Courage is the ability and willingness to confront fear, pain, danger, uncertainty, or intimidation. Physical courage is courage in the face of physical pain, hardship, death, or threat of death, while moral courage is the ability to act rightly in the face of popular opposition, shame, scandal, or discouragement.
In some traditions, fortitude holds approximately the same meaning as courage. In the Western tradition, notable thoughts on courage have come from philosophers such as Aristotle, Aquinas and Kierkegaard; in the Eastern tradition, some thoughts on courage were offered by the Tao Te Ching. More recently, courage has been explored by the discipline of psychology.
Theories of courage
Western antiquity and the Middle Ages
There is a tradition moving back to Ancient Greek philosophy for counting courage or fortitude as one of the four cardinal virtues, along with prudence, justice, and temperance. ("Cardinal" in this sense means "pivotal"; it is one of the four cardinal virtues because to possess any virtue, a person must be able to sustain it in the face of difficulty.)
"Virtue may be defined as a habit of mind (animi) in harmony with reason and the order of nature. It has four parts: wisdom (prudentiam), justice, courage, temperance." (De Inventione, II, LIII)
Among the cardinal virtues, prudence ranks first, justice second, fortitude third, temperance fourth, and after these the other virtues.
Part of his justification for this hierarchy is that
Fortitude without justice is an occasion of injustice; since the stronger a man is the more ready is he to oppress the weaker.
On fortitude's general and special nature, Aquinas says,
the term "fortitude" can be taken in two ways. First, as simply denoting a certain firmness of mind, and in this sense it is a general virtue, or rather a condition of every virtue, since as the Philosopher states (Ethic. ii), it is requisite for every virtue to act firmly and immovably. Secondly, fortitude may be taken to denote firmness only in bearing and withstanding those things wherein it is most difficult to be firm, namely in certain grave dangers. Therefore Tully says (Rhet. ii), that "fortitude is deliberate facing of dangers and bearing of toils." On this sense fortitude is reckoned a special virtue, because it has a special matter.
Aquinas holds fortitude or courage as being primarily about endurance, not attack:
As stated above (Article 3), and according to the Philosopher (Ethic. iii, 9), "fortitude is more concerned to allay fear, than to moderate daring." For it is more difficult to allay fear than to moderate daring, since the danger which is the object of daring and fear, tends by its very nature to check daring, but to increase fear. Now to attack belongs to fortitude in so far as the latter moderates daring, whereas to endure follows the repression of fear. Therefore the principal act of fortitude is endurance, that is to stand immovable in the midst of dangers rather than to attack them.
The Tao Te Ching states that courage is derived from love ("慈 loving 故 causes 能 ability 勇 brave") and explains: "One of courage, with audacity, will die. One of courage, but gentle, spares death. From these two kinds of courage arise harm and benefit."
Courage (shauriya) and Patience (dhairya) appear as the first two of ten characteristics (lakshana) of dharma in the Hindu Manusmṛti, besides forgiveness (kshama), tolerance (dama), honesty (asthaya), physical restraint (indriya nigraha), cleanliness (shouchya), perceptiveness (dhi), knowledge (vidhya), truthfulness (satya), and control of anger (akrodh).
Islamic beliefs also present courage and self-control as a key factor in facing the Devil and in some cases Jihad to a lesser extent; many believe this because of the courage (through peace and patience) the Prophets of the past displayed against people who despised them for their beliefs.
- "Courage is the self-affirmation of being in spite of the fact of non-being. It is the act of the individual self in taking the anxiety of non-being upon itself by affirming itself ... in the anxiety of guilt and condemnation. ... every courage to be has openly or covertly a religious root. For religion is the state of being grasped by the power of being itself."
J.R.R. Tolkien identified in his 1936 lecture "Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics" a "Northern 'theory of courage'"—the heroic or "virtuous pagan" insistence to do the right thing even in the face of certain defeat without promise of reward or salvation:
|“||It is the strength of the northern mythological imagination that it faced this problem, put the monsters in the centre, gave them victory but no honor, and found a potent and terrible solution in naked will and courage. 'As a working theory absolutely impregnable.' So potent is it, that while the older southern imagination has faded forever into literary ornament, the northern has power, as it were, to revive its spirit even in our own times. It can work, as it did even with the goðlauss Viking, without gods: martial heroism as its own end.||”|
Virtuous pagan heroism or courage in this sense is "trusting in your own strength," as observed by Jacob Grimm in his Teutonic Mythology,
|“||Men who, turning away in utter disgust and doubt from the heathen faith, placed their reliance on their own strength and virtue. Thus in the Sôlar lioð 17 we read of Vêbogi and Râdey â sik þau trûðu, "in themselves they trusted"||”|
Winston Churchill stated, "Courage is rightly esteemed the first of human qualities because it is the quality that guarantees all others." According to Maya Angelou, "Courage is the most important of the virtues, because without courage you can't practice any other virtue consistently. You can practice any virtue erratically, but nothing consistently without courage."
Moral Courage is the willingness to stand up when others want you to sit down. The Moral Courage Project was founded by Irshad Manji to promote honest dialogue about diversity, faith, sexuality and ethics amongst leaders in the workplace, at school and in communities. Most recently, in partnership with YouTube, the Moral Courage Project launched Moral Courage TV showcasing everyday examples of moral courage.
Its accompanying animal is the lion. Often, fortitude is depicted as having tamed the ferocious lion. Cf. e.g. the Tarot trump called Strength. It is sometimes seen in the Catholic Church as a depiction of Christ's triumph over sin (see Revelation 5:5). It also is a symbol in some cultures as a savior of the people who live in a community with sin and corruption.
- See also Category:Courage awards
Several awards claim to recognize courageous actions, including:
- The Victoria Cross is the highest military award that may be received by members of the armed forces in the British Army and other Commonwealth countries for valour "in the face of the enemy." A total of 1,356 have been awarded to individuals, 13 since World War II.
- The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States government. It is bestowed on members of the United States armed forces who distinguish themselves "conspicuously by gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while engaged in an action against an enemy of the United States”.
- Distinguished Service Cross (United States) is the second highest military decoration that can be awarded to a member of the United States Army, awarded for extreme gallantry and risk of life in actual combat with an armed enemy force.
- The Carnegie Hero Fund - was established to recognize persons who perform extraordinary acts of heroism in civilian life in the United States and Canada, and to provide financial assistance for those disabled and the dependents of those killed saving or attempting to save others.
- The Profile in Courage Award is a private award given to recognize displays of courage similar to those John F. Kennedy described in his book Profiles in Courage. It is given to individuals (often elected officials) who, by acting in accord with their conscience, risked their careers or lives by pursuing a larger vision of the national, state or local interest in opposition to popular opinion or pressure from constituents or other local interests.
- The Civil Courage Prize is a human rights award which is awarded to "steadfast resistance to evil at great personal risk — rather than military valor." It is awarded by the Trustees of The Train Foundation annually and may be awarded posthumously.
- Courage to Care Award is a plaque with miniature bas-reliefs depicting the backdrop for the rescuers' exceptional deeds during the Nazis' persecution, deportation and murder of millions of Jews.
- The Ivan Allen Jr. Prize for Social Courage is a prize awarded by Georgia Institute of Technology to individuals who uphold the legacy of former Atlanta Mayor Ivan Allen Jr., whose actions in Atlanta, Georgia and testimony before congress in support of the 1963 Civil Rights Bill legislation set a standard for courage during the turbulent civil rights era of the 1960s.
- The Param Vir Chakra is the highest military award in India given to those who show the highest degree of valour or self-sacrifice in the presence of the enemy. It can be, and often has been, awarded posthumously.
- Aristotle, Nichomachean Ethics, 1103b15-20, 1104a15-25, 1104b1-10, 1107a30-1107b5, 1108b15-35, 1109a5-15, 1115a5-1117b25, 1129b20-5, 1137a20-5, 144b5-10, 1167a20, 1177a30-b1, 1178a10-5, 1178a30-5, 1178b10-5, in Aristotle, Translation, Introduction, and Commentary, Broadie, Sarah, & Rowe, C., Oxford University Press, 2002.
- Myles McDonnell; Roman Manliness
- Summa Theologica: Fortitude (Secunda Secundae Partis, Q. 123)
- Summa Theologica: Fortitude (Secunda Secundae Partis, Q. 123)
- Summa Theologica: Fortitude (Secunda Secundae Partis, Q. 123)
- Chapter 67 and 73, Tao Te Ching (C. Ganson uses the word "courage", but the Mitchell translation does not.)
- Zhonwen.com, Tao Te Ching with Hanzi translations
- Tillich, Paul (1952). The Courage To Be. London: Collins. 152–183.
- Tolkien, JRR. "Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics". The Tolkien Estate. p. 25. Archived from the original on 2007-10-15. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
- Grimm, Jacob (1835). Deutsche Mythologie (Teutonic Mythology) (in German) (1 ed.). Dieterich: Göttingen.
- Carter, Richard. "Celebrating Ernest Hemingway's Century". neh.gov. National Endowment for the Humanities. Retrieved 2009-06-19.
- Wagner, NYU. "Moral Courage Project". NYU. Retrieved 6 October 2013.
- Jeanmart, G.; Blésin, L. (dir.), Figures du courage politique dans la philosophie moderne et contemporaine, numéro thématique de la revue Dissensus. Revue de philosophie politique de l'Université de Liège (http://popups.ulg.ac.be/dissensus/), n°2, automne 2009.
- Avramenko, Richard (2011). Courage: The Politics of Life and Limb. University of Notre Dame Press.
- Catholic Encyclopedia "Fortitude"
- Summa Theologica "Second Part of the Second Part" See Questions 123–140
- Becker, Ernest (1973). The Denial of Death. New York: The Free Press.
- Walton, Douglas N. (1986). Courage: A Philosophical Investigation. Los Angeles: University of California Press.
- Palmquist, Stephen (2000). "Angst and the Paradox of Courage" hkbu.edu.hk, Chapter XII in The Tree of Philosophy. Hong Kong: Philopsychy Press.
- Bussey, K. (1992). "Lying and truthfulness: Children's definitions, standards, and evaluative reactions". Child Development, 63, 129–137.
- Deci, E. L.; Ryan, R. M. (2000). "The 'what' and 'why' of gal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry', 4, 227–268.
- Eisenberger, R. (1992). "Learned industriousness". Psychological Review, 99, 248–267.
- Evans, P. D.; White, D. G. (1981). "Towards an empirical definition of courage". Behaviour Research and Therapy, 19, 419–424.
- Peterson, C.; Seligman M. E. P. (2004). Character Strengths and Virtues: A Handbook and Classification. New York: Oxford University Press. 197–289.
- Putnam, D. (1997). "Psychological courage". Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology, 4, 1–11.
- Ryan, R. M.; Frederick, C. (1997). "On energy, personality, and health: Subjective vitality as a dynamic reflection of well-being". Journal of Personality, 65, 529–565.
- Zimmerman, Barry J. (1995). Self-regulation involves more than meta cognition: A social cognitive perspective. Educational Psychologist. pp. 30, 217–221.
- Ian Miller, William (2000). The Mystery of Courage. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-00826-X.
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- Courage Institute International, Share insights about building your own courage or ennobling teams to lift performance with courage.
- Moral Courage Television, Moral Courage TV tells the stories of individuals from various backgrounds who stand up when others sit down.
- Courageous People Throughout History