Fourier sine and cosine series

In mathematics, particularly the field of calculus and Fourier analysis, the Fourier sine and cosine series are two mathematical series named after Joseph Fourier.

Notation

In this article, f denotes a real valued function on $[0,L]$.

Sine series

The Fourier sine series of f is defined to be

$\sum_{n=1}^\infty c_n \sin \frac{n\pi x}{L}$

where

$c_n=\frac{2}{L}\int_0^L f(x) \sin \frac{n\pi x}{L} \, dx, n\in \mathbb{N}$.

If f is continuous and $f(0)=f(L)=0$, then the Fourier sine series of f is equal to f on $[0,L]$, odd, and periodic with period $2L$.

Cosine series

The Fourier cosine series is defined to be

$\frac{c_0}{2} + \sum_{n=1}^\infty c_n \cos \frac{n\pi x}{L}$

where

$c_n=\frac{2}{L}\int_0^L f(x) \cos \frac{n\pi x}{L} \, dx, n\in \mathbb{N}_0$.

If f is continuous, then the Fourier cosine series of f is equal to f on $[0,L]$, even, and periodic with period $2L$.

Remarks

This notion can be generalized to functions which are not continuous.