Higher education in Fortaleza is provided by a significant number of public and private institutions. Fortaleza is home to some of the most important universities and research centres in the northeast region of Brazil.
- Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), (public, federal, free of charge);
- Universidade Estadual do Ceará (UECE), (public, state-owned, free of charge);
Since the end of the 19th century, the city has been home to various cultural institutions. The Instituto do Ceará (Ceará Institute) was established in 1887, and conducts research in history, geography and anthropology. The Academia Cearense de Letras (Ceará Academy of Letters) was the first institution of the sort in the country, established on August 15, 1894. In 1892, Fortaleza was the site of a cultural movement of literary expression called "Spiritual Bakery". There are many other cultural centres, including the Banco do Nordeste Cultural Centre and the Dragão do Mar Center of Art and Culture. The folklore of Fortaleza is rich and diverse, and has roots in a mixture of beliefs originating from white colonisers and native groups. Minor, but also considered important, are Syrian-Lebanese and African traditions.
Some of the cultural manifestations are:
- Quadrilhas juninas: hundreds of large groups of traditional folk dances organized to make presentations, usually to the sound of forró, during the festas juninas, in the month of June (and also July).
- Bumba-meu-boi or Boi-Ceará: songs and dances inspired by legends about a mythical ox, with Portuguese roots.
- Torém: dance originated from the Tremembé natives.
- Violeiros, cantadores and emboladores: musical manifestations expressing social criticism, with typical Northeastern origins.
- Maracatu: Dance and music, the Fortaleza maracatu belongs to the Baque Virado or Nação styles and is celebrated during carnivals.
- Dança do coco: originated by Afro-Brazilians. On the coast it is for men only, while in the hinterland it is danced in pairs.
Fortaleza Carnival season is not as famous as that in other northeastern cities like Salvador or Recife. Through the streets of Fortaleza, the Carnival brings the samba together with festivities as a celebration of Fortaleza's past and diverse culture. It is particularly notable for its unique style of maracatu known as maracatu cearense.
Fortaleza is the home of numerous landmarks. They include:
- Theatro José de Alencar;
- Farol do Mucuripe;
- Fortaleza's Cathedral;
- Estátua de Iracema;
- Forte Nan de Praire Statue;
- Forte de Nossa Senhora da Assunção;
- Palácio da Luz;
- Castelão football stadium
Brazilian cuisine includes feijoada, churrasco, rice and beans. There are some dishes which are typical of the Northeast of Brazil, such as macaxeira (cassava), tapioca, carne de sol, but the most typical food of Ceará is baião-de-dois (a kind of risotto with beans, and cheese).
The most popular sport in Fortaleza, like the rest of Brazil, is football (soccer). The main games of the Ceará State Championship are played in Fortaleza. There are several association football clubs in Fortaleza. The most important ones are Ceará SC, Fortaleza EC and Ferroviário AC. The city is host to the Free Kick Masters Tournament on December 28, 2013 and also one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup, for which Brazil is the host nation.
In addition to football, Fortaleza is also home to nautical sports. Strong winds make Praia do Futuro an excellent place for this kind of practice. Fortaleza commonly hosts world competitions of surfing, windsurfing and kitesurfing.
Additionally, Fortaleza is a natural developer of high-level athletes in combat sports, as evidenced by several Fortalezans' recent success in mixed martial arts.
Fortaleza is a major tourist destination for the domestic Brazilian market. The city has several major hotels which are rated as five stars. In addition there are several four star hotels as well as inns.
Fortaleza is making history in the tourism industry in 2014. Hosting the prestigious Miss Universe 2014 competition will bring tourism exposure to Fortaleza, Brazil as well as having a positive impact on its diplomatic relationship with the host country to the international communities.
Further along the beach front is the new pier and later the roller skating area close to Iracema beach.
During daytime, the beach at Praia do Futuro has a large attendance. At Praia do Futuro, tourists find several good quality beach leisure complexes, of which the most popular are Crocobeach, Atlantidiz and Cocobeach. Food in any one is of standard beach quality and the atmosphere is holiday-like.
In addition to the beach, visitors can see the cathedral, the fort, the popular market, major shopping centres (such as Iguatemi) as well as other beaches (cumbuco, beach park, or further afield)
Fortaleza has about 25 kilometres (16 mi) of urban beaches. From North to South, the urban beaches of Fortaleza are Iracema, Meireles, Mucuripe and Praia do Futuro. Each beach has its own peculiarities:
- Iracema is the Bohemian beach, with bars and nightclubs;
- Mucuripe is the place where jangadas can be found. Still used by fishermen to go into high seas, jangadas can be seen along the way during the afternoon and evenings, and returning from the sea in the morning; part of the catch of the day is sold in an old style fish market.
The passenger terminal at Pinto Martins – Fortaleza International Airport is totally air-conditioned and has four levels. There are direct flights to Lisbon, Milan, Frankfurt and Amsterdam. All major destinations in Brazil are also connected to Fortaleza.
The system of traffic monitoring is known by the acronym CTAFOR, which stands for "Controle de Tráfego em Área de Fortaleza" (Traffic Control of the Area of Fortaleza).
Its lines have roots in the old system of the Brazilian Company of Urban Trains (CBTU) in Fortaleza, which were adapted to service the new underground. The system has 28 stations: 18 on the south line, four of which are underground, and 10 on the west line beyond the central station.
A new East line, totally underground, started to be built on February 2014.
Fortaleza Harbour is an artificial port located in the Mucuripe inlet. The quay is 1,054 metres (3,458 ft) long. It contains an exclusive mooring platform for oil tankers. Its warehouse area is 6,000 square metres (65,000 sq ft) in area and offers more than 100,000 square metres (1,100,000 sq ft) for container placing. It also contains two wheat mills and is interconnected to the railway system by an extensive maneuver area.
- José de Alencar, famous Brazilian writer from the 19th century
- Alberto Nepomuceno, famous Brazilian composer from the 19th century
- Rachel de Queiroz, first female writer in Academia Brasileira de Letras
- André Diamant, international chess grandmaster
- Casimiro Montenegro Filho, founder of ITA
- Maurício Peixoto, mathematician, one of the founders of IMPA
- Gilberto Câmara, former director of Brazil's National Institute for Space Research (INPE)
- Hélder Câmara, Roman Catholic Archbishop nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize
- Karim Aïnouz, film director
- Ed Lincoln, musician and composer
- Shelda Bede, beach volleyball player and olympic medalist
- Raffael Araújo, professional footballer
- Ronny Araújo, professional footballer
- Mário Jardel, retired professional footballer
- Marcus Aurélio, mixed martial arts professional
- Wilson Gouveia, mixed martial arts professional
- Thiago Alves, mixed martial arts professional
- Hermes França, mixed martial arts professional
- Jorge Gurgel, mixed martial arts professional
- Castelo Branco, former military president of Brazil (1964–67)
Twin towns – Sister cities
Fortaleza is twinned with:
|United States||Miami Beach|
|United States||Racine, Wisconsin|
- History of Fortaleza and Ceará at Fortaleza, Ceará site
- The Fortress of Nossa Senhora da Assunção at Fortaleza, Ceará site
- "Fortaleza". 2014 FIFA World Cup Brazil. FIFA. Retrieved 14 May 2014.
- "Temperatura Máxima (°C)" (in Brazilian Portuguese). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
- "Temperatura Mínima (°C)" (in Brazilian Portuguese). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
- "Precipitação Acumulada Mensal e Anual (mm)" (in Brazilian Portuguese). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
- "Temperatura Média Compensada (°C)" (in Brazilian Portuguese). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
- "Umidade Relativa do Ar Média Compensada (%)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
- "Número de Dias com Precipitação Mayor ou Igual a 1 mm (dias)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
- "Insolação Total (horas)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
- "Temperatura Máxima Absoluta (ºC)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (Inmet). Archived from the original on June 21, 2014. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
- "Temperatura Mínima Absoluta (ºC)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (Inmet). Archived from the original on June 21, 2014. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
- Manguezal do Rio Ceará (Portuguese)
- Manguezal do Rio Cocó (Portuguese)
- 2010 IGBE Census (Portuguese)
- 2010 IGBE Census (Portuguese)
- The largest Brazilian cities – 2010 IBGE Census (Portuguese)
- "Sistema IBGE de Recuperação Automática – SIDRA". Sidra.ibge.gov.br. Retrieved April 17, 2010.
- "TAF prepara sua expansão nacional." Gazeta Mercantil. October 7, 2007. Retrieved on November 21, 2009.
- GDP (PDF) (in Portuguese). Fortaleza, Brazil: IBGE. 2008. p. 18. Retrieved July 13, 2011.
- per capita income (PDF) (in Portuguese). Fortaleza, Brazil: IBGE. 2008. Retrieved July 13, 2011.
- "Move Over Rio, Make Room for Fortaleza". MMAPredictions. Retrieved July 16, 2007.[dead link]
- Prestigious Beauty Pageants (February 6, 2014). "Events Center of Ceara Brazil to host Miss Universe 2014". Prestigious Beauty Pageants. Retrieved February 6, 2014.
- "Autarquia Municipal de Trânsito". CTAFOR. Retrieved 2014-02-09.
- "Mapa das Linhas - Metrô de Fortaleza". Metrô de Fortaleza - METROFOR. Retrieved 2013-08-22.
- "Pragmatismo marca gestão de Luizianne em Fortaleza". Clipping do Ministério do Planejamento. 17 April 2007. Retrieved July 14, 2008.
- "Sister City of Miami Beach — City Commission Meeting" (PDF). City of Miami Beach. 26 May 2004. Retrieved July 14, 2008.[dead link]
- "La Força Expedicionária Brasileira — F.E.B". MUSEO STORICO DI MONTESE. Retrieved July 14, 2008.
- "Lei 9083 Considera Cidade Irmã de Fortaleza a cidade de Natal" (PDF). Diário Oficial do Município de Fortaleza. 1 June 2006. Retrieved July 14, 2008.[dead link]
- "Praia gemina-se com Fortaleza no seu 150º aniversário". Embaixador de Cabo Verde em Brasília. 29 April 2008. Retrieved July 14, 2008.
- "Online Directory: Brazil, Americas". Sister Cities International. 2008. Retrieved July 14, 2008.[dead link]
- "O 1º Intercâmbio Econômico e Cultural Afro-Brasileiro possibilita negócios entre Senegal e Ceará". APRECE. 2006. Retrieved July 14, 2008.
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