Fourth Army (United Kingdom)
|Active||First World War
|Engagements||First World War|
|Sir Henry Rawlinson|
The Fourth Army was a field army that formed part of the British Expeditionary Force during the First World War. The Fourth Army was formed on 5 February 1916 under the command of General Sir Henry Rawlinson to carry out the main British contribution to the Battle of the Somme.
First World War
The Fourth Army was formed in France on 5 February 1916, under the command of Sir Henry Rawlinson. On the first day on the Somme, eleven Fourth Army divisions (including XIII Corps, XV Corps, III Corps, X Corps and VIII Corps) attacked astride the Albert–Bapaume road. The attack was completely defeated on the northern sector, so subsequent Fourth Army operations concentrated on the southern sector, handing control of the northern sector to the Reserve Army.
The plan for the Fourth Army during the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July – 10 November 1917), was to mount Operation Hush, an amphibious invasion of the Belgian coast. Once the Germans had been pushed back from the Passchendaele–Westroosebeke ridge and an advance begun on Roulers and Thourout, the XV Corps would mount the coastal operation. As the Ypres fighting became bogged down, the Fourth Army divisions were drawn off as reinforcements until the army was effectively disbanded.
The Fourth Army was reformed in early 1918—once again under Rawlinson—following the virtual destruction and subsequent disbanding of the Fifth Army during the German offensive known as Operation Michael.
The 4th Army BEF was the only British force with substantial American (AEF) forces subordinate to it:
- II Corps, American Expeditionary Force
- 27th Infantry Division AEF
- 30th Infantry Division AEF
The 27th Infantry Division was a unit of the United States Army in World War I and World War II. The Division traces its history from the 6th Division, made up of New York units and formed in May 1917. The 6th Division designation was changed to the 27th Division in July 1917.
- Designated: July 20, 1917 as the 27th Division of the New York National Guard.
- Deployed designation: 27th Division, American Expeditionary Force
- Activated: July 1917 (National Guard Division from New York).
- Initial strength: 991 officers and 27,114 enlisted men.
- Shipped out: April 20, 1918.
- Casualties: Total 8,334 (KIA: 1,442; WIA: 6,892).
- Inactivated: April 1919.
The 30th Infantry Division was also unit of the United States Army in World War I and World War II. The division traces its history from the 9th Division (drawing units from North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia and Tennessee) under a 1917 force plan, but changed designation after the outbreak of World War I. It was formally activated under its new title in October 1917, as a National Guard Division from North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Tennessee.
Its organization included the 117th, 118th, 119th and 120th Infantry Regiments; the 113th, 114th and 115th Artillery Regiments; the 113th, 114th and 115th Machine Gun Battalions; and the 105th Engineer Regiment. The major operations it took part in were the Ypres-Lys, and the Somme offensive, in which it was one of the two US Army II Corps divisions to break the Hindenburg Line in the Battle of St. Quentin Canal. Total casualties were 8,415: 1,237 dead and 7,178 wounded.
- 30th Infantry Division commanders: Maj. Gen. J. F. Morrison (28 August 1917), Brig. Gen. William S. Scott (19 September 1917), Maj. Gen. C. P. Townsley (14 October 1917), Brig. Gen. Samson L. Faison (1 December 1917), Maj. Gen. C. P. Townsley (6 December 1917), Brig. Gen. Samson L. Faison (17 December 1917), Brig. Gen. L. D. Tyson (22 December 1917), Brig. Gen. G. G. Gatley (28 December 1917), Brig. Gen. Samson L. Faison (1 January 1918), Brig. Gen. L. D. Tyson (30 March 1918), Brig. Gen. Samson L. Faison (7 April 1918), Maj. Gen. G. W. Read (3 May 1918), Brig. Gen. R. H. Noble (12 June 1918), Maj. Gen. G. W. Read (14 June 1918), Maj. Gen. Samson L. Faison (15 June 1918), Maj. Gen. Edward Mann Lewis (18 July 1918), Brig. Gen. Samson L. Faison (23 December 1918).
- Major operations: Meuse-Argonne, Ypres-Lys, Somme offensive.
- Initially stationed in the East Poperinghe Line.
- Battle of Dickebusche Lake, Summer 1918
- Battle of Vierstratt Ridge, Summer 1918
- German defensive Hindenburg Line, September 1918.
- Somme Offensive, September 25, 1918
- Le Selle River, Winter 1918
- Broke the Hindenburg line during the Battle of the Somme, initiating a German retreat from their defensive line and forcing the Germans to a final confrontation at the Le Selle River before the Armistice was signed.
Second World War
In World War II, no British Fourth Army actually took the field, but as part of the deception plans Operation Cockade and the later Operation Fortitude North, the Germans were encouraged to believe that a Fourth Army had been established with its headquarters in Edinburgh Castle and was preparing to invade Norway. This successfully drew and kept German units away from the real invasion zone in Normandy. In the subsequent 'Fortitude South' the Fourth Army with different units was presented as part of the fictitious First United States Army Group (FUSAG) in its threat to the Pas de Calais.
Fictional composition of the Fourth Army
HQ at Edinburgh
- British II Corps (fictional - HQ Stirling)
- British VII Corps (fictional - HQ Dundee)
- United States XV Corps (Northern Ireland)
HQ at Hathfield
- 2nd Airborne Division (fictional, Bulford)
- British II Corps (fictional - HQ Tunbridge Wells)
- British VII Corps (fictional - HQ Folkstone)
Notes and references
- The British Armies of 1914-1918
- Wilson, John B. Evolution of Divisions and Separate Brigades. United States Army Center for Military History. CMH Pub 60-14-1.
- Chapter II: Genesis of Permanent Divisions
- Roger Hesketh. Fortitude: The D-Day Deception Campaign. St Ermins Press. 1999. ISBN 0-316-85172-8
- Thaddeus Holt. The Deceivers: Allied Military Deception in the Second World War. Phoenix. 2005. ISBN 0-7538-1917-1