The fourth cholera pandemic (1863–79) was the fourth major pandemic of cholera in the century. It began in the Ganges delta of the Bengal region, from where Muslim pilgrims carried it to Mecca. That year 30,000 of the 90,000 Mecca pilgrims died in the epidemic. Cholera spread throughout the Middle East. It also was carried to Russia, Europe, Africa and North America, in each case spreading from port cities and along inland waterways.
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- ^ a b c "Cholera's seven pandemics". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. December 2, 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-11. "The fourth pandemic began in the Bengal region from which Indian Muslim pilgrims visiting Mecca spread the disease to the Middle East. From there it migrated to Europe, Africa and North America. At least 30,000 of the 90,000 Mecca pilgrims fell victim to the disease. Cholera claimed 90,000 lives in Russia in 1866."
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