Founders of statistics
Statistics is the theory and application of mathematics to the scientific method including hypothesis generation, experimental design, sampling, data collection, data summarization, estimation, prediction and inference from those results to the population from which the experimental sample was drawn. This article lists statisticians who have been instrumental in the development of theoretical and applied statistics.
Founders of statistics
|Al-Kindi||Iraqi||801||873||Developed the first code breaking algorithm based on frequency analysis. He wrote a book entitled "Manuscript on Deciphering Cryptographic Messages", containing detailed discussions on statistics|||
|Graunt, John||English||1620||1674||Pioneer of demography who produced the first life table|||
|Bayes, Thomas||English||1702||1761||Developed the interpretation of probability now known as Bayes theorem|||
|Laplace, Pierre-Simon||French||1749||1827||Co-invented Bayesian statistics. Invented exponential families (Laplace transform), conjugate prior distributions, asymptotic analysis of estimators (including negligibility of regular priors). Used maximum-likelihood and posterior-mode estimation and considered (robust) loss functions|
|Playfair, William||Scottish||1759||1823||Pioneer of statistical graphics|
|Gauss, Carl Friedrich||German||1777||1855||Invented least squares estimation methods (with Legendre). Used loss functions and maximum-likelihood estimation|
|Quetelet, Adolphe||Belgian||1796||1874||Pioneered the use of probability and statistics in the social sciences|
|Nightingale, Florence||English||1820||1910||Applied statistical analysis to health problems, contributing to the establishment of epidemiology and public health practice. Developed statistical graphics especially for mobilizing public opinion. First female member of the Royal Statistical Society.|
|Galton, Francis||English||1822||1911||Invented the concepts of standard deviation, correlation, regression|||
|Thiele, Thorvald N.||Danish||1838||1910||Introduced cumulants and the term "likelihood". Introduced a Kalman filter in time-series|
|Peirce, Charles Sanders||American||1839||1914||Formulated modern statistics in "Illustrations of the Logic of Science" (1877–1878) and "A Theory of Probable Inference" (1883). With a repeated measures design, introduced blinded, controlled randomized experiments (before Fisher). Invented optimal design for experiments on gravity, in which he "corrected the means". He used correlation, smoothing, and improved the treatment of outliers. Introduced terms "confidence" and "likelihood" (before Neyman and Fisher). While largely a frequentist, Peirce's possible world semantics introduced the "propensity" theory of probability. See the historical books of Stephen Stigler|
|Edgeworth, Francis Ysidro||Irish||1845||1926||Revived exponential families (Laplace transforms) in statistics. Extended Laplace's (asymptotic) theory of maximum-likelihood estimation. Introduced basic results on information, which were extended and popularized by R. A. Fisher|
|Pearson, Karl||English||1857||1936||Numerous innovations, including the development of the Pearson chi-squared test and the Pearson correlation. Founded the Biometrical Society and Biometrika, the first journal of mathematical statistics and biometry|||
|Spearman, Charles||English||1863||1945||Extended the Pearson correlation coefficient to the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient|||
|Gosset, William Sealy (known as "Student")||English||1876||1937||Discovered the Student t distribution and invented the Student's t-test|||
|Fisher, Ronald||English||1890||1962||Wrote the textbooks and articles that defined the academic discipline of statistics, inspiring the creation of statistics departments at universities throughout the world. Systematized previous results with informative terminology, substantially improving previous results with mathematical analysis (and claims). Developed the analysis of variance, clarified the method of maximum likelihood (without the uniform priors appearing in some previous versions), invented the concept of sufficient statistics, developed Edgeworth's use of exponential families and information, introducing observed Fisher information, and many theoretical concepts and practical methods, particularly for the design of experiments|||
|Bonferroni, Carlo Emilio||Italian||1892||1960||Invented the Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons|
|Wilcoxon, Frank||Irish-American||1892||1965||Invented two statistical tests: Wilcoxon rank-sum test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test|
|Neyman, Jerzy||Polish-American||1894||1981||Discovered the confidence interval and co-developed the Neyman–Pearson lemma|||
|Deming, W. Edwards||American||1900||1993||Developed methods for statistical quality control|||
|Pearson, Egon||English||1895||1980||Co-developed the Neyman–Pearson lemma of statistical hypothesis testing|||
|Finetti, Bruno de||Italian||1906||1985||Pioneer of the "operational subjective" conception of probability. Used this as the basis for exposition of the Bayesian method of statistical analysis. Developed the representation theorem for exchangeable random variables showing that they are the basis of the IID model in statistics.|
|Kendall, Maurice||English||1907||1983||Co-developed methods for assessing statistical randomness; invented Kendall tau rank correlation coefficient|
|Tukey, John||American||1915||2000||Jointly popularized Fast Fourier transformation, pioneer of exploratory data analysis and graphical presentation of data, developed the jackknife for variance estimation, invented the box plot.|||
|Blackwell, David||American||1919||2010||Co-developed Rao-Blackwell theorem and wrote one of the first Bayesian textbooks, Basic Statistics.|||
|Rao, Calyampudi Radhakrishna||Indian||1920||Co-developed Cramér–Rao bound and Rao–Blackwell theorem, invented MINQUE method of variance component estimation.|||
|Cox, David||English||1924||Developed the proportional hazards model for the analysis of survival data|||
|Efron, Bradley||American||1938||Invented the bootstrap resampling technique for deriving an empirical distribution of an estimate of a model parameter|||
Founders of departments of statistics
The role of a department of statistics is discussed in a 1949 article by Harold Hotelling, which helped to spur the creation of many departments of statistics in the United States.
- List of statisticians
- History of statistics
- Timeline of probability and statistics
- Fathers of scientific fields
- Singh, Simon (2000). The code book : the science of secrecy from ancient Egypt to quantum cryptography (1st Anchor Books ed. ed.). New York: Anchor Books. ISBN 0-385-49532-3.
- Willcox, Walter (1938) The Founder of Statistics. Review of the International Statistical Institute 5(4):321–328.
- "Thomas Bayes". Figures from the History of Probability and Statistics. University of Southampton.
- "Francis Galton". Figures from the History of Probability and Statistics. University of Southampton.
- "Sir Francis Galton F.R.S: 1822–1911".
- "Pearson, Karl". Statisticians in History. American Statistical Association.
- "Karl Pearson (1857 - 1936)". Department of Statistical Science – University College London.
- "Karl Pearson". School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews. 2003.
- John Aldrich (2008). "Karl Pearson: A Reader’s Guide". University of Southampton.
- Williams, RH, Zimmerman, DW, Zumbo, BD & Ross, D (2003). "Charles Spearman: British Behavioral Scientist". Human Nature Review. 3: 114–118.
- "William Sealy Gosset". Figures from the History of Probability and Statistics. University of Southampton.
- "Fisher, R.A.". Statisticians in History. American Statistical Association.
- "R.A. Fisher". Figures from the History of Probability and Statistics. University of Southampton.
- "A Guide to R. A. Fisher".
- "Neyman, Jerzy". Statisticians in History. American Statistical Association.
- "Deming, W. Edwards". Statisticians in History. American Statistical Association.
- "Pearson, Egon S.". Statisticians in History. American Statistical Association.
- Mccullagh, Peter (2003). "John Wilder Tukey. 16 June 1915 – 26 July 2000" (pdf). Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society (1955–2000) 49: 537. doi:10.1098/rsbm.2003.0032.
- William Grimes (July 17, 2010). "David Blackwell, Scholar of Probability, Dies at 91". New York Times. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
His “Basic Statistics” (1969) was one of the first textbooks on Bayesian statistics, which assess the uncertainty of future outcomes by incorporating new evidence as it arises, rather than relying on historical data. He also wrote numerous papers on multistage decision-making.
- Degroot, Morris H. (1987). "A Conversation with C. R. Rao". Statistical Science 2: 53. doi:10.1214/ss/1177013438.
- Rao, Calyampudi R. Statisticians in History (American Statistical Association).
- Wermuth, Nanny; Anthony C. Davison; Dodge, Yadolah (2005). Celebrating Statistics: Papers in honour of Sir David Cox on his 80th birthday (Oxford Statistical Science Series). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-856654-9. OCLC 185035518.
- Casella, George (2003). "Introduction to the Silver Anniversary of the Bootstrap". Statistical Science 18 (2): 133. doi:10.1214/ss/1063994967.
- Harold Hotelling (1988). "Golden Oldies: Classic Articles from the World of Statistics and Probability: 'The Place of Statistics in the University'". Statistical Science 3 (1): 72–83. doi:10.1214/ss/1177013002.
- Rohde, C., Zeger, S.L., Thomas, K.K., Bandeen-Roche, K. (2012). Johns Hopkins University Department of Biostatistics. In Strength in Numbers: The Rising of Academic Statistics Departments in the U. S. (Eds. Agresti and Meng). New York: Springer Science+Business Media. pp. 129–141. ISBN 978-1-4614-3648-5.
- Ghosh, JK (1994). "Mahalanobis and the Art and Science of Statistics: The Early Days". Indian Journal of History of Science 29 (1): 90.
- Hotelling, Harold. American Statistical Association Statisticians in History.
- Kempthorne Oscar (1974). "George W. Snedecor". International Statistical Review 42: 319–321.
- David, H. A. (1998). "Statistics in U.S. Universities in 1933 and the establishment of the Statistical Laboratory at Iowa State". Statistical Science 13: 66. doi:10.1214/ss/1028905974.
- "Cox, Gertrude M.". Statisticians in History. American Statistical Association.
- Herman Wold was appointed Professor of Statistics at Uppsala University in 1942. Already, in 1928, a Swedish Doctor of Philosophy ("Filosofisk Doktorsgrad") was awarded (to P. George Winsler); in 1910, a Professor's Chair in "Statistics" was created.
- This position was the second chair of mathematical statistics in the United Kingdom, but there was no formal Department of Statistics at the University of Manchester.
- Whittle, Peter (2004). "Maurice Stevenson Bartlett. 18 June 1910 – 8 January 2002" (pdf). Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society 50: 15–33. doi:10.1098/rsbm.2004.0002.
- "Department of Biological Statistics and Computational Biology: History". Cornell University.
- A. S. Hedayat (2005). "A Conversation with Walter T. Federer". Statistical Science 20 (3): 302–315. doi:10.1214/088342305000000142.
- Susan S. Lang (18 April 2008), Walter T. Federer, father of Cornell's statistics department, dies at 92, Cornell Chronicle
- Stephen M. Stigler (1999). "The Foundations of Statistics at Stanford". The American Statistician 53.
- Dixit, Ulhas J.; Satam, Meena R. (1999). Dedicated to MC Chakrabarti, Book (Papers) - Statistical Inference and Design of Experiments. Narosa Publishing House. ISBN 978-81-7319-281-4.
- "UNC School of Public Health – School history". 2008.
- Stephen M. Stigler. "About the Department of Statistics, University of Chicago".
- Whittle, Peter (2003). "A Realised Path: The Cambridge Statistical Laboratory".
- "1953-1960". University of Pune.
- E. L. Lehmann (1996). "The Creation and Early History of the Berkeley Statistics Department" (pdf). Statistics, Probability and Game Theory. Institute of Mathematical Statistics Lecture Notes – Monograph Series 30: 139–146. doi:10.1214/lnms/1215453570. ISBN 0-940600-42-0.
- "Cochran, William G.". American Statistical Association Statisticians in History.
- Mosteller, Frederick. American Statistical Association Statisticians in History.
- "Obituary: Emeritus Professor Henry Oliver Lancaster, AO FAA". The University of Sydney News. 2002.
- History, Department of Statistics. Texas A&M University.
- Wolfgang Saxon (25 October 2001). "Francis John Anscombe, 83, Mathematician and Professor". New York Times.
- Barbara (Amato) Kuslan (2002). "The History of the Yale University Department of Statistics 1963–2000".
- Alexander Leitch (1978). "Statistics". A Princeton Companion. Princeton University Press.
- David Leonhardt (28 July 2000). "John Tukey, 85, Statistician; Coined the Word 'Software'". New York Times. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- Randles, Ronald Herman (2007). "A Conversation with Robert V. Hogg". Statistical Science 22 (1): 137–152. doi:10.1214/088342306000000637.
- Department of Statistics Celebrates its 40th Birthday. University of Glasgow. 2006.
- "OSU Oral History Interview with D. Ransom Whitney – University Archives".
- "University of Toronto Department of Statistics: About Us".
- "Vice-Chancellor's Report August 1982-July 1985, p.5".
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- "Brief History of the Establishment of Statistics at Oxford".
- "Frank E. Harrell, Jr., Ph.D. – Vanderbilt Kennedy Center People".
- "Statisticians in History". American Statistical Association.
- "Life and Work of Statisticians". Department of Mathematics, University of York.
- "Portraits of Statisticians". Department of Mathematics, University of York.
- John Aldrich. "Figures from the History of Probability and Statistics". University of Southampton.
- Lawrence H. Riddle. "Biographies of Women Mathematicians". Agnes Scott College.
- StatProb – peer-reviewed encyclopedia sponsored by statistics and probability societies