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A popular four-handed chessboard and initial setup
Abstract strategy game
|Skill(s) required||Strategy, tactics|
Four-handed chess (also known as Four-player, Four-man, or Four-way chess) is a chess variant, which is typically played with four people. It is played on a special board, which is made of standard 8×8 board with an additional 3 rows of 8 cells extending from each side. Four sets of different colored pieces are needed to play this game. Four way chess follows the same basic rules as regular two way chess. There are many different rule variations of this game. Most variants, however, share the same board and similar piece setup.
The Cox-Forbes theory of the origin of chess asserts that a four-handed version was the earliest form of the game. This theory has long since been debunked, but a description of a four-handed chess game is found in an Indian text written c. 1500. The Tithitattva of Raghunandana describes such a version, which continued to be played into the 20th century.
The most common form of play is two vs. two in which allied pieces cannot eliminate each other, but help the others in defense and offense. The allied players sit across from each other and help checkmate the people to the left and right of them. The game is over when both opposing kings are checkmated. If only one can be checkmated, the game is a draw.
Singles is substantially harder than team play. In this method, each player can attack any of the other three players and vice versa. Once a player is checkmated, the checkmated player can either remove their pieces from the board, or the person that checkmated can use the remaining pieces during his/her turn. Play continues until only one player is left.
- Players can only move their chess pieces on their turn.
- If a player is placed in check, that player must wait until their designated turn before that player can respond to the threat.
- Pawns move forward only, unless attacking in a diagonal forward manner.
- In the event a pawn reaches the King's row to the left, right or directly across, that pawn shall receive all the privileges of a pawn reaching King's row during a traditional chess game (i.e. promoting to a queen (most commonly), a rook, a bishop, or a knight).
- It is illegal for two or more of the players to team up (by combining their pieces) against one, unless stated before the game starts/ unless the game is team based.
- Partlett, David, The Oxford history of board games, Oxford University Press, 1999, p.281.
- "4 Player Chess". BoardGameGeek. Retrieved 29 September 2012.