List of Pakistan Movement activists

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A subset of Founding Fathers of Pakistan met in Lahore in 1940 to discuss the idea of Pakistan.

The Founders and activists of the Pakistan Movement, also known as Founding Fathers of Pakistan, were the political leaders and statespersons who participated in the success of the political movement, following the signing of the Pakistan Resolution, that led the establishment and creation of Pakistan on August 1947.[1] Within this large group, a further and extended subset signed the signed the Objectives Resolution that was annexed to the Constitution of Pakistan in 1950.[2]

The term was first used by the linguist and archeologist dr. Ahmad Hasan Dani's book, the Founding Fathers of Pakistan (1998), which popularized the term in literary activities of the country.[3] The Pakistan Movement was led by a large group of activists and statesmen who played crucial role in the politics of the British Indian Empire in 1930s and 1940s.[3] More recently, the term was used by the government officially in explaining the foreign policy text.[4] Authors and historians of Pakistan more broadly define the term "Founding Fathers" to mean a larger group which also includes all those who, whether as politicians, jurists, statesperson, soldiers, diplomats, academicians, or ordinary citizens, took part in winning the independence of four provinces in the north-west region of British India from the control of the United Kingdom and also from the influence of the Indian Congress;[1][5][6][7] this creating Pakistan.[1]

The following is a list of notable people who played a prominent role in the Pakistan Movement as independence activists, leaders, freedom fighters or revolutionaries.

Historical background[edit]

All-India Muslim League's convention held in 1938.

In 1905, the Bengal presidency's partition was decided by the English government which was supported by the Muslims communities.[8] The success of the Swadeshi movement led by Indian activists led the reintegrating the presidency and it was a catalyst in making the Muslims reformers of India realize the need for a separate homeland.[8]

During the same year, the political efforts and initiations led by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan led the establishment of the historic All-India Muslim League (AIML) to protect the interests and rights of the Muslim regions in the subcontinent.[9] Mutual distrust among the Hindu leaders and Muslim reformers further grew.[10] A conference held as well as chaired by Indian Viceroy, Early Minto, the Hindu-Muslim conflict was raised to the constitutional plane.[10] In 1906, an annual meeting of Muhammadan Educational Conference was held by Nawab Vikar-ul-Mulk, Syed Ahmad Khan, and 3,000 other delegatesattended the session making it the largest-ever representative gathering of Muslim India.[11] Muslim cleric Ali Johar wrote All-India Muslim League's first agenda and Syed Ameer Ali established its European branch in the United Kingdom.[11]

For some quiet time, the Muslim League worked on its reputation and credibility against the much influential Indian Congress. It was not until when Liaquat Ali Khan and his companion Shrene Pant convinced Muhammad Ali Jinnah and among others to join the Muslim League in 1930s. The philosophical idea, Pakistan (Iqbal, 1930); the 14 points (Jinnah, 1929); the Now or Never (Ali, 1933); the Two-nation theory which was subsequently contributed and worked by many activists and leaders played a crucial role in gaining the creation of Pakistan in 1947.[12]

The newly founded country of Pakistan had to create a government and legislature to replace the British India government and the British Parliament.[13] The founding fathers of Pakistan first established the partial Constituent Assembly (which was replaced with Parliament), and adopted the Objectives Resolution was annexed to the Constitution of Pakistan.[13]

Occupations and finances[edit]

The founding fathers and activists as well had different occupations and practiced a wide range of high and middle-status occupations, and many pursued more than one career simultaneously.[14] However, the more influential founding fathers were trained and professional barristers and lawyers.[14] Notable activist, Sir Dr. Ziauddin Ahmed, was a mathematician who helped forming in the first educational policy of the country.[14] Woman activist, Ra'ana Ali Khan was an economist; Jahanara Shahnawaz was an sociologist; and Abu Bakr Ahmad, a political scientist; M.M. Sharif, a philosopher; and Shaukat Hyatt Khan, an officer in the British Army, are the quiet few notable personalities who played an integrated role in the movement.[14]

List of Founders of Pakistan[edit]

Notable activists[edit]

The activities and constant public gathering of founding fathers of Pakistan attracted the people of the North-West India to be politically active in the movement. Many of the activists would later becoming the future leader of the country.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Cohen, Stephen P. (2004). The idea of Pakistan (1. paperback ed.). Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 0815715021. 
  2. ^ Akhtar, PAF, Air Marshal Masood (28 October 2011). "Six Suggested Founding Fathers' Vision Documents for Pakistan... II". Pakistan Tribune. 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2014. 
  3. ^ a b Dani, edited by Ahmad Hasan (1998). Founding fathers of Pakistan. Lahore: Sang-e-Meel Publications. ISBN 9693508300. 
  4. ^ Staff editors. "Guiding Principles of Pakistan’s Foreign Policy". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MoFA). Retrieved 30 January 2014. 
  5. ^ Hasnat, Syed Farooq (2011). Pakistan. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Praeger. ISBN 978-0-313-34697-2. 
  6. ^ Chitkara, M.G. (1996). Nuclear Pakistan. New Delhi: A.P.H. Pub. Corp. ISBN 8170247675. 
  7. ^ Pande, Aparna (2008). Explaining Pakistan: Escaping India. New Delhi India: Routledge. ISBN 1136818944. 
  8. ^ a b Administrators, et al. (1 June 2003). "Partition of Bengal". Nazaria-e-Pakistan. Story of Pakistan (Pre-Independence, part-I). Retrieved 1 February 2014. 
  9. ^ Abdul Rashid Kahn, "All India Muhammadan Educational Conference and the Foundation of the All India Muslim League," Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society (2007) Vol. 55 Issue 1/2, pp 65-83.
  10. ^ a b staff. et al. (1 June 2003). "Simla Deputation". Nazaria-e-Pakistan. Nazaria-e-Pakistan (Story of Pakistan, Simla Deputation). Retrieved 1 February 2014. 
  11. ^ a b Staff. "Establishment of All India Muslim League". Nazaria-e-Pakistan Trust (AIML). Retrieved 1 February 2014. 
  12. ^ Staff. "The Struggle for Independence". Nazaria-Pakistan Trust (Independence timeline). Retrieved 1 February 2014. 
  13. ^ a b et al. (1 January 2007). "The Constituent Assembly". Nazaria Pakistan, (Post-Independence, part I). Retrieved 1 February 2014. 
  14. ^ a b c d Ekbal, Nikhat (2009). Great Muslims of undivided India. Delhi: Kalpaz Publications. ISBN 8178357569.