Forward caste

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Forward caste (also known as Forward Class, Forward Community, and General Class) is a term used in India to denote groups of people who do not qualify for any of the positive discrimination schemes operated by the government of India. These schemes are known as Reservation Benefits. Those groups who qualify are listed as Other Backward castes or Scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, and they can take advantage of defined quotas amongst other benefits for education, tax benefits, special government schemes, government employment and political representation. The lists of Forward, Other Backward and Scheduled castes, and Scheduled tribes are compiled irrespective of religion.[1][2][3] The lists are subject to change from time to time, dependent upon social, educational and economic factors. However, although lists are produced for those groups entitled to take advantage of the quotas, there is no such list for the forward caste group; if a person does not belong to any of the listed groups then that person is by default a member of a group classed as forward caste.[citation needed]

Status of reservation quotas in various states of India[edit]

The table below gives the proportion of the households belonging to various reserved categories in the total population as per the NFHS 2007 survey conducted by the Government of India.[4][full citation needed]

State GEN OBC SC ST OTH / NA
AP 16% 59% 18% 7% 0%
Arunachal 15% 5% 6% 72% 2%
Assam 20% 52% 13% 10% 5%
Bihar 12% 69% 19% 1% 0%
Chhattisgarh 11% 45% 14% 30% 0%
Delhi 57% 24% 17% 1% 1%
Goa 80% 7% 5% 5% 3%
Gujarat 25% 49% 15% 11% 0%
HP 31% 44% 20% 5% 0%
Haryana 22% 53% 25% 0% 0%
J&K 78% 5% 8% 9% 0%
Jharkhand 16% 45% 11% 28% 0%
Karnataka 18% 54% 15% 6% 7%
Kerala 36% 51% 11% 2% 0%
MP 21% 40% 18% 21% 0%
Maharashtra 27% 46% 16% 11% 0%
Manipur 25% 12% 7% 56% 0%
Meghalaya 9% 3% 7% 81% 0%
Mizoram 3% 1% 1% 95% 0%
Nagaland 8% 14% 5% 73% 0%
Orissa 20% 37% 20% 23% 0%
Punjab 48% 10% 42% 0% 0%
Rajastan 20% 47% 19% 14% 0%
Sikkim 14% 41% 9% 36% 0%
Tamil Nadu 13% 67% 19% 1% 0%
Tripura 19% 21% 23% 37% 0%
Uttarakhand 22% 55% 21% 3% 0%
UP 14% 60% 25% 1% 0%
WB 14% 47% 22% 6% 0%

Economic and educational status[edit]

The Government of India does not collect community census data except for SC/ST. Economic and educational level of various social groups are gauged using large-sample surveys. The National Sample Survey taken in 1999–2000 and the National Family Health Survey taken in 2005-2006 (or perhaps an earlier round of the NFHS)[clarification needed] estimated economic, educational, and health indicators of various communities. These surveys were used extensively in the report submitted by the oversight committee.[5]

As of 2007, forward castes had to compete only in the open category, as they are considered socially, educationally, and economically advanced. At that time the reservation proportion stood at 50% in central-government educational institutions and central-government jobs. However, in certain states, such as Tamil Nadu, the reservation percentage was around 69%.[6]

Reservation for economically backward among forward castes[edit]

Currently forward castes are only allowed to compete for seats in the unreserved category in educational institutions and central government jobs, irrespective of their educational/economical status in the society. However, a significant percentage of the Forward caste population lives below the poverty line and more than 30% of the members of this community are illiterate. To meet their aspirations, demands have been raised for providing separate reservations for the poor among Forward caste populations. Many political parties like BJP, Samajwadi Party, LJP, Rastriya Janata Dal, Communist Party of India (Marxist), Bahujan Samaj Party[7][8][9][10] have supported proposals for providing separate reservation for the poor among the forward castes. These parties account for over 400 of the 542 members in the current parliament, as well as holding power in most states in the union.

Indian Government surveys have pointed out that poverty is widespread in all communities. Indian definition of poverty is living life with less than about US$0.25/day. Whereas the United Nations (UN) definition of poverty is living life with less than US$1/day.[11] More than 65% of "forward castes" will be living below poverty line if UN poverty definition is considered.[citation needed]

Timeline[edit]

  • 1991: Congress government headed by Narasimha Rao introduced 10% separate reservation for poor among forward castes.
  • 1992: The Supreme Court has ruled in the Indra Sawhney case that separate reservation for poor among forward castes as invalid. Government has withdrawn separate reservation as per supreme court judgement. (Many other verdicts given in same case has been overruled by constitutional amendments like quota in promotions, exceeding 50% reservations for Tamil Nadu, judgement regarding creamy layer in the same case was not implemented by Tamil Nadu so far.)
  • 2003: BJP government appointed a group of Ministers for suggesting measures for implementation of separate reservation for poor among forward castes.[12]
  • 2004: Task force has been set up to work out modalities for providing reservations to Poor among forward castes. No information available regarding report submitted by this task force.[13]
  • 2006: Present Congress Government appointed commission to study separate reservation for economically backward castes.[14]
  • 2006: Communist government in Kerala earmarked 12% seats in private professional colleges for economically poor among forward castes.[15]

Many backward caste leaders allege forward castes are over represented in many spheres of life. State and central governments have not released adequate data regarding representation of various communities in their services and admissions to educational institutions. Most of the private companies in India do not collect data regarding community of their employees. Very few reports are available regarding representation of various communities in public–private services and admissions in educational institutions.

  • In Tamil Nadu forward castes have secured around 1.9% of seats in medical colleges in 2004 and 2.68% seats in 2005 as against their population percentage of 13%.See Also caste-Based Reservations In Tamil Nadu. This trend of poor representation has continued for the last 10 years as claimed by lawyers in one of the Reservation cases.[16]
    • Narendra committee report in Kerala has pointed out that forward castes representation in public services and PSU units is around 36 to 38% which is more or less equal to their population.[17]
    • Karnataka Minister in state Assembly has announced that per capita income of the Brahmins is lesser than all communities including scheduled castes and scheduled tribes.[18]
    • Oversight committee in its final report has indicated that forward castes are placed better than backward castes in some indicators and comparable with backward castes in few indicators and backward castes are superior in some parameters like health indicators in states like Assam, Maharastra, Haryana, West Bengal, etc.[19]
    • National Survey 99-00 indicates that forward castes are better placed than SC/ST in almost all parameters. However, in rural unemployment, forward castes score worse than all other communities.
    • Recently released Provisional report of National Survey 04-05 states that Buying capacity of Backward castes in rural and urban areas are comparable to forward castes. It also revises Backward castes figure as 41%. It also states that Landownership of Backward castes are comparable to Forward castes. It reiterates its earlier finding (in 99-00 survey) that forward castes are poorly employed (more unemployment).[20]
Rural landholding pattern of various social groups calculated by National Sample Survey 99-00 indicate that OBC and forward castes are comparable in wealth
    • National surveys used rural landholding pattern to assess wealthiness of various social groups. Its findings indicate that OBC and FC are comparable and there is a very minor difference between them. There is a big difference between OBC/FC and SC. Even Scheduled Tribes are placed better than Scheduled castes. Experts who analysed national survey results point out that other backward castes are near average in many parameters. Please refer chart.[21]

Shrinking educational opportunities[edit]

During April 2006, India’s Human Resource Minister announced that 27% seats will be reserved exclusively for candidates from Other Backward castes in addition to existing 22.5% reservation for Scheduled castes and Scheduled Tribes.[22]

The implementation of OBC reservation meant that 50% of seats are available in open competition. All communities can compete in open competition which means forward castes must secure between 72% and 78% of the 'open competition' seats in order to maintain their representation in keeping with their estimated population of 36-39%, whereas other communities will get major chunk of seats through exclusive reservations. This has resulted in protests from Forward caste community members and supporters from other communities under the banner of Youth for Equality. and by All India Anti Reservation Front. They have pointed out following as reasons for their protests:

  • The Government has implemented reservations for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes for the last 60 years, however the social and economic situation of these groups has not shown much improvement.
  • Any difference between proportion of different communities in Higher educational institutions is mainly because of difference in primary school enrolment. (This fact was also confirmed in National sample surveys and pointed out by Oversight committee in its final report). Government should attack the cause instead of providing reservation at higher education level.
  • Already 24% of college seats are with Other backward castes. Providing another 27% seats will deprive chances of forward castes.
Certain Indian states have forward caste populations of more than 50% or close to 50%. In some of these states, the percentage of forward castes admitted in educational institutions will be much less than their population percentage even if they secure all the seats in open competition.)

Many states do not have 27% of other backward caste population, as per national sample surveys. (This includes major Indian states like Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Goa, Maharashtra, Punjab, West Bengal). Some Indian states like Assam, Goa, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, has more than 50% forward castes population, which means the number of seats secured by forward castes will not be equal to their population proportion even if they secure 100% seats in open competition in central government institutions of these states. Central government, however, excluded 27% reservations to other backward castes to the areas with high tribal populations.[23]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ caste in question: identity or ... - Google Books
  2. ^ Rural banking in India: an empirical ... - Google Books
  3. ^ Social development and demographic ... - Google Books
  4. ^ National Family Health Survey
  5. ^ MOSPI.NIC.IN[dead link]
  6. ^ Tamil Nadu's quota stir an assertion of its 69 percent? (NEWS ANALYSIS) - India
  7. ^ ExspressIndia.com Link 01[dead link]
  8. ^ ExpressIndia.com Link 02
  9. ^ The Hindu : National : Paswan for quota for economically backward
  10. ^ The Hindu : Cong. for 'quota' for poor among forward castes
  11. ^ India Watch :: Poverty Line
  12. ^ The Hindu : GoM to study quota for poor among forward castes
  13. ^ The Hindu Business Line : Jobs for economically backward classes: 4-member commission set up
  14. ^ The Hindu : New Delhi News : Commission for economically backward classes constituted
  15. ^ The Kerala Professional Colleges Bill And Social Justice
  16. ^ "TN Act on reservation under 9th schedule illegal". The Hindu. 31 October 2006. Archived from the original on 2008-05-23. 
  17. ^ League locks horns with upper castes, The Milli Gazette, Vol.5 No.15, MG109 (1-15 Aug 04)
  18. ^ Are Brahmins the Dalits of today?
  19. ^ FINAL OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE -3.10.2006.doc
  20. ^ http://www.hindustantimes.com/news/181_1833012,0008.htm[dead link]
  21. ^ http://www.business-standard.com/common/storypage.php?autono=264481&leftnm=4&subLeft=0&chkFlg=[dead link]
  22. ^ The Hindu : Front Page : Quota for OBCs: "No escape for Government"
  23. ^ Reserve 27% seats for OBCs in 3 years: Bill - Rediff.com India News

Further reading[edit]

India- Caste and Class