The Four Freedoms were goals articulated by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt on January 6, 1941. In an address known as the Four Freedoms speech (technically the 1941 State of the Union address), he proposed four fundamental freedoms that people "everywhere in the world" ought to enjoy:
Roosevelt delivered his speech 11 months before the United States declared war on Japan, December 8, 1941. The State of the Union speech before Congress was largely about the national security of the United States and the threat to other democracies from world war that was being waged across the continents in the eastern hemisphere. In the speech, he made a break with the tradition of United States non-interventionism that had long been held in the United States. He outlined the U.S. role in helping allies already engaged in warfare.
In that context, he summarized the values of democracy behind the bipartisan consensus on international involvement that existed at the time. A famous quote from the speech prefaces those values: "As men do not live by bread alone, they do not fight by armaments alone." In the second half of the speech, he lists the benefits of democracy, which includes economic opportunity, employment, social security, and the promise of "adequate health care". The first two freedoms of speech and religion are protected by the First Amendment in the United States Constitution. His inclusion of the latter two freedoms went beyond the traditional Constitutional values protected by the U.S. Bill of Rights. Roosevelt endorsed a broader human right to economic security and anticipated what would become known decades later as the "human security" paradigm in social science and economic development. He also included the "freedom from fear" against national aggression before the idea of a United Nations for this protection was envisioned or discussed by world leaders and allied nations.
Historical Context of the Four Freedoms Speech 
With the end of World War I (1914–18), the United States adopted a policy of isolationism and non-interventionism, having refused to endorse the Versailles Treaty (1919) or formally enter the League of Nations. Many Americans remembered the horrors of the Great War and, believing that their involvement in WWI had been a mistake, were adamantly against continued intervention in European affairs. With the Neutrality Acts established after 1935, U.S. law banned the sale of armaments to countries that were at war and placed restrictions on travel with belligerent vessels.
When World War II began in 1939 with Germany’s invasion of Poland, the United States was still committed to its non-interventionist ideals. Though Roosevelt, and a large segment of the population, supported the Allied cause, neutrality laws and a very strong isolationist element within Congress ensured that no substantial support could be given. With the revision of the Neutrality Act in 1939, Roosevelt adopted a “methods-short-of-war policy” whereby supplies and armaments could be given to European Allies, provided no declaration of war could be made and no troops committed. By December 1940, Europe was largely at the mercy of Adolf Hitler and Germany’s Nazi regime. With Germany’s defeat of France in June 1940, Britain stood virtually alone against the military alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan. Winston Churchill, as Prime Minister of Britain, called for Roosevelt and the United States to supply them with armaments in order to continue with the war effort.
The Declarations 
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The Four Freedoms Speech was given on January 6, 1941. Roosevelt’s hope was to provide a rationale for why the United States should abandon the isolationist policies that emerged out of WWI. The speech coincided with the introduction of the Lend-Lease Bill, which promoted Roosevelt’s plan to become the “arsenal of democracy” and support the Allies (mainly the British) with much-needed supplies. Furthermore, the speech established what would become the ideological basis for America’s involvement in WWII, all framed in terms of individual rights and liberties that are the hallmark of American politics.
The speech delivered by President Roosevelt incorporated the following
"In the future days, which we seek to make secure, we look forward to a world founded upon four essential human freedoms. The first is freedom of speech and expression—everywhere in the world. The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his own way—everywhere in the world. The third is freedom from want—which, translated into world terms, means economic understandings which will secure to every nation a healthy peacetime life for its inhabitants—everywhere in the world. The fourth is freedom from fear—which, translated into world terms, means a world-wide reduction of armaments to such a point and in such a thorough fashion that no nation will be in a position to commit an act of physical aggression against any neighbor—anywhere in the world. That is no vision of a distant millennium. It is a definite basis for a kind of world attainable in our own time and generation. That kind of world is the very antithesis of the so-called new order of tyranny which the dictators seek to create with the crash of a bomb."—Franklin D. Roosevelt, excerpted from the State of the Union Address to the Congress, January 6, 1941
The declaration of the Four Freedoms as a justification for war would resonate through the remainder of the war, and for decades longer as a frame of remembrance. The Freedoms became the staple of America’s war aims, and the center of all attempts to rally public support for the war. With the creation of the Office of War Information (1942),as well as the famous paintings of Normal Rockwell, the Freedoms were advertised as values central to American life and examples of American exceptionalism.
Opposition to the Four Freedoms 
The Four Freedoms Speech was highly successful, and the goals would be central in the postwar development of human rights. However, in 1941 the speech did receive heavy criticism from isolationists and many conservatives within Congress. Critics argued that the Four Freedoms were simply a charter for Roosevelt's New Deal, social reforms that had already created sharp divisions within Congress. Conservatives who opposed social programs and increased government intervention argued against Roosevelt's attempt to justify and depict the war as necessary for the defense of liberal policies.
While the Freedoms did become a force within American thought on the war, it was never the exclusive justification for the war. Polls and surveys conducted by the Office of War Information (OWI) revealed that "self-defense" of American values, and vengeance for Pearl Harbor were still the most prevalent reasons for war. Though Roosevelt sought to use the Four Freedoms as an ideological counter to fascism and a force to mobilize a nation apathetic to the war in Europe, records suggest that the American people were more concerned with their own personal experience than liberal humanitarianism.
United Nations 
The concept of the Four Freedoms became part of the personal mission undertaken by First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt regarding her inspiration behind the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights, General Assembly Resolution 217A. Indeed, these Four Freedoms were explicitly incorporated into the preamble to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which reads, "Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed the highest aspiration of the common people,...."
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FDR called for "a world-wide reduction of armaments" as a goal for "the future days, which we seek to make secure" but one that was "attainable in our own time and generation." More immediately, though, he called for a massive build-up of U.S. arms production: "Every realist knows that the democratic way of life is at this moment being' directly assailed in every part of the world… The need of the moment is that our actions and our policy should be devoted primarily—almost exclusively—to meeting this foreign peril. … [T]he immediate need is a swift and driving increase in our armament production. … I also ask this Congress for authority and for funds sufficient to manufacture additional munitions and war supplies of many kinds, to be turned over to those nations which are now in actual war with aggressor nations. … Let us say to the democracies…'" - Franklin D. Roosevelt
Norman Rockwell’s paintings 
President Roosevelt’s Four Freedoms speech inspired a set of four Four Freedoms paintings by Norman Rockwell. The four paintings were published in The Saturday Evening Post on February 20, February 27, March 6 and March 13 in 1943. The paintings were accompanied in the magazine by matching essays on the Four Freedoms. The most famous is Freedom from Fear.
The United States Department of the Treasury toured Rockwell’s Four Freedoms paintings around the country after their publication in 1943. The Four Freedoms Tour raised over $130,000,000 in war bond sales.
New Jersey muralist Michael Lenson (1903–72) likewise responded to Roosevelt’s speech in a pictorial way, painting a mural titled “The Four Freedoms” for the Fourteenth Street School in Newark, New Jersey.
FDR commissioned sculptor Walter Russell to design a monument to be dedicated to the first hero of the war. The Four Freedoms Monument was created in 1941, and was dedicated at Madison Square Garden in New York in 1943.
Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park 
The Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park was a park designed by the architect Louis Kahn for the south point of Roosevelt Island. The Park celebrates the famous speech and text from the speech is inscribed on a granite wall in the final design of the Park.
The Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt Institute honors outstanding individuals who have demonstrated a lifelong commitment to these ideals. The Four Freedoms Award medals are awarded at ceremonies at Hyde Park, New York and Middelburg, Netherlands during alternate years. Among the laureates have been:
- Liv Ullman
- Paul Newman
- Joanne Woodward
- Harry S. Truman
- John F. Kennedy
- Jimmy Carter
- Averell Harriman
- Coretta Scott King
- Elie Wiesel
- Tip O'Neill
- William Brennan
- Mike Mansfield
- H.R.H. Princess Juliana of the Netherlands
- Václav Havel
- Mikhail Gorbachev
- The Dalai Lama
- H.M. Juan Carlos of Spain
- Shimon Peres
- Brent Scowcroft
- Bill Clinton
Use in popular culture 
- John Crowley's 2009 novel Four Freedoms is largely based on the themes of Roosevelt's speech.
- In the game series Splinter Cell there are numerous references to the Four Freedoms, with the commanding officer of protagonist Sam Fisher, stating at one point, "this is fifth freedom territory", indicating that the situation (in the game plot) has gotten so grave that one or more of the Four Freedoms are threatened. In the opening sequence of the first game, the Four Freedoms are displayed in text version as a splash screen at the opening of the game, with a fifth freedom added: The freedom to protect the other four—by any means necessary. It is this "fifth freedom" that the game's protagonist operates under.
- The Marvel Comics superhero team the Fantastic Four was based in the Four Freedoms Plaza building from 1986, to 1998, when it was destroyed by the Masters of Evil (in the guise of the Thunderbolts).
- Florida International University's Wolfsonian museum hosted the Thoughts on Democracy exhibition that displayed posters created by sixty leading contemporary artists and designers, invited to create a new graphic design inspired by American illustrator Norman Rockwell’s “Four Freedoms” posters of 1943.
See also 
- Liberalism in the United States
- Fifth Freedom
- Four Freedoms (European Union)
- World War II Victory Medal, which includes the Four Freedoms on its reverse.
- The Free Software Definition is often called "the four freedoms" within the free software community in reference to the speech and fundamental principles.
- Freedom From Fear: The American People in Depression and War, 1929–1945, a Pulitzer-winning history of the era.
- Kennedy, David M., Freedom From Fear: the American people in depression and war, 1929-1945 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999) 386
- Bodnar, John, The “Good War” in American Memory. (Maryland: John Hopkins University Press, 2010) 11
- Kennedy, David M., Freedom From Fear: the American people in depression and war, 1929-1945 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999) 393-4
- Kennedy, David M., Freedom From Fear: the American people in depression and war, 1929-1945 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999) 427-434
- The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt (New York: Random House and Harper and Brothers, 1940) 633-44
- Kennedy, David M., Freedom From Fear: the American people in depression and war, 1929-1945 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999) 469
- Bodnar, John, The “Good War” in American Memory. (Maryland: John Hopkins University Press, 2010) 12
- Kennedy, David M., Freedom From Fear: the American people in depression and war, 1929-1945 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999) 470-6
- Bodnar, John, The “Good War” in American Memory. (Maryland: John Hopkins University Press, 2010) 14-5
- Bodnar, John, The “Good War” in American Memory. (Maryland: John Hopkins University Press, 2010) 14
- Scott Catalog souvenir sheet of four stamps (2840)
- Scott Catalog souvenir sheet of four stamps (908)
- Scott Catalog souvenir sheet of four stamps (933)
- Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt Institute, http://www.feri.org/ Missing or empty
- Byrne, John (w, p), Al Gordon (i). "Rip Wide the Sky!" Fantastic Four #289 (April 1986). Marvel Comics.
- Busiek, Kurt (w), Bagley, Mark (p), Vince Russell (i). "Heroes' Reward". Thunderbolts #10 (January 1998). Marvel Comics.
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- "Four Freedoms" Lesson plan for grades 9-12 from National Endowment for the Humanities
- Text and audio.
- "FDR4Freedoms Digital Resource" The digital education resource of the Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park
- "Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Park"