- For other uses of the term, see Forty-Eighters (disambiguation).
The Forty-Eighters were Europeans who participated in or supported the revolutions of 1848 that swept Europe. In Germany, the Forty-Eighters favored unification of the German people, a more democratic government, and guarantees of human rights. Disappointed at the failure of the revolution to bring about the reform of the system of government in Germany or the Austrian Empire and sometimes on the government's wanted list because of their involvement in the revolution, they gave up their old lives to try again abroad. Many emigrated to the United States, England, and Australia after the revolutions failed. They included Germans, Czechs, Hungarians, and others. Many were respected, wealthy, and well-educated; as such, they were not typical migrants. A large number went on to be very successful in their new countries.
Forty-Eighters in the Americas
In the United States, many Forty-Eighters opposed nativism and slavery, in keeping with the liberal ideals that had led them to flee Europe. Several thousand enlisted in the Union Army, where they became prominent in the Civil War. In the Camp Jackson Affair, a large force of German volunteers helped prevent Confederate forces from seizing the government arsenal in St. Louis just prior to the beginning of the war.
Many Forty-Eighters settled in the Texas Hill Country in the vicinity of Fredericksburg, and voted heavily against Texas's secession. In the Bellville area of Austin County, another destination for Forty-Eighters, the German precincts voted decisively against the secession ordinance.
More than 30,000 Forty-Eighters settled in the Over-the-Rhine neighborhood of Cincinnati, Ohio. There they helped define the distinct German culture of the neighborhood, but in some cases also brought a rebellious nature with them from Germany. During violent protests in 1853 and 1854, Forty-Eighters were held responsible for the killing of two law enforcement officers. Cincinnati was the southern terminus of the Miami and Erie canal, and large numbers of emigrants from modern Germany, beginning with the Forty-Eighters, followed the canal north to settle available land in western Ohio.
In the Cincinnati Riot of 1853, in which one demonstrator was killed, Forty-Eighters violently protested the visit of the papal emissary Cardinal Gaetano Bedini, who had repressed revolutionaries in the Papal States in 1849.
Many German Forty-Eighters settled in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, helping solidify that city's progressive political bent and cultural Deutschtum. The Acht-und-vierzigers and their descendants contributed to the development of that city's long Socialist political tradition.
After the Civil War, Forty-Eighters supported improved labor laws and working conditions. They also advanced the country's cultural and intellectual development in such fields as education, the arts, medicine, journalism, and business.
- Notable German Forty-Eighters in the US
- Architects, engineers, scientists: Louis Burger, Adolf Cluss, Henry Flad
- Artists: Friedrich Girsch; Wilhelm Heine; Theodore Kaufman; Louis Prang; Henry Ulke; Adelbert John Volck
- Businessmen, investment bankers: Solomon Loeb, Abraham Kuhn founders of Kuhn, Loeb & Co.
- Generals in the American Civil War: Louis Blenker; Alexander Schimmelpfennig; Carl Schurz; Franz Sigel; Max Weber; August Willich; Frederick C. Salomon; Adolph von Steinwehr
- Journalists, writers, publishers: Mathilde Franziska Anneke; Gustav Bloede (see Marie Bloede); Rudolf Doehn; Carl Adolph Douai; Carl Daenzer; Bernard Domschke; Christian Esselen (editor of Atlantis); Julius Fröbel; Karl Peter Heinzen; Rudolf Lexow (founder of Belletristisches Journal); Niclas Müller; Reinhold Solger; Emil Praetorius; Oswald Ottendorfer; Friedrich Hassaurek; Theodor Olshausen; Hermann Raster; Wilhelm Rapp; Carl Heinrich Schnauffer; Kaspar Beetz; Carl Dilthey; F. Raine; Heinrich Börnstein; Charles L. Bernays; Emil Rothe; Eduard Leyh; George Schneider (who was also a banker); Albert Sigel; Franz Umbscheiden; Edward Morwitz (who was also a physician)
- Musicians: Charles Ansorge; Carl Bergmann; Otto Dresel; Herman Trost (band leader in Sherman's army who later settled in Lexington, Kentucky, where he conducted the first band at the University of Kentucky; friend of John Philip Sousa); Carl Zerrahn
- Physicians: Abraham Jacobi; Ferdinand Ludwig Herff; Herman Kiefer; Ernest Krackowizer; Hans Kudlich; Wilhelm Loewe, Gustav C. E. Weber
- Poets: Konrad Krez; Edmund Märklin; Rudolf Puchner
- Political activists: Lorenz Brentano (later a member of the Congress); Friedrich Hecker; Carl Schurz (later US Secretary of the Interior); Gustav von Struve; Wilhelm Weitling; Joseph Weydemeyer; Rudolf Dulon; Edward Salomon; Louis F. Schade
- Other: Margarethe Schurz (founder of the first kindergarten in the U.S.); Al Sieber (known as "Chief of the Scouts" in Arizona, who fought at Antietam, Fredericksburg, and Chancellorsville with Hecker, Schurz, and Sigel, and then in the Battle of Gettysburg); Joseph Spiegel (founder of the Spiegel Catalog); Hugo Wesendonck (founder of the Germania Life Insurance Company, now Guardian Life); Pauline Wunderlich (fought at the Dresden barricades); John Michael Maisch (father of adequate pharmaceutical legislation)
- Notable Czech Forty-Eighters in the US
- Prokup Hudek, one of the "Slavonic Artillerymen" of the 24th Illinois Infantry Regiment, and one of the co-founders of the Workingmen's Party of Illinois
- František Korbel, winegrower in Sonoma County, California
- Vojta Náprstek, Czech language publisher in Milwaukee
- Hans Balatka, Moravian musician in Milwaukee and Chicago
- Notable Hungarian Forty-Eighters in the US
- Alexander Asboth
- Michael Heilprin
- Phineas Mendel Heilprin
- Martin Koszta
- Lázár Mészáros
- Albin Francisco Schoepf
- Julius Stahel
- Edward R. Straznicky
- Charles Zagonyi
- Notable Irish Forty-Eighters in the US
- Thomas Francis Meagher
- John O'Mahony
- Lola Montez (she fled from Bavaria via Switzerland, France and England)
- Notable French Forty-Eighters in the US
- Victor Prosper Considerant (also in Belgium for a time)
- Notable Polish Forty-Eighters in the US
- Włodzimierz Krzyżanowski, Civil War general and engineer
Forty-Eighters in Europe
Ludwig Bamberger settled in Paris and worked in a bank from 1852 until the amnesty of 1866 allowed him to return to Germany. Carl Schurz was in France for a time before moving on to England. He stayed there with Adolf Strodtmann.
The following were all refugees from Germany:
- Friedrich Beust settled in Switzerland to work in early-childhood education. He lived and worked there until his death in 1899.
- Gottfried Kinkel moved to Switzerland in 1866 after living in England. He was a professor of archaeology and the history of art at the Polytechnikum in Zürich, where he died sixteen years later.
- Hermann Köchly first fled to Brussels in 1849. In 1851, he was appointed professor of classical philology at the University of Zürich. By 1864, he was back in Germany as a professor at the University of Heidelberg.
- Johannes Scherr, novelist and literary critic, fled to Switzerland and eventually became a professor at the Polytechnikum in Zurich.
- Richard Wagner, the composer, first fled to Paris and then settled in Zurich. He eventually returned to Germany.
Giuseppe Mazzini used London as a place of refuge before and after the revolutions of 1848. In the early years after the failure of the revolutions of 1848, a group of German Forty-Eighters and others met in a salon organized by Baroness Méry von Bruiningk in St. John's Wood, England. The baroness was a Russian of German descent who was sympathetic with the goals of the revolutionaries. Among the people who attended her salon, hosted by herself and her husband Ludolf August von Bruiningk, were Carl Schurz, Gottfried and Johanna Kinkel, Ferdinand Freiligrath, Alexander Herzen, Louis Blanc, Malwida von Meysenbug, Adolf Strodtmann, Johannes and Bertha Ronge, Alexander Schimmelfennig, Wilhelm Loewe-Kalbe and Heinrich Bernhard Oppenheim.
Carl Schurz reports “A large number of refugees from almost all parts of the European continent had gathered in London since the year 1848, but the intercourse between the different national groups – Germans, Frenchmen, Italians, Hungarians, Poles, Russians – was confined more or less to the prominent personages. All, however, in common nourished the confident hope of a revolutionary upturning on the continent soon to come. Among the Germans there were only a few who shared this hope in a less degree. Perhaps the ablest and most important person among these was Lothar Bucher, a quiet, retiring man of great capacity and acquirements, who occupied himself with serious political studies.”
Other Germans who fled to England for a time were Ludwig Bamberger, Arnold Ruge, Alexandre Ledru-Rollin and Franz Sigel. Along with several of the above, Sabine Freitag also lists Gustav Adolf Techow, Eduard Meyen, Graf Oskar von Reichenbach, Josef Fickler and Amand Goegg. Karl Blind became a writer in England.
Hungarian refugee Gustav Zerffi became an English citizen and worked as a historian in London. Lajos Kossuth, a Hungarian revolutionary, toured England and then the United States, and then formed a government in exile in England.
Forty-Eighters in Australia
In 1848, the first non-British ship carrying immigrants to arrive in Victoria was from Germany; the Goddefroy, on February 13. Many of those on board were political refugees. Some Germans also travelled to Australia via London.
- In April 1849 the Beulah was the first ship to bring assisted German vinedresser families to NSW.
- The second ship, the Parland left London on 13 March 1849, and arrived in Sydney on 5 July 1849
- The Princess Louise left Hamburg March 26 of 1849, in the spring, bound for South Australia via Rio de Janeiro. The voyage took 135 days which was considered slow but nevertheless the Princess Louise berthed at Port Adelaide on August 7, 1849 with 161 emigres, including Johann Friedrich Mosel. Johann, born in 1827 in Berlin in the duchy of Brandenburg had taken three weeks to travel from his home to the departure point of the 350 tonne vessel at Hamburg. This voyage had been well planned by two of the founding passengers, brothers Richard and Otto Schomburgk who had been implicated in the revolution. Otto had been jailed in 1847 for his activities as a student revolutionary. The brothers along with others including Frau von Kreussler and D. Meucke formed a migration group, the South Australian Colonisation Society, one of many similar groups forming throughout Germany at the time. Sponsored by the scientist geologist Leopold von Buch, the society chartered the Princess Louise to sail to South Australia. The passengers were mainly middle-class professionals, academics, musicians, artists, architects, engineers, artisans and apprentices, and were among the core of liberal radicals, disillusioned with events in Germany.
Many Germans became vintners or worked in the wine industry; others founded Lutheran churches. By 1860, for example, about 70 German families lived in Germantown, Victoria. (When World War I broke out, the town was renamed Grovedale.) In Adelaide, a German Club was founded in 1854 which played a major role in society.
- Notable Australian Forty-Eighters
- Carl Linger, the conductor and composer who wrote Song of Australia
- Dr Moritz Richard Schomburgk, later director of the Adelaide Botanical Gardens
- Hermann Büring, in the wine industry
- Friedrich Krichauff, Chairman of the Agricultural Bureau
- Karl Hermann Berendt, a German physician, emigrated to the United States and spent his time there and in Mesoamerica investigating Mayan linguistics
- Ferenc Pulszky, a Hungarian politician, who joined Kossuth on his tour of the United States and England, became involved in Italian revolutionary activities and was imprisoned, and then was pardoned and returned home in 1866
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Forty-Eighters.|
- Carl Wittke, Refugees of Revolution: The German Forty-Eighters in America, Philadelphia: Univ. of Penn. Press, 1952. at archive.org
- Christine Lattek, Revolutionary refugees: German socialism in Britain, 1840–1860, Routledge, 2006.
- Daniel Nagel, Von republikanischen Deutschen zu deutsch-amerikanischen Republikanern. Ein Beitrag zum Identitätswandel der deutschen Achtundvierziger in den Vereinigten Staaten 1850–1861. Röhrig: St. Ingbert 2012.
- "Forty-Eighters," Handbook of Texas Online.http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/pnf01
- "Carlos Anwandter", Icarito, retrieved August 30, 2013
- Scott Williams. "THE ROLE OF GERMAN IMMIGRANTS IN CIVIL WAR – MISSOURI". The Missouri Civil War Museum. Retrieved January 10, 2011.
- Charles Christopher Jackson: Austin County from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved December 23, 2008..
- Officer Down Memorial Page: Deputy Sheriff Thomas Higdon
- James F. Connelly (1960). The visit of Archbishop Gaetano Bedini to the United States of America: June 1853 – February 1854. Editrice Pontificia Università Gregoriana. p. 96ff. ISBN 88-7652-082-1. Retrieved 2010-10-25.
- Holzman, Hani M. The German forty-eighters and the socialists in Milwaukee: a social psychological study of assimilation 1948 University of Wisconsin thesis.
- Wilson, James Grant; Fiske, John, eds. (1900). "Burger, Louis". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton.
- "Girsch, Frederick". Dictionary of American Biography. IV, Part 1. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1959. pp. 322–3.
- "Solger, Reinhold". Dictionary of American Biography. IX, Part 1. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1963. pp. 392–3.
- H. A. Marmer (1960). "Hassaurek, Friedrich". Dictionary of American Biography. IV, Part 2. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 383–384.
- "Rapp, Wilhelm". American National Biography. New York: Oxford University Press. 1999.
- Adolf Edward Zucker (1963). "Schnauffer, Carl Heinrich". Dictionary of American Biography. VIII, Part 2. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 444–445.
- In The German Element in the United States (Boston: Houghton and Mifflin, 1909, Vol. II, Chapter VII, p. 369), Albert Bernhardt Faust gives the following list of 48er journalists: Carl Schurz, F. R. Hassaurek, Carl Heinzen, Friedrich Hecker, Christopher Esselen, Lorenz Brentano, Theodor Olshausen, Hermann Raster, Friedrich Kapp, Franz Sigel, Oswald Ottendorfer, Wilhelm Rapp, Kaspar Beetz, Friedrich Lexow, Carl Dilthey, Emil Praetorius, F. Raine, H. Börnstein, C. L. Bernays, Karl D. A. Douai, Emil Rothe and Eduard Leyh. He also notes: “There were strong men among the political refugees between 1818 and 1848 prominent in journalistic work, as Friedrich Münch (Missouri), J. A. Wagener (Charleston, South Carolina), H. A. Rattermann (Cincinnati). It must be conceded, however, that the great progress in German journalism in the United States came with the advent of the political refugees of 1848, and immediately thereafter. A large number of new journals were founded by these ‘forty-eighters,’ and as a rule they commanded a better German style and furnished a greater amount of desirable information in politics and literature. The presumption of the ‘forty-eighters’ in many cases offended the older class (of 1818–1848), and a journalistic warfare arose between the two parties (‘die Grauen’ and ‘die Grünen’). The result, however, was favorable to the cause of journalism, and the Grays and the Greens, as explained before, soon united in the great struggle against secession and slavery.”
- Wilson, James Grant; Fiske, John, eds. (1900). "Sigel, Franz". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton.
- Wilson, James Grant; Fiske, John, eds. (1892). "Krackowizer, Ernest". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton.
- Wilson, James Grant; Fiske, John, eds. (1889). "Weber, Gustav C. E.". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton.; "Weber, Gustav Carl Erich". Dictionary of American Biography. X, Part 1. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1964. pp. 581–2.
- "Krez, Konrad". Dictionary of American Biography. V, Part 2. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1961. pp. 505–6.
- Anarchy and Anarchist: A history of the red terror and the social revolution in America and Europe by Michael J Schaack, 1889
- Wittke (1952), pp. 89–90.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bamberger, Ludwig". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- See Chapter XII of Volume One of his Reminiscences.
- Karl Wipperman (1887), "Oppenheim, Heinrich Bernhard", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB) (in German) 24, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 396–399
- Carl Schurz. Reminiscences. Vol. 1, Chap. 13.
- Hermann Baron Bruiningk, Das Geschlecht von Bruiningk in Livland, Riga: N. Kymmels, 1913, table of contents.
- Carl Schurz. Reminiscences. Vol. 1, Chap. 13, p. 371.
- Sabine Freitag, German Historical Institute in London, Exiles from European revolutions: refugees in mid-Victorian England, Berghahn Books, 2003.
- recruited by Wilhelm Kirchner, who published Australien und seine Vortheile fur Auswanderer in Frankfurt in 1848
- http://www.geocities.com/SoHo/Workshop/2299/parland1849.html:departure[dead link] date given as May
- The Board's List, reel 2459, GRK; fiche 851, Germans on Bounty Ships, GRK.