During the Hundred Years' War, Jacob van Artevelde a prominent merchant with business interests in the wool trade with England, led a revolt against Louis I, the Count of Flanders who had sided with the French. Originally, in 1339 he organised the towns of Bruges, Ghent and Ypres together as the Three Members. Then in 1386 under Philip the Bold, Franc of Bruges was added, turning the organisation into the Four Members.
- Philip the Good: the apogee of Burgundy by Richard Vaughan, p201
- Flanders and Hainault, accessed 22 August 2010