Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse
The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse are described in the last book of the New Testament of the Bible, called the Book of Revelation of Jesus Christ to Saint John the Evangelist at 6:1-8. The chapter tells of a "'book', or 'scroll', in God's right hand that is sealed with seven seals". The Lamb of God, or Lion of Judah (Jesus Christ), opens the first four of the seven seals, which summons four beings that ride out on white, red, black, and pale horses. Although some interpretations differ, in most accounts, the four riders are seen as symbolizing Conquest, War, Famine, and Death, respectively. The Christian apocalyptic vision is that the four horsemen are to set a divine apocalypse upon the world as harbingers of the Last Judgment.
I watched as the Lamb opened the first of the seven seals. Then I heard one of the four living creatures say in a voice like thunder, "Come and see!" I looked, and there before me was a white horse! Its rider held a bow, and he was given a crown, and he rode out as a conqueror bent on conquest.
Due to the above passage (the most common translation into English), the white rider is referred to as Conquest (not Pestilence, see below). The name could also be construed as "Victory," per the translation found in the Jerusalem Bible (the Greek words are derived from the verb νικάω, to conquer or vanquish). He carries a bow, and wears a victor's crown.
The first horseman is often associated with military conquest. One interpretation, which was held by evangelist Billy Graham, casts the rider of the white horse as the Antichrist, or a representation of false prophets, citing differences between the white horse in Revelation 6 and Jesus on the white Horse in Revelation 19. In Revelation 19, Jesus has many crowns, but in Revelation 6 the rider has just one.
Irenaeus, an influential Christian theologian of the 2nd century, was among the first to interpret this horseman as Christ himself, his white horse representing the successful spread of the gospel. Various scholars have since supported this notion, citing the later appearance, in Revelation 19, of Christ mounted on a white horse, appearing as The Word of God. Furthermore, earlier in the New Testament, the Book of Mark indicates that the advance of the gospel may indeed precede and foretell the apocalypse. The color white also tends to represent righteousness in the Bible, and Christ is in other instances portrayed as a conqueror. However, opposing interpretations argue that the first of the four horsemen is probably not the horseman of Revelation 19. They are described in significantly different ways, and Christ's role as the Lamb who opens the seven seals makes it unlikely that he would also be one of the forces released by the seals.
Besides Christ, the horseman could represent the Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit was understood to have come upon the Apostles at Pentecost after Jesus' departure from Earth. The appearance of the Lamb in Revelation 5 shows the triumphant arrival of Jesus in Heaven, and the white horseman could represent the sending of the Holy Spirit by Jesus and the advance of the gospel of Jesus Christ.
When the Lamb opened the second seal, I heard the second living creature say, "Come and see!" Then another horse came out, a fiery red one. Its rider was given power to take peace from the earth and to make men slay each other. To him was given a large sword.
The rider of the second horse is often taken to represent War or mass slaughter. His horse's color is red (πυρρός, from πῦρ, fire). In some translations, the color is specifically a "fiery" red. This color, as well as the rider's possession of a great sword, suggests blood that is to be spilled. The second horseman may represent civil war as opposed to the war of conquest that the first horseman is sometimes said to bring. Other commentators have suggested it might also represent persecution of Christians.
When the Lamb opened the third seal, I heard the third living creature say, "Come and see!" I looked, and there before me was a black horse! Its rider was holding a pair of scales in his hand. Then I heard what sounded like a voice among the four living creatures, saying, "A quart of wheat for a day's wages, and three quarts of barley for a day's wages, and do not damage the oil and the wine!"
The third horseman rides a black horse and is generally understood as Famine. The horseman carries a pair of balances or weighing scales, indicating the way that bread would have been weighed during a famine. The indicated price of grain is about ten times normal, with an entire day's wages (a denarius) buying enough wheat for only one person, or enough of the less nutritious barley for three, so that workers would struggle to feed their families.
Of the four horsemen, the black horse and its rider are the only ones whose appearance is accompanied by a vocal pronunciation. John hears a voice, unidentified but coming from among the four living creatures, that speaks of the prices of wheat and barley, also saying "and see thou hurt not the oil and the wine". This suggests that the black horse's famine is to drive up the price of grain but leave oil and wine supplies unaffected (though out of reach of the ordinary worker). One explanation for this is that grain crops would have been more naturally susceptible to famine years or locust plagues than olive trees and grapevines, which root more deeply. The statement might also suggest a continuing abundance of luxuries for the wealthy while staples such as bread are scarce, though not totally depleted; such selective scarcity may result from injustice and the deliberate production of luxury crops for the wealthy over grain, as would have happened during the time Revelation was written. Alternatively, the preservation of oil and wine could symbolize the preservation of the Christian faithful, who used oil and wine in their sacraments.
Another possible interpretation of the third horseman is to interpret them as symbolic of the wealthy and the destructive power of a class gap on a society. This can be supported by the colour of their horse, black, which was seen as the sign of the wealthy as they were the only ones able to afford black dye. Also, the luxury goods issue supports this perspective as does the grain (symbolic of the staples of the working class) price increase. Such price increases would only be possible if the wealthy landowners and merchants wanted to keep the poor oppressed and starving.
When the Lamb opened the fourth seal, I heard the voice of the fourth living creature say, "Come and see!" I looked and there before me was a pale horse! Its rider was named Death, and Hell was following close behind him. They were given power over a fourth of the earth to kill by sword, famine, plague, and by the wild beasts of the earth.
The fourth and final horseman is named Death. Known as "the pale rider; of all the riders, he is the only one to whom the text itself explicitly gives a name. Unlike the other three, he is not described carrying a weapon or other object, instead he is followed by Hades (the resting place of the dead). However, illustrations commonly depict him carrying a scythe (like the Grim Reaper), sword, or other implement.
The color of Death's horse is written as khlōros (χλωρός) in the original Koine Greek, which can mean either green/greenish-yellow or pale/pallid. The color is often translated as "pale", though "ashen", "pale green", and "yellowish green" are other possible interpretations (the Greek word is the root of "chlorophyll" and "chlorine"). Based on uses of the word in ancient Greek medical literature, several scholars suggest that the color reflects the sickly pallor of a corpse. In some modern artistic depictions, the horse is distinctly green.
The verse beginning "they were given power over a fourth of the earth" is generally taken as referring to Death and Hades, although some commentators see it as applying to all four horsemen.
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Many Christians interpret the horsemen as a prophecy of a future Tribulation, in which many will die. The Four Horsemen are the first in a series of "Seal" judgements. This is when God will judge the Earth, and is giving the World a chance to repent before they die. (Most of the world will die at this point, the population will go by fourths. First a fourth will die, then a fourth of the remaining three fourths, etc.)
Some modern scholars interpret Revelation from a preterist point of view, arguing that its prophecy and imagery apply only to the events of the first century of Christian history. In this school of thought, Conquest, the white horse's rider, is sometimes identified as a symbol of Parthian forces: Conquest carries a bow, and the Parthian Empire was at that time known for its mounted warriors and their skill with bow and arrow. Parthians were also particularly associated with white horses. Some scholars specifically point to Vologases I, a Parthian shah who clashed with the Roman Empire and won one significant battle in 62 AD.
Revelation's historical context may also influence the depiction of the black horse and its rider, Famine. In 92 AD, the Roman emperor Domitian attempted to curb excessive growth of grapevines and encourage grain cultivation instead, but there was major popular backlash against this effort, and it was abandoned. Famine's mission to make wheat and barley scarce but "hurt not the oil and the wine" could be an allusion to this episode. The red horse and its rider, who take peace from the earth, might represent the prevalence of civil strife at the time Revelation was written; internecine conflict ran rampant in the Roman Empire during and just prior to the 1st century AD.
Christian interpreters regularly see ways in which the horsemen, and Revelation in general, speak to contemporary events. Some who believe Revelation applies to modern times can interpret the horses based on various ways their colors are used. Red, for example, often represents Communism, the white horse and rider with a crown representing Catholicism, Black has been used as a symbol of Capitalism, while Green represents the rise of Islam. Pastor Irvin Baxter Jr. of Endtime Ministries espouses such a belief.
Pestilence, War, Famine, and Death
This interpretation replaces Conquest with Pestilence (i.e., infectious disease), and is used as the basis for many uses of the Four Horsemen concept in popular culture. In Brian Stableford's The A to Z of Fantasy Literature, for example, the Horsemen are listed as Famine, Pestilence, War, and Death.
The origins and justification of the name "Pestilence" as a distinct Horseman are unclear, though some translations of the Bible do mention "plague" (e.g. the NIV) or "pestilence" (e.g. the RSV) in connection with the Pale horse (see above).
Vicente Blasco Ibáñez, in his 1916 novel The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (filmed in 1921 and in 1962), provides an early example of this interpretation, writing "The horseman on the white horse was clad in a showy and barbarous attire. [...] While his horse continued galloping, he was bending his bow in order to spread pestilence abroad. At his back swung the brass quiver filled with poisoned arrows, containing the germs of all diseases."
Other Biblical references
The Book of Zechariah twice mentions colored horses; in the first passage there are three colors (red, dappled, and white), and in the second there are four teams of horses (red, black, white, and finally dappled) pulling chariots. The second set of horses are referred to as "the four spirits of heaven, going out from standing in the presence of the Lord of the whole world." The horses in Zechariah differ from the ones mentioned in Revelation in that their colors do not seem to indicate or symbolize anything about their characters. Also, the horses in Zechariah act as patrollers, not as agents of destruction or judgement.
- The Book with Seven Seals
- Events of Revelation (Chapter 6)
- Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse in popular culture
- Four Horsemen of the Infocalypse, a term for Internet criminals, or the imagery of internet criminals
- Summary of Christian eschatological differences
- White Horse Prophecy
- Wild Hunt
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- Flegg, Columba Graham (1999). An introduction to reading the Apocalypse. St Vladimir's Seminary Press. ISBN 0-88141-131-0. p. 90.
- Lenski, Richard C. H. (2008). The Interpretation of St. John's Revelation (reprint). Augsburg Fortress. p. 224. ISBN 0-8066-9000-3.
- Mounce, Robert H. The Book of Revelation (New International Commentary on the New Testament). Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1997. 140 
- Van den Biesen, C. (1907). Apocalypse. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
- O'Hear, Natasha F. H. (2011). Contrasting Images of the Book of Revelation in Late Medieval and Early Modern Art: A Case Study in Visual Exegesis. Oxford University Press. p. 100. ISBN 0-19-959010-9.
- Graham, Billy (May 1, 1985). Approaching Hoofbeats. Avon. p. 273. ISBN 0-380-69921-4.
- Graham, Billy. Approaching Hoofbeats
- Rev 19; ESV; - Rejoicing in Heaven - After this I - Bible Gateway
- Hendriksen, William (1979). More than conquerors: An interpretation of the book of revelation. Baker Book House. p. 105. ISBN 0-8010-4026-4.
- Beale, Gregory K. (1998). The Book of Revelation: A commentary on the Greek text. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. pp. 375–379. ISBN 0-8028-2174-X. 
- Vos, Brian D. "The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse", The Outlook, June 2006 vol. 56 no. 4, pp 16-20.Outlook Article - The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse
- Jeffrey, David L. (1992). A Dictionary of Biblical Tradition in English Literature. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 363. ISBN 0802836348.
- Morris, Leon (1987). The Book of Revelation (Tyndale New Testament commentaries) (2nd ed.). Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. pp. 100–105. ISBN 0-8028-0273-7.
- Hoeck, Andreas; Manhardt, Laurie Watson (2010). Come and See: Ezekiel, Hebrews, Revelation. Emmaus Road Publishing. p. 139. ISBN 1-931018-65-0.
- Codex Sinaiticus, Rev 6:8.
- Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon: χλωρός.
- Case, Shirley Jackson. The revelation of John: a historical interpretation. University of Chicago Press, 1919. 261-263.
- See, for example, , , and .
- Gerhard Kittel, Geoffrey William Bromiley, and Gerhard Friedrich, Theological dictionary of the New Testament, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1968, p. 996.
- Leeming, David (2005). The Oxford Companion to World Mythology. Oxford University Press. p. 22. ISBN 0195156692.
- Humphries, Paul D. (2005). A Dragon This Way Comes. Mustang, Oklahoma: Tate Publishing. pp. 13–85. ISBN 1-59886-061-5. Lay summary.
- Baxter, Irvin. "Arafat and Jerusalem: The Palestinian Perspective". Endtime Ministries. Archived from the original on 2006-11-13. Retrieved 2006-12-05.
- Robert Smith (1998). Apocalypse. Liturgical Press. ISBN 978-0-8146-2707-5.
- Stableford, Brian (2009). The A to Z of Fantasy Literature. Scarecrow Press. p. 18. ISBN 0810868296.
- Ibáñez, Vicente Blasco (1916). The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (ch V).
- Zechariah 1:8-17 NIV; - During the night I had a vision, and - Bible Gateway
- Zechariah 6:1-8 NIV; - Four Chariots - I looked up again, and - Bible Gateway