Fourteenth Dynasty of Egypt
Dynasties of Ancient Egypt
The Eleventh (all of Egypt), Twelfth, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, Middle Kingdom, though this dynasty overlaps partially with either (or both of) the Thirteenth Dynasty or the Fifteenth Dynasty, during the Second Intermediate Period.
It is associated with the Delta region of Egypt, and may have ruled from Xois, though for only little more than 100 years. Its rulers may have been related to the Hyksos, though they are very frequently identified as being of Semitic origin, owing to the distinct origins of the names of some of their Kings, like Yakobaam or Yaqub-Har.
As many as 76 kings are known from various king lists (from Manetho; the Turin Royal Canon gives 32), but only a few are attested in contemporary sources, so some may not have been actual rulers (e.g. some may be pseudonyms of other rulers). Most likely, many of these ruled concurrently over different parts of the Delta.
Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for this Dynasty include:
- Nehesy (or Nehesi) left his name on two monuments at Avaris. His name means "Nubian" in Egyptian.
- Merdjefare. Attested by a single stela from Saft al-Hinna, in the Delta
- Kitchen (1993) p.546
- Kim Ryholt, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, Museum Tusculanum Press, (1997)
- Daphna Ben-Tor, Scarabs, chronology, and interconnections: Egypt and Palestine in the Second Intermediate Period, Saint-Paul, 2007
- K.S.B. Ryholt (1998). The Political Situation in Egypt During the Second Intermediate Period, C1800-1550 BC. Museum Tusculanum Press. ISBN 8772894210.
- K.A. Kitchen (1993). Ramesside Inscriptions. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0631184279.
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