Fox Broadcasting Company
|Fox Broadcasting Company|
|Type||Broadcast television network|
by Rupert Murdoch and Barry Diller
|Slogan||We Are FOX|
|Headquarters||Los Angeles, California|
|Owner||Fox Entertainment Group
(via Fox Television Group)
(21st Century Fox)
|Dana Walden and Gary Newman, (co-chairs/CEO, Entertainment)|
|October 9, 1986
April 5, 1987 (primetime launch)
|480i (SDTV; formatted to downconverted widescreen in many markets) (October 9, 1986–June 12, 2009)
720p (HDTV) (September 12, 2004–present)
The Fox Broadcasting Company (commonly referred to as Fox or the Fox Network, and stylized as FOX), is an American commercial broadcast television network that is owned by the Fox Entertainment Group division of 21st Century Fox, which is the world's third largest major network based on total revenues, assets and worldwide coverage.
Launched on October 9, 1986 as a competitor to longer-established networks ABC, NBC and CBS, Fox went on to become the most successful venture at a fourth television network, becoming the highest-rated broadcast network in the 18–49 demographic from 2004 to 2012 and earning the position as the most-watched network in the United States overall during the 2007–08 season.
Fox and its affiliated companies operate many entertainment channels in international markets, although these do not necessarily air the same programming as the U.S. network. Most viewers in Canada have access to at least one U.S.-based Fox affiliate, although most of Fox's primetime programming (as well as NFL on Fox) is subject to simultaneous substitution regulations imposed by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission to protect rights held by domestically based networks.
The network is named after sister company 20th Century Fox, and indirectly for producer William Fox, who founded one of the movie studio's predecessors, Fox Film. Fox is a member of the North American Broadcasters Association and the National Association of Broadcasters.
- 1 History
- 1.1 Origins
- 1.2 1980s: Establishment of the network
- 1.3 1990s: Rise into mainstream success and beginnings of rivalry with the Big Three
- 1.4 2000s: Rise to long-term leadership in the 18-49 demographic and victory to overall American viewership ratings, breakthrough with American Idol and fierce rivalry with CBS
- 1.5 2010s: Network's ratings collapse and renewal, and revamp in network programming
- 2 Programming
- 3 Fox HD
- 4 Affiliates
- 5 Branding
- 6 Differences between Fox and the "Big Three" networks
- 7 Controversy
- 8 International broadcasts
- 8.1 Canada
- 8.2 Caribbean
- 8.3 Asia Pacific
- 8.4 Europe
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 External links
20th Century Fox had been involved in television production as early as the 1950s, producing several syndicated programs during this era. In November 1956, the studio purchased a 50% interest in the NTA Film Network, an early syndicator of films and television programs. Following the demise of the DuMont Television Network that year, NTA was launched as a new "fourth network". 20th Century Fox would also produce original content for the NTA Network. The film network effort would fail after a few years, but Fox continued to dabble in television through its production arm, TCF Television Productions, producing series such as Perry Mason for the three major broadcast television networks (ABC, NBC and CBS).
1980s: Establishment of the network
The Fox network's foundations were laid in March 1985 through News Corporation's $250 million purchase of a 50% interest in TCF Holdings, the parent company of the 20th Century Fox movie studio. In May 1985, News Corporation agreed to pay $2.55 billion to acquire independent television stations in six major U.S. cities from the John Kluge-run broadcasting company Metromedia: WNEW-TV in New York City, WTTG in Washington, D.C., KTTV in Los Angeles, KRIV-TV in Houston, WFLD-TV in Chicago, and KRLD-TV in Dallas. A seventh station, ABC affiliate WCVB-TV in Boston, was part of the original transaction but was spun off to the Hearst Broadcasting subsidiary of the Hearst Corporation in a separate, concurrent deal as part of a right of first refusal related to that station's 1982 sale to Metromedia (two years later, News Corporation acquired WXNE-TV in that market from the Christian Broadcasting Network and changed its call letters to WFXT).
Beginning of the network
In October 1985, 20th Century Fox announced its intentions to form a fourth television network which would compete with ABC, CBS and NBC. The plans were to use the combination of the Fox studios and the former Metromedia stations to both produce and distribute programming. Organizational plans for the network were held off until the Metromedia acquisitions cleared regulatory hurdles. Then, in December 1985, Rupert Murdoch agreed to pay $325 million to acquire the rest of the studio from his original partner, Marvin Davis. The purchase of the Metromedia stations was approved by the Federal Communications Commission in March 1986; the call letters of the New York City and Dallas outlets were subsequently changed respectively to WNYW and KDAF. These first six stations, then broadcasting to 22% of the nation's households, became known as the Fox Television Stations group.
Fox debuted on October 9, 1986. Its first program was a late-night talk show, The Late Show, which was hosted by legendary comedienne Joan Rivers. After a strong start, the show quickly eroded in the ratings; by early 1987, Rivers had quit The Late Show and the program began to be hosted by a succession of guest hosts. After that point, some stations that affiliated with the network in the weeks before the April 1987 primetime launch, such as WCGV-TV in Milwaukee, signed affiliation agreements with Fox on the condition that they would not have to carry The Late Show due to the program's ratings weakness.
The network expanded its programming into primetime on April 5, 1987, with the premieres of the sitcom Married... with Children and the sketch comedy series The Tracey Ullman Show. Fox added one new show per week over the next several weeks, with the drama 21 Jump Street, and comedies Mr. President and Duet completing its Sunday schedule. Beginning on July 11, the network rolled out its inaugural Saturday night schedule with the two-hour movie premiere of Werewolf; over the next three weeks, the series The New Adventures of Beans Baxter, Karen's Song and Down and Out in Beverly Hills (the latter being an adaptation of the film of the same name) were added to the Saturday lineup. Both Karen's Song and Down and Out in Beverly Hills were canceled by the start of the 1987–88 television season, the network's first fall launch, and were replaced by Second Chance and Women in Prison.
In regards to its late night lineup, the network had already decided to cancel The Late Show, and had a replacement series called The Wilton North Report in development, when the show began a ratings resurgence with its final guest host, comedian Arsenio Hall. Wilton North lasted just a few weeks, however, and the network was unable to reach a deal with Hall to return when it hurriedly revived The Late Show in early 1988. The show went back to guest hosts again, eventually selecting Ross Shafer as its permanent host, only for it to be canceled for good by October 1988, while Hall signed a deal with Paramount Television to develop his own syndicated late night talk show, The Arsenio Hall Show.
The network added a third night of programming, on Mondays, at the start of the 1989-90 television season. The following year, two additional nights of programming were added on Thursdays and Fridays; halfway through the 1992-93 season, Fox expanded its programming to all seven nights on January 19, 1993 with the expansion of its primetime lineup to Tuesdays and Wednesdays (this format of gradually adding of nights to the programming schedule was replicated by The WB and UPN when those networks launched in January 1995). The 1989-90 season also featured a midseason replacement series, The Simpsons (an animated series that originated as a series of segments on The Tracey Ullman Show); ranked at a three-way tie for 29th place in the Nielsen ratings, it became the first Fox series to break the Top 30. That year, Fox also first introduced its Saturday night combination of Cops and America's Most Wanted, which would be staples on the network for just over two decades.
Unlike the three larger networks, which air prime time programming from 8:00 to 11:00 p.m. Monday through Saturdays and 7:00 to 11:00 p.m. on Sundays (all times Eastern), Fox has traditionally avoided programming the 10:00 p.m. hour except for special film presentations which by virtue of their running time must spill over into the 10:00 p.m. hour and overruns from live sports telecasts, leaving that hour to affiliates to program locally. However, the network did schedule programming in the 10:00 p.m. hour on Sunday nights between 1989 and 1993, but never added programming at that hour on any other night.
Except for KDAF (which was sold to Renaissance Broadcasting in 1995 and became a WB affiliate at the same time), all of the original owned-and-operated stations ("O&Os") are still part of the Fox network today. Clarke Ingram, who maintains a memorial website to the failed DuMont Television Network, has suggested that Fox is a revival or at least a linear descendant of DuMont, since Metromedia was spun off from DuMont and Metromedia's television stations formed the nucleus of the Fox network. WNYW (originally known as WABD) and WTTG were two of the three original owned-and-operated stations of the DuMont network.
1990s: Rise into mainstream success and beginnings of rivalry with the Big Three
Fox survived where DuMont and other attempts to start a fourth network failed because it programmed just under the number of hours to be legally considered a network by the FCC. This allowed Fox to make money in ways forbidden to the established networks (it, for instance, did not have to adhere to the fin-syn rules in effect at the time), since during its first years it was considered to be merely a large group of stations. By comparison, DuMont was hampered by numerous regulatory roadblocks, most notably a ban on acquiring more stations – during an era when the FCC had much tighter ownership limits for television stations than it did when Fox launched – since its minority owner, Paramount Pictures owned two television stations. Combined with DuMont's three television stations, this put DuMont at the legal limit at the time. Also, Murdoch was more than willing to open his wallet to get and keep programming and talent. DuMont, in contrast, operated on a shoestring budget and was unable to keep the programs and stars it had. Most of the other startup networks that launched in later years (such as The WB, UPN and The CW) followed this model as well.
Although Fox was growing rapidly as a network and had established itself as a presence, it was still not considered a major competitor to the established "Big Three" broadcast networks, ABC, CBS and NBC. Until the early 1990s, when Fox expanded its programming to additional nights and outside of primetime, most Fox stations were still essentially independent stations – filling their schedules with mainly first-run and acquired programming, and during primetime, running either syndicated programming or more commonly, movies on nights when network programs did not air.
Luring the NFL and affiliation switches
The network would become a viable competitor to the "Big Three" when Fox lured the partial broadcast television rights to the National Football League away from CBS in December 1993. Fox signed a multi-million dollar contract to broadcast regular season and playoff games from the National Football Conference; it also lured Pat Summerall, John Madden, Dick Stockton, Matt Millen, James Brown and Terry Bradshaw (as well as many behind-the-scenes production personnel) from CBS Sports to staff its NFL coverage. Shortly afterward, News Corporation began buying more television station groups. The first was its July 1996 acquisition of New World Communications, which had signed an affiliation deal with Fox in May 1994. The NFC deal, in fact, was the impetus for the affiliation deal with New World; many of New World's stations were longstanding CBS affiliates, three others (including two that were later sold to Fox outright due to ownership conflicts) were affiliated with either ABC or NBC. With significant market share for the first time ever and the rights to the NFC, Fox firmly established itself as the nation's fourth major network.
Later, in August 2000, Fox bought several stations owned by Chris-Craft Industries and its subsidiaries BHC Communications and United Television for $5.5 billion (most of these were UPN affiliates, although one – KMSP-TV in Minneapolis – later became a Fox owned-and-operated station). This made Fox one of the largest television station owners in the United States.
The early and mid-1990s saw the launch of several soap opera-style primetime dramas aimed at younger audiences that became quick hits: Beverly Hills, 90210, Melrose Place and Party of Five, as well as several series aimed at a black audience such as Living Single, Martin and New York Undercover. September 1993 saw the heavy promotion and debut of a short-lived western series that incorporated science-fiction elements, The Adventures of Brisco County, Jr. However, it was the Friday night show that debuted immediately following it, The X-Files, that would find long-lasting success, and would become Fox's first series to crack Nielsen's year-end Top 20 most-watched network programs.
The sketch comedy series In Living Color created many memorable characters (and launched the careers of future movie stars Jim Carrey, Jamie Foxx, Damon Wayans, Keenen Ivory Wayans, and "Fly Girl" dancer Jennifer Lopez). It has also gained international prominence after Fox broadcast a live, special episode of In Living Color in 1992 as an alternative for the halftime show during the Super Bowl XXVI broadcast by rival network CBS, marking the start of the rivalry of Fox with the 'Big Three' U.S. networks while popularizing the counterprogramming strategy against the Super Bowl general telecast. MADtv, another sketch comedy series that debuted in 1995, became a solid competitor to NBC's Saturday Night Live for over a decade and the network's most successful show on Saturday nights; MADtv ended its run in 2009 after 14 seasons.
As it gradually expanded its primetime schedule towards carrying a full week's worth of programming, the network's added offerings included the scheduling of breakout hit The Simpsons opposite veteran NBC comedy The Cosby Show as part of Fox's initial Thursday night lineup in the fall of 1990 (along with future hit Beverly Hills, 90210) after only a half-season of success on Sunday nights. The show performed well in its new Thursday night slot, spending four seasons there and helping to launch Martin, another Fox comedy that became a hit when it debuted in September 1992. The Simpsons returned to Sunday nights in the fall of 1994, and has remained there ever since.
An attempt to make a larger effort to program Saturday nights by moving Married...with Children and adding a new but short-lived sitcom (Love and Marriage) to the night at the beginning of the 1996–97 season backfired with the public, as it resulted in a short cancellation of America's Most Wanted that was criticized by law enforcement and public officials, and was roundly rejected by viewers, which brought swift cancellation to the newer series. Married... – which became the network's longest-running live-action sitcom at 11 seasons – quickly returned to its previous Sunday timeslot (before moving again to Mondays two months later); both it and Martin would end their runs at the end of the 1996–97 season. Two months later, a revised schedule featuring one new and one encore episode of COPS, and the revived America's Most Wanted: America Fights Back was launched. Cops and AMW had for many years remained the anchors of the network's Saturday schedule, making it the most stable night in American broadcast television for over 14 years, as well as making both shows among the seldom few first-run primetime programs on Saturdays across the four major networks after decreasing primetime viewership – as more people opted to engage in leisure activities away from home rather than watch television on Saturdays – led ABC, NBC and CBS to largely abandon first-run series on that night (other than newsmagazines, sports and burned off primetime shows that failed on other nights) in favor of reruns and movies by the mid-2000s. America's Most Wanted ended its 23-year run on Fox in June 2011, and was subsequently picked up by Lifetime; Cops, in turn, would move to Spike in 2013, leaving sports and repeats of reality and drama series as the only programs airing on Fox on Saturday evenings.
By the 1997–98 season, Fox had three shows in the Nielsen Top 20, The X-Files (which ranked 11th), King of the Hill (which ranked 15th) and The Simpsons (which ranked 18th). Building around its flagship animated comedy The Simpsons, Fox has become relatively successful with animated series; its first animated success after The Simpsons, the Mike Judge-produced King of the Hill debuted in 1997; Family Guy (the first of three adult-oriented animated series from Seth McFarlane) and Futurama (from Simpsons creator Matt Groening) would make their debuts in 1999, however they were respectively canceled in 2002 and 2003. However due to strong DVD sales and highly rated cable reruns on Cartoon Network's Adult Swim, Fox decided to commission new episodes of Family Guy, which began airing in 2005. Futurama would be revived with four direct-to-DVD films between 2007 and 2009 and would return as a first-run series in 2010 on Comedy Central, only to be cancelled again three years later. Less successful efforts included The Critic, which starred Jon Lovitz of Saturday Night Live fame (which originally aired on ABC, before moving to Fox where it was cancelled after its second season), and The PJs (which later aired on The WB, after its cancellation by Fox following its second season). Other notable shows that debuted in the late 1990s included the quirky live-action dramedy Ally McBeal and period sitcom That '70s Show, the latter of which became Fox's second-longest-running live-action sitcom, airing for eight seasons.
Throughout the 1990s and into the next decade, Fox launched a slate of cable channels beginning with the launches of general entertainment network FX and movie channel FXM: Movies from Fox (now FX Movie Channel) in 1994; this was followed by the debut of Fox News Channel in 1996. Its sports operations expanded with the acquisition of a controlling interest in several regional sports networks during the mid-1990s to form Fox Sports Net, its 2000 purchase of Speed Channel (which was replaced by Fox Sports 1 in August 2013), and the launches of Fox Sports World (later Fox Soccer, which was replaced by FXX in September 2013) and Fox Sports en Espanol (now Fox Deportes) in the early 2000s.
2000s: Rise to long-term leadership in the 18-49 demographic and victory to overall American viewership ratings, breakthrough with American Idol and fierce rivalry with CBS
By 2000, many staple Fox shows of the 1990s had ended their runs. During this time, Fox put much of its efforts into producing reality fare – many of which were considered to be sensationalistic and controversial in nature – such as Who Wants to Marry a Multi-Millionaire?, Temptation Island, Married by America and Joe Millionaire, as well as video clip shows such as World's Wildest Police Videos and When Animals Attack!. After shedding most of these programs, Fox gradually filled its lineup with acclaimed dramas such as 24, The O.C., House and Bones, and comedies such as The Bernie Mac Show, Malcolm in the Middle and Arrested Development.
In 2000, Fox acquired the right to broadcast NASCAR, as part of a deal that also involved NBC, and TNT, and began surpassing competing networks ABC and NBC, first in the primetime television ratings, then in the overall American viewership, and placed second behind resurgent CBS in the overall viewership in the United States since 2002. Fox hit a striking milestone in 2005 when it emerged as the most watched network on the lucrative and viewer-rich 18-49 demographics for the first time in U.S. television history, largely boosted by the strength of the reality singing competition series American Idol, considered the biggest hit of the 2000s on U.S. television, as well as Fox's first ever program to enter the Nielsen Top 10. Idol had audiences peaking up to 38 million viewers during the 2002–03 season finale, averaging almost 31 million from 2006 to 2007, becoming the nation's highest-rated program starting with the 2003–04 season and the first ever reality singing competition series in the country to grab the top position in the Nielsen ratings' overall viewership ranking. House, airing after Idol on Tuesday nights and having had a successful run of summer repeats in 2005, positioned itself as Fox's first primetime drama program to reach the Nielsen Top 10 in 2006.
Since 2004, CBS and Fox, the two most watched American TV networks during the 2000s, tend to equal in demographics among general viewership in the United States, with CBS and Fox winning selected demographics by narrow margins, and while Fox has the youngest-skewing television audiences among the major broadcast networks in the United States, CBS is consistently regarded to have the oldest television audience demographics among them. However, Fox hit a milestone in February 2005 by scoring its first-ever sweeps victory in total viewership and demographic ratings. This was largely due to the broadcast of Super Bowl XXXIX, but also due to the strength of American Idol, 24, House and The O.C. By the end of the 2004–2005 television season, Fox ranked at first place among all broadcast networks for the first time in its history among the demographic most appealing to advertisers of adults 18–49 years old. Another milestone came on May 21, 2008, shortly after the widely acclaimed seventh season finale of American Idol, when Fox took the first place for the most watched television network in the United States for the first time ever in its history, attributed by the strengths of Super Bowl XLII and American Idol during the 2007-2008 season. Fox also won that television season in the 18-49 demographic with the largest ever margin since the introduction of the people meter technology in the Nielsen television audience measurement system during the 1985-1986 television season, and eventually turned into the only non-Big Three television network to be most watched in the United States since then.
Near the end of the 2000s, Fox launched a few series that proved to be powerful hits in different respects. In 2008, Fringe debuted to high ratings and critical acclaim during its first season on Tuesdays; though its viewership declined through its run, the series developed a large loyal fanbase/cult following that had turned the show into a cult favorite. In 2009, Glee premiered to average ratings, but positive reception from critics. Ratings picked up during the first season, and the show was met with such media attention that it had formed a large, loyal international fanbase. The cast of the series has been acknowledged by notable people such as the President of the United States Barack Obama and Oprah Winfrey, who have each asked the cast to perform live for numerous national events.
2010s: Network's ratings collapse and renewal, and revamp in network programming
At the close of the decade and the start of the 2010s, new comedies Raising Hope and New Girl gave Fox its first ratings successes in live-action comedy in years. The second season of Glee delivered that series' highest ratings during the 2010-2011 season, with viewership peaking during its Super Bowl lead-out episode in February 2011. By the time of the Super Bowl XLV live telecast in 2011, Fox emerged as the country's first ever television network with an average viewership of at least 100 million for a primetime night. American Idol lost its number-one position among the major networks' primetime programs during the 2011-2012 finale (falling in second behind the NBC Sunday Night Football during the year), emerging as the program with the longest winning streak for a network primetime show in U.S. television history, as it dominated both of the ratings in the Adults 18-49 demographic and total nationwide viewership for eight consecutive (and total) years. American Idol also remained in the Nielsen Top 10 for 11 years from 2003 to 2013, currently the longest position held by any program from Fox at the Nielsen annual Top 10. By the time the 2012 season finale of American Idol aired live, Fox won its eighth consecutive television season leadership in the 18-49 demographics, the all-time longest such streak in the nation's broadcast history, where it earned the top spot for eight years from 2004 to 2012.
During the 2012–2013 season, Fox suffered a collapse in its ratings. American Idol and Glee suffered steep ratings decline, while the network as a whole suffered a 22% decrease in nationwide viewership among the 18-49 demographic and fell to second place in the coveted 18-49 demo slot, and third place in total viewers by the end of the season. Subsequently, on January 13, 2014, Fox announced it would abandon the use of greenlighting shows through the initial ordering of pilot episodes, opting to pick up shows straight to series and thus dropping its pilot season. Fox found new ratings successes with its broadcast of Super Bowl XLVIII in February 2014, and the lead-out programs that followed the event – New Girl and Brooklyn Nine-Nine. Fox's broadcast of Super Bowl XLVIII became the country's most watched single television broadcast to date, peaking up to 167 million viewers alone in the United States during several portions of the broadcast. In May 2014, Kevin Reilly announced his resignation as chairman of Fox. In July of that year that the operations of the network and 20th Century Fox Television will be merged into a new company, Fox Television Group, with 20th Century Fox Television co-chairs Dana Walden and Gary Newman filling the void left by Reilly's departure.
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Fox currently provides nineteen hours of entertainment and news programming per week. It provides fifteen hours of prime time programming to owned-and-operated and affiliated stations, airing from 8:00 to 10:00 p.m. Monday through Saturday and 7:00 to 10:00 p.m. on Sundays (all times Eastern and Pacific). An hour of late night animated programming is also offered on Saturdays from 11:00 p.m. to midnight Eastern and Pacific Time, branded under the Animation Domination High-Def banner (though scheduling for that hour varies depending on the market due to late local newscasts airing in the traditional 11:00 p.m. timeslot on some Fox stations). Weekend daytime programming consists of the paid programming block Weekend Marketplace (airing Saturdays from 10:00 a.m. to noon, although the block is not carried by all affiliates and in some areas, is offered to another station in the market), and the hour-long Sunday morning political news program – and the network's only regular national news program – Fox News Sunday with Chris Wallace (airing from 9:00 to 10:00 a.m. Eastern and Pacific, although the timeslot also varies by market due to local news or public affairs programming).
Sports programming is also provided, usually on weekends (albeit not every weekend year-round), and most commonly airing between 12:00 and 4:00 or 12:00 and 8:00 p.m. on Sundays (often airing for longer hours during football season, slightly less during NASCAR season), 3:30 and 7:00 p.m. on Saturday afternoons (during baseball season) and during primetime on certain Saturday evenings, with the primetime block on Saturdays – if any sports programming is scheduled for a particular week on that night – currently varying between occasional UFC events, Major League Baseball or NASCAR coverage in the late winter and early spring/summer, and college football coverage during the fall. Most of the network's primetime programming is produced by a production company owned by Fox's corporate parent 21st Century Fox, usually 20th Century Fox Television or Fox Television Studios.
Typically every Sunday night during primetime (unless preempted, usually by sports telecasts), Fox airs a lineup of original adult animated television sitcoms. This block of adult cartoons – which is branded by Fox as Animation Domination, which debuted on May 1, 2005 – has become a staple of the network.
The first programs to air in the Animation Domination lineup were American Dad! (which also had its beginnings in the lineup, and will move its first-run episodes to TBS – which already airs reruns of the series – in October 2014), Family Guy (which returned to the network after a four-year cancellation as part of Animation Domination when the lineup began), The Simpsons (the longest-running cartoon on Fox, predating the lineup by 16 years) and King of the Hill (which also predated the lineup, but by eight years). Shows currently airing in the lineup include Family Guy, The Simpsons, and Bob's Burgers. In addition to King of the Hill, series that have previously aired on the lineup have included Sit Down, Shut Up; Allen Gregory; Napoleon Dynamite and The Cleveland Show.
An extension of the Sunday primetime block called Animation Domination High-Def launched on Saturday late nights in July 2013 (marking the return of first-run programming in that time period since the 2010 cancellation of The Wanda Sykes Show), with ADHD Shorts, Axe Cop and High School USA!. Due to low ratings, Fox announced on April 17, 2014 that it would discontinue Animation Domination High-Def; the network has not confirmed if it will retain the hour-long timeslot that the block will continue to occupy until it ends on June 28, 2014 to carry other programming or if it will turn the timeslot over to the network's owned-and-operated stations and affiliates to run locally produced or syndicated programs during the 11:00 p.m. hour on Saturdays. As of November 2014, the block continues to run without new continuity.
Fox began airing children's programming in 1990 when it launched Fox Kids (originally known as the Fox Children's Network and the Fox Kids Network before arriving at its final name), a programming block that aired on Saturday mornings and Weekday afternoons. Programming within this block consisted mainly of cartoons, although it also aired some live-action series as well. It's line-up included Mighty Morphin Power Rangers, Bobby's World, X-Men, Spider Man, The Tick, Peter Pan and the Pirates and Goosebumps. Fox Kids also aired highly successful shows produced by Warner Bros. Animation including Tiny Toon Adventures, Animaniacs and Batman: The Animated Series. However in September 1995, Warner Bros. pulled Batman and Animaniacs off Fox Kids (Tiny Toons had already ended it's run) and moved it to The WB Network's rival Kids' WB programming block.
In 2001, Fox sold its children's division and the former Fox Family Channel (now ABC Family) to The Walt Disney Company; it would drop the weekday blocks the following year (turning the two-hour time period over to its stations, rather than retaining the slots and filling them with adult-oriented daytime shows), and replaced Fox Kids in September 2002 with a new children's program block, FoxBox (which was renamed 4KidsTV the following year), after it leased the four hours of its Saturday morning lineup to 4Kids Entertainment.
Fox discontinued the 4KidsTV block on December 27, 2008, due to a payment and distribution dispute between the network and 4Kids Entertainment, which was later settled. Rather than lease the time to another company to produce another children's program block, Fox gave two hours of the Saturday block back to its affiliates on January 3, 2009, to allow them to run Saturday morning newscasts or affiliate-purchased E/I programming (the latter of which Fox stations now purchase from the syndication market, as the network decided to stop supplying children's programming on its own), while the latter two hours were kept by Fox to run a network-managed paid programming block named Weekend Marketplace.
On September 14, 2014, the Xploration Station block premiered under a syndication agreement with Fox Television Stations, Tribune Broadcasting and several other Fox affiliate groups, which features two hours of E/I programming involving the STEM fields. Stations can choose to carry either this block or continue to air Weekend Marketplace, a choice made by the Fox stations of Sinclair Broadcast Group, which already carries chain-purchased E/I programming on their stations.
Unlike ABC, CBS and NBC, Fox does not currently air national morning or evening news programs – choosing to focus solely on its primetime schedule, sports and other ancillary network programming. However, the network's parent company, 21st Century Fox, owns the Fox News Channel, which was launched in 1996 and is now available through virtually every cable and satellite provider in the United States. Fox News does produce some news coverage that is carried by the broadcast network, which are usually separate from the coverage aired on the cable channel; in particular, FNC anchor Shepard Smith anchors most primetime news presentations on the Fox network, especially during political news events (which are anchored by Bret Baier on the Fox News Channel).
Specifically, the Fox network airs coverage of the State of the Union address, presidential debates, national election coverage, as well as periodic live breaking news bulletins branded as "Fox News Alerts" or sometimes "Fox News Red Alerts"; carriage of such special coverage may vary from station to station, and is often limited to events occurring within the network's usual primetime block (for example, unlike the Big Three, Fox does not often provide coverage of major political convention speeches, which usually occur during the 10:00 p.m. (Eastern Time) hour during which many of its affiliates air local newscasts; however the majority of Fox's owned-and-operated stations and affiliate groups do carry weekday breaking news briefs). The political discussion show Fox News Sunday also airs on the Fox network on Sunday mornings and is rebroadcast later in the day on FNC. Fox also operates an affiliate news service called Fox NewsEdge, which provides national and international news reports for Fox stations to use in their own locally produced newscasts.
Fox first tried its hand at a national news program in primetime in 1988, with the hour-long weekly newsmagazine The Reporters, which was produced by the same team behind the Fox Television Stations-distributed syndicated tabloid program A Current Affair; this program was cancelled due to low ratings after two years. Fox News Extra news capsules produced at WNYW and anchored by Cora-Ann Mihalik (who served as co-anchor of that station's 7:00 and 10:00 p.m. newscasts at the time) also aired during Fox's primetime schedule from the network's expansion into primetime in 1987 until about 1990. Another failed attempt occurred in 1993, when Fox launched the newsmagazine Front Page in an attempt to capture a younger demographic for such a program, with Ron Reagan among its five hosts.
After Fox News Channel launched in 1996, the network tried its hand at producing a newsmagazine again in 1998 with Fox Files, hosted by Fox News anchors Catherine Crier and Jon Scott, as well as a team of correspondents; it lasted a little over a year before being cancelled. Its most recent attempt at a newsmagazine series occurred during the 2002–03 sweeps period, with The Pulse, hosted by Fox News Channel anchor Shepard Smith.
Many Fox stations carry a local morning newscast that airs on average two to six hours, commonly including a two-hour block from 7:00 to 9:00 a.m. (or until 10:00 a.m. in several markets) as a local alternative to the national morning news programs. However, Fox did air a national morning news and lifestyle show called Fox After Breakfast (which originated as Breakfast Time on Fox's sister cable channel FX) from 1996 to 1998; the hour-long program aired at 9:00 a.m., as opposed to the morning shows on the other major networks that air from 7:00 to 9:00 a.m. in order to accommodate the morning news blocks running in the latter slot on some of its stations. Fox tried its hand at a national morning show again in 2001, this time in syndication, with Good Day Live, a heavily entertainment-focused offshoot of Good Day L.A. – a morning news, entertainment and lifestyle program that debuted in 1993 on Fox O&O KTTV in Los Angeles; the national version of the program was cancelled in 2005. On January 22, 2007, Fox premiered The Morning Show with Mike and Juliet (hosted by Mike Jerrick and Juliet Huddy of Fox News Channel's DaySide newscast), on its owned-and-operated stations. The show was lighter in format and more entertainment-oriented, though its focus often changed when major news stories occurred. In February 2007, the program was syndicated to other stations including many ABC-, NBC- and CBS-affiliated stations in markets where it was not carried by a Fox or MyNetworkTV affiliate; it was cancelled in June 2009.
When the network launched, Fox management, having seen the critical role that sports programming (soccer events in particular) had played in the growth of the British satellite service BSkyB, believed that sports, and specifically professional football, would be the engine that would make Fox a major network the quickest. In 1987, after ABC initially hedged on renewing its contract to carry Monday Night Football, Fox made an offer to the NFL for the same amount that ABC had been paying, about $13 million per game at the time. However, the NFL, in part because Fox had not yet established itself as a major network, renewed its contract with ABC.
Six years later, when the league's television contract was up for renewal, Fox made a $1.58 billion bid to obtain broadcast rights to the National Football Conference division – covering four seasons of games, beginning with the NFL's 1994 season. The NFL selected the Fox bid on December 20, 1993, stripping CBS of football telecasts for the first time since 1955. The event placed Fox on a par with the "Big Three" broadcast networks and ushered in an era of growth for the NFL. Fox's acquisition of the NFL rights also quickly led toward the network reaching a deal with New World Communications to change the affiliations of twelve of their stations to Fox, including those that New World was concurrently acquiring from Argyle Television and Citicasters. The rights gave Fox many new viewers and a platform for advertising its other programs.
With a sports division now established with the arrival of the NFL, Fox acquired broadcast television rights to the National Hockey League (1994–99), Major League Baseball (since 1996) and NASCAR auto racing (since 2001). From 2007 to 2010, Fox aired college football games that were part of the Bowl Championship Series, except for the Rose Bowl, whose rights remained with ABC. The package also included the BCS Championship Game, with the exception of the 2010 event when the game was played at the Rose Bowl.
In August 2011, Fox and mixed martial arts promotion Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) reached a multi-year agreement, which includes the rights to broadcast four live events in prime time or late night annually, marking the first time that the UFC has aired its events on broadcast television. Its first event was UFC on Fox: Velasquez vs. Dos Santos, held on November 12, 2011.
Fox maintains several venues to watch the network's programming via video on demand, including a traditional VOD service called Fox on Demand, which is carried on most traditional cable and telco providers. Fox parent 21st Century Fox is a part-owner of the streaming video service Hulu, and offers most of the network's programming through that service, along with traditional streaming via the network's Full Episode portal on Fox.com.
The cable version of Fox on Demand usually runs shows within a day of their original airing, with fast forwarding capabilities disabled (a commonality for video-on-demand television services provided by the U.S. broadcast networks) and the program's original advertisements as aired presented in this form for a week before direct response advertising replaces the original ads. Hulu and Fox.com offer their streaming video on an eight-day delay for most viewers currently, due to restrictions put in place by the network to encourage live or DVR same-week viewing via traditional and cable on demand means. Select providers such as Dish Network and Verizon FiOS have made agreements with Fox to allow their subscribers to watch programming the day after on Hulu and Fox.com if signed in via their ISP accounts, and day after viewing of Fox programming is available on Hulu for paid Hulu Plus subscribers.
Fox began broadcasting its programming in 720p high definition on September 12, 2004 with week one of the 2004 NFL season and that day's slate of NFC games. The network does not display a digital on-screen graphic logo on the bottom right-hand corner of the screen, except for a ten-second promotional sweep of a "Fox HD" acknowledgement (which before the end of 2010, also featured a sponsor tag for DirecTV); instead a trigger in Fox's program delivery system at each station displays the logo bug of an owned-and-operated or affiliate station in the right-hand corner of the 16:9 screen frame, which disappears during commercial breaks (during local pre-emptions of Fox programming, the logo remains displayed even though the station is not airing the programming). However, network or affiliate bugs are not displayed during Fox Sports programming. During some high-profile or live programming such as American Idol and So You Think You Can Dance however, Fox does display its network logo and forgoes the affiliate's logo, mainly for promotional consideration due to fair use of clips from each series by other media outlets (such as news programming and clip programs like those seen on E!); until 2014, it was seen in the 4:3 safe area. The Sunday political talk program Fox News Sunday displays the "Fox HD" logo at all times for both that reason and many stations pre-taping the program for airing later in the morning.
On some Fox programs, a hashtag rests above the affiliate's logo (for example, #newgirl or #bones) to provide viewers reference to the network's official search tag on Twitter to find or start discussions during the airing of a program. In April 2012, additional episode-only tags relating to plot points in an episode (for instance, the #saturdaynightGLEEver tag for an April 2012 episode of Glee with that episode title) began to also be promoted in this space to both add additional trending topics and spread out more conversations on Twitter. In cases where the Fox bug appears instead of the station's logo bug, the Twitter hashtag is directly above the Fox logo in the safe area.
Fox was the only commercial television network (broadcast, cable or satellite) to air programs in widescreen that are not available in HD during the analog-to-digital transitional period; programs produced in this format were identified as being presented in "Fox High Resolution Widescreen" from 2001 to 2006, but were unbranded afterwards. Prior to the launch of its HD feed in 2004, some sitcoms and drama series were presented in this format, but reality, talk and game shows (American Idol being the first major exception, as it began to be presented in high definition in 2008) were later only presented in the enhanced definition widescreen mode. The children's sports program This Week in Baseball began airing in widescreen in 2009, while Fox News Sunday converted to HD when Fox News Channel began operating from its new HD facilities in November 2008 (before the network's widescreen presentation effort went into effect in September 2010, it was the final Fox News program to be produced to feature graphics and camera positions structured for the 4:3 safe area, as Fox News Channel itself converted to a full-time widescreen presentation on both its HD and standard definition channels in 2009). MADtv was produced to air only in 4:3 until September 2008, likely due to a mix of stations airing the show at differing times than the mandated 11:00 p.m. timeslot and therefore unable to offer it on the live air in 16:9, and the show's producers not making the switch to the format. The final network show to convert to HD was Family Guy beginning with its September 26, 2010 episode; all programming provided by Fox, except for the Weekend Marketplace block, is now broadcast in widescreen and in high definition as of 2013[update].
Fox is unique among U.S. broadcasters in distributing its network HD feed over satellite to affiliates as an MPEG transport stream intended to be delivered bit-for-bit to broadcast transmission. During network time, local commercials are inserted using a transport stream splicer. The affiliates of most other networks decode compressed satellite network video feeds and then re-encode them for final over-the-air emission.
Since late July 2010, when Fox began broadcasting its sports programming with graphics optimized for 16:9 displays rather than the 4:3 safe area, the network has asked cable and satellite providers to comply and use the #10 AFD broadcast flag it now sends out over Fox programming, which has 16:9 content display in letterboxed mode on 4:3 screens and has graphical elements optimized for the 16:9 screen. Subsequently, a number of Fox O&Os and affiliates also now send out the AFD #10 flag over local news and syndicated programs that the stations broadcast in HD with graphical elements optimized for 16:9 to allow that programming to appear in widescreen format on 4:3 analog sets.
It was estimated in 2003 that Fox was viewable by 96.18% of all U.S. households, reaching a total of 102,565,710 homes in the United States. Fox has 180 VHF and UHF owned-and-operated or affiliate stations in the United States and U.S. possessions. Analog broadcasting on Fox largely ended on June 12, 2009 as part of the transition to digital television. As a newer broadcast network, Fox still has a number of low-power affiliates, covering markets like Youngstown, Ohio (WYFX) and Santa Barbara, California (KKFX), that broadcast in analog. In some cases, including both of these markets, these stations also have digital signals on the digital subchannel of a sister television station in the same market. Currently outside of Fox's core O&O group, Tribune Broadcasting is Fox's largest affiliate group in terms of overall market reach, with fourteen stations (including some former Fox O&Os that were spun off in 2008 to finance former Fox parent News Corporation's purchase of The Wall Street Journal); the Sinclair Broadcast Group is the largest operator of Fox stations by numerical total, owning or providing services to 26 stations.
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During the early 1990s, Fox began having its stations use a branding structure using a combination of the "Fox" name and the station's channel number, often followed by the licensed call letters (for instance, WNYW in New York City, WTTG in Washington, D.C. and WAGA-TV in Atlanta, Georgia, are branded as "Fox 5"). By the mid-to-late 1990s, the call letters were minimized to be just barely readable to FCC requirements. This marked the start of the trend for other networks to apply such naming schemes, especially at CBS, which uses the "CBS Mandate" on most of its owned-and-operated stations. The branding scheme has varied in some markets, with other stations using a city or regional name within the branding instead of the channel number (for example, the network's Chicago O&O WFLD was branded as "Fox Chicago" from 1997 to 2012); a few of the network's stations also minimized use of "Fox" name, opting to use their call letters or a more genericized branding (examples include Oakland-San Francisco's KTVU, which branded as "Channel 2" for many years until it adopted "KTVU Fox 2" as a general brand in 1996, although it still uses "KTVU Channel 2 News" as the branding for its newscasts, although with Fox's purchase of the station in October 2014, this may change to full-time "Fox 2" branding; and Miami affiliate WSVN, which has branded as "WSVN 7" for general use and "(Channel) 7 News" for its newscasts since it joined the network in January 1989).
Starting in 2006, more standardization of the O&Os began to take place both on-air and online. All of the network's O&Os began adopting an on-air look more closely aligned with the Fox News Channel. This included changing the logos to the same red, white and blue rotating boxkite-style logo. After News Corporation's acquisition of the social networking site Myspace (which it sold in June 2011), some Fox O&Os launched websites that look the same and have similar URL addresses under the "MyFox" scheme (such as MyFoxDC.com for WTTG).
Over the years, Fox has used a few logos, most of which have the familiar trademark searchlights on either side of the "FOX" nameplate. In October 1986, when the network inaugurated its programming, Fox introduced its first official logo: three squares containing the letters "FBC" standing for "Fox Broadcasting Company"; however, that logo only lasted for six months and was primarily featured at the beginning of The Late Show with Joan Rivers. When the network began offering prime time programming on April 5, 1987, a more familiar logo was introduced, which was based on 20th Century Fox's longtime logo featuring just the capitalized "FOX" name alongside the signature Fox searchlights and double-pane platform (FX Movie Channel currently uses a logo also modeled after the 20th Century Fox logo for its Fox Movie Channel block).
In 1993, the familiar logo was given a more "hip" makeover, with the "FOX" wordmark revised and the angle changed, removing the tilting. Starting with the introduction of this logo, the network began displaying an on-screen bug within its programs on the lower right-hand corner of the screen (initially for one minute at the start of each program segment or act, eventually being displayed throughout the program with the exception of commercial breaks, before reverting to the former display format regularly upon the 2009 digital transition). The "O" character also was made over, acquiring its trademark pillar-like bowl, which has since become a major focal point for the logo and Fox advertising in lieu of the searchlight motif.
For the 1995-96 television season, the logo was revised again, dropping the searchlights, but keeping the lower double panes and adding a third pane atop the logotype. A variant of the original 1993 logo design was instituted in 1996, this time excluding the panes underneath the network name, but leaving the searchlights and Fox wordmark.
The current version of the logo was introduced in 1999, completely removing the searchlights and switching the logo to a wordmark design. Despite this, the searchlight theme remains an integral part of 21st Century Fox's branding efforts, they are still incorporated into the Fox News Channel logo, and in the universal station logo introduced in 2006 by Fox's owned-and-operated stations – which were retained by the former Fox O&Os that Fox Television Stations sold to Local TV in 2008 and had spread to several Fox stations owned by Tribune Broadcasting (including those that Tribune acquired through its 2013 merger with Local TV, with the logo introduced by the O&Os being modified for the Tribune-owned Fox affiliates in 2012 to feature only one searchlight as part of the company's graphical standardizations for those stations) and certain other Fox affiliates not owned or operated by either company. The older 1996–1999 searchlight logo is still used within the logos of a few Fox affiliates. The searchlights were still featured in the logo of sister channel FX until a rebranding effort in 2008.
Differences between Fox and the "Big Three" networks
Fox's programming schedule differs from the "Big Three" networks in several significant ways: the network airs programming during the primetime hours for only two hours on Monday through Saturday evenings and three hours on Sundays, compared to the three weeknight and four Sunday night hours broadcast by ABC, CBS and NBC. This allows for many of its stations to air local news during the 10:00 p.m. (Eastern and Pacific Time) timeslot. Fox's original reason for the reduced number of prime time hours was to avoid fulfilling the FCC's requirements at the time to be considered a network, and to be free of resulting regulations, though FCC rules have been relaxed since then.
Despite being a major network, Fox also does not air soap operas or any other network daytime programming (such as game shows or talk shows). Because of this, affiliates take on the responsibility of programming daytime hours with syndicated and locally produced programming (two syndicated daytime courtroom shows currently carried by most of the network's affiliates, Divorce Court and Judge Alex, are produced by corporate sister 20th Television); Warner Bros. Television Distribution also has Fox's O&Os and affiliates forming the bulk of their distribution for the programs of Telepictures' celebrity news website TMZ, TMZ on TV and TMZ Live. The network also does not offer national morning and evening newscasts, network-supplied children's programming on Saturday mornings or late-night programming on weeknights. Local affiliates either produce their own programming during these times or run syndicated programs. Because of the erratic scheduling of the network's sports programming, many Fox stations choose to run a mix of syndicated programming, infomercials and especially movies to fill weekend afternoon timeslots when sports programming is not scheduled.
Locally produced news programming on Fox stations differs from stations aligned with ABC, NBC and CBS in that the quantity of newscasts varies from station to station. Fundamentally, the newscast schedules on Fox affiliates vary considerably between stations compared to those aligned with the three longer-established networks (which typically carry a minimum of 3½ hours of daily local news programming spread across morning, late afternoon and late evening timeslots). The most common scheduling format for Fox's affiliates is to run a one-, two- or three-hour morning newscast at 7:00 a.m. (though stations that produce their own morning newscasts will often have an earlier start time for the program) and a half-hour or hour-long newscast in the hour following the network's primetime programming (10:00 p.m. in the Eastern and Pacific, and 9:00 p.m. in the Central and Mountain Time Zones). However, there are several stations (most notably KTVU in San Francisco and WSVN in Miami, as well as most of Fox's O&Os, save for WFLD in Chicago, the largest Fox station without an early evening newscast) that maintain in-house news departments which utilize a news-intensive format that incorporates early evening and in many cases, midday newscasts (more closely mirroring news schedules of ABC, CBS and NBC stations) – these stations may also include newscasts in said timeslots plus an early evening newscast that is extended by a half-hour − each of which may also compete with the national morning and evening newscasts on the Big Three networks.
The first Fox station to adopt a news-intensive schedule was Miami affiliate WSVN when it joined the network in January 1989, the station retained its morning, midday, 5:00 and 6:00 p.m. newscasts while moving its 11:00 p.m. newscast to 10:00 p.m. and expanding it to one hour (an 11:00 p.m. newscast was later brought back to the schedule in 1995), and adding two hours onto its morning newscast. This type of scheduling was adopted by the former New World, Burnham Broadcasting and other former major network stations that switched to Fox between 1994 and 1996.
The Fox affiliate body features fewer news-producing stations in comparison to stations aligned with the historical broadcast networks (each of whom have roughly ⅝-⅞ of their stations broadcasting local news programs, either in-house or in conjunction with another station). Many Fox stations that have created their own upstart news departments often do not run a full newscast slate comparable to their larger affiliate competitors, usually debuting a primetime newscast first, with newscasts in morning, midday and early evening timeslots gradually being added later on. As of March 2014, 69 stations (including all 18 owned-and-operated stations) aligned with Fox produce their own local news programming through news departments run by the stations. Cleveland affiliate WJW (which was owned by the network from 1997 to 2008) has the largest number of hours devoted to local news programming of any Fox station with 66 hours each week, followed by Detroit O&O WJBK with 63½ hours each week.
In several markets, the local Fox affiliate outsources news programming to an NBC, ABC or CBS station in the market (either due to insufficient funds or studio space to produce their own newscasts or in most cases, the station being operated as part of a legal duopoly or through an operational agreement with a major network affiliate); such as Fox affiliate WEMT (Owned by Esteem Broadcasting LLC) newscasts are produced by NBC affiliate WCYB-TV (Bonten Media Group) but WEMT is operated through a local marketing agreement (LMA). As a result, stations using this model often do not have newscasts expanded into other timeslots due to the contracting station choosing to avoid having newscasts on the Fox station compete in timeslots against their own programs (differing from outsourcing agreements between two stations affiliated with the three major broadcast networks in existence prior to 1986 where newscasts may be simulcast on both stations in the same timeslots). Stations aligned with Fox that have newscasts produced by a same-market major network affiliate tend to have fewer hours devoted to news than the station producing the program. While outsourcing newscasts is less common for the network's stations in the 50 largest American television markets, WPGH-TV in Pittsburgh (ranked as the 23rd largest market) is the largest Fox station by Nielsen market ranking using this arrangement as its 10:00 p.m. newscast has been produced by Cox Media Group-owned NBC affiliate WPXI since WPGH owner Sinclair Broadcast Group shut down its news operations after the 2006 closure of News Central.
A small number of Fox affiliates do not run any newscasts and air only syndicated programming in time periods where newscasts air on other major network affiliates. Evansville, Indiana affiliate WEVV-DT2 is currently the largest Fox station by market size that does not carry news programming (as its parent station lacks a news department), and Springfield, Missouri affiliate KRBK the largest Fox station without full-scale newscasts (only carrying a ten-minute primetime newscast that airs after Fox primetime and before MyNetworkTV programming on weeknights). Prior to April 2013, WUTV in Buffalo was the largest Fox affiliate without any news programming as it had long opted to air only syndicated programs outside of the Fox schedule instead of investing in a news department or entering into a news share agreement with another Buffalo area station, due to the large number of television news operations in Buffalo, Hamilton and Toronto and due to the fact that it also sells advertising targeted at viewers in Southern Ontario; Sinclair Broadcast Group later agreed to move a 10:00 p.m. newscast produced by Gannett-owned NBC affiliate WGRZ to WUTV from its MyNetworkTV-affiliated sister station WNYO-TV, to increase viewership for that program, and expanded the agreement with WGRZ to include an hour-long morning newscast.
Although the Fox network itself does not carry any national, regularly scheduled news programming other than Fox News Sunday, both that program and the network's breaking news coverage are produced by the Fox News Channel, and are regular subjects of controversy. The network has also received some criticism for at times deciding not to carry scheduled news events during primetime, such as presidential speeches, in order to air regular entertainment programming (such as a speech in September 2009 which would have jeopardized the heavily-promoted fall premiere of Glee had it aired).
Controversy surrounded the network in 2002 and 2003 over obscenities, expressed respectively by Cher and Nicole Richie, aired live on the network's broadcast of the Billboard Music Awards on its affiliates in the Eastern and Central time zones despite the use of five-second audio delays; the indecent material was edited out on broadcasts in the Mountain Time Zone and westward. Both of the obscene instances were condemned by the Parents Television Council and named by them among the worst instances on television from 2001 to 2004. PTC members filed tens of thousands of complaints to the Federal Communications Commission over the broadcasts. The Fox network's subsequent apology was labeled a "sham" by PTC president L. Brent Bozell III, who argued that Fox could have easily used an audio delay to edit out the obscene language. As the FCC was investigating the broadcasts, in 2004, Fox announced that it would begin extending live broadcast delays to five minutes from its standard five or ten seconds to more easily be able to edit out obscenities uttered over the air. In June 2007, in the case Federal Communications Commission v. Fox Television Stations, the U.S. Second Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that the FCC could not issue indecency fines against Fox because it does not have the authority to fine broadcasters for fleeting expletives, such as in the case of the Billboard Awards. The FCC eventually decided to appeal the Second Circuit Court's finding. The U.S. Supreme Court granted certiorari and oral arguments in FCC v. Fox, et al., began November 4, 2008.
The Parents Television Council has also criticized many popular Fox shows for perceived indecent content, such as American Dad!, Arrested Development, The Simpsons, Family Guy, Hell's Kitchen, Married... with Children, Prison Break and That '70s Show. The Council sometimes has gone even as far as to file complaints with the Federal Communications Commission regarding indecent content within Fox programming, having done so for That '70s Show and Married by America, having successfully been able to get the FCC to fine the network nearly $1 million for its airing of the latter program. That fine was reduced to $91,000 after it was discovered that the FCC originally claimed to have received 159 complaints; it later admitted to only receiving 90, which came from only 23 people. Blogger Jeff Jarvis studied the complaints and realized that all but two were virtually identical to each other, meaning that the $1.2 million judgment was based on original complaints written by a total of only three people. Armed with the new information, Fox promised to fight the fine. The fine was ultimately reduced to $91,000 in January 2009.
Also, as of 2004 Fox programming has been chosen by the PTC for its weekly "Worst TV Show of the Week" feature more often than programming from any other broadcast network.
Like ABC, CBS and NBC, Fox programming is carried on cable, satellite and IPTV providers in Canada through affiliates and owned-and-operated stations of the network that are located within proximity to the Canada–United States border (such as KCPQ/Seattle, Washington; KAYU-TV/Spokane, Washington; KMSP-TV/Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota; WFFF-TV/Burlington, Vermont; WFXT/Boston, WJBK/Detroit and WUTV/Buffalo, New York). Most programming is generally the same, aside from simultaneous substitutions imposed by the provider that results in the American signal being replaced with programming from a Canadian network (such as the Global Television Network and CTV) if both happen to air a particular program in the same time period.
In the Caribbean, many cable and satellite television providers offer Fox programming through New York City O&O WNYW or Miami affiliate WSVN. A few locally owned Fox affiliates do exist in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Fox programming is available on cable in the Bahamas and Bermuda, via over-the-air stations in the United States.
Fox programming in Guam through low-power affiliate KEQI-LP. Programming is shown day and date on a one-day tape delay due to Guam being located on the west side of the International Date Line (for example, the Sunday night lineup is carried on Monday nights and is promoted as such), with live programming and breaking news airing as scheduled, meaning live sports coverage such as the NFL and NASCAR often airs early in the morning.
Federated States of Micronesia
Fox is available on cable television in the Federated States of Micronesia, also via KHON-TV.
On October 15, 2011, a domestic version of the network launched in Bulgaria. Fox Bulgaria is part of a collection of television networks distributed by Fox International Channels, which include entertainment channels Fox Life, Fox Crime, documentary channels National Geographic Channel and Nat Geo Wild, cooking channel 24KITCHEN, news channel Sky News and children's channel BabyTV.
A domestic version of Fox debuted in Latvia on October 1, 2012.
A domestic version of Fox debuted in Lithuania on October 1, 2012.
A Russian version of FOX Russia debuted on October 1, 2012, replacing FOX Crime Russia. Fox International Channels also operates a regional version of its female-targeted Fox Life network. Fox Russia also distributes its signals and other Russian channels, Baby TV, NatGeo Wild and National Geographic Channel.
On October 15, 2012, FOX Serbia debuted in Serbia. The channel is distributed by Fox International Channels, which also owns Fox Life, Fox Crime and Fox Movies, National Geographic Channel and Nat Geo Wild, 24KITCHEN, Sky News and BabyTV.
Fox launched in Croatia on October 15, 2012. Also operated by Fox International Channels Bulgaria, all of Fox's channels (Fox, Fox Life, Fox Crime, Fox Movies, 24Kitchen, NatGeo (both SD and HD), NatGeo Wild (also HD and SD) and BabyTV have identical programming as those in Serbia. Most of them (all except Nat Geo HD and BabyTV) feature subtitled promos and content. All channels except for BabyTV are broadcast in 16:9 widescreen, while Fox will soon be offered in HD.
UK and Ireland
On January 11, 2013, the United Kingdom and Ireland version of FX was rebranded as Fox.
On October 1, 2012, a regional version of FX serving Greece and Cyprus was rebranded as Fox. The channel is operated alongside five others that are owned by Fox International Channels Greece, Fox Life, Nat Geo (SD and HD), Nat Geo Wild (SD and HD), Nat Geo Adventure and Baby TV. In 2013, Senior Vice President of Fox International Channels Southeast Europe, Adam Theiler announced the creation of a new channel dedicated to cooking with domestically produced productions, the production of documentaries catering to the Greek audience and the launch of HD feeds for Fox and FOXlife, because of the success of Fox International Channels in Greece.
A domestic version of Fox launched in the Netherlands on August 19, 2013. The channel's schedule features a mix of American series, such as The Walking Dead and The Simpsons, as well as sports programs. Fox is available digitally on channel 11 for Ziggo or UPC users, on channel 14 for KPN users, and on channel 52 or 58 for CanalDigitaal users.
A domestic version of Fox debuted in Sweden on September 22, 2014.
- 20th Century Fox
- 4Kids TV
- Fox cartoons
- Fox Kids
- Fox News Channel (Fox Business Network)
- Fox Filipino
- Fox Sports (Fox Sports 1, Fox Sports 2, Fox Sports Networks)
- Fox Television Stations
- FX Movie Channel
- Animation Domination
- Animation Domination (Australia)
- Friday night death slot
- Fox Channel Asia
- Fox Life
- Fox (Turkey)
- Fox (Finland)
- Fox (Greece)
- Fox (UK and Ireland)
- Fox Life Greece
- Fox Life (Netherlands)
- List of programs broadcast by Fox
- Lists of United States network television schedules
- List of United States over-the-air television networks
- Fox Broadcasting Co. v. Dish Network, LLC
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- [dead link]
- Fox "Worst of the Week" articles by Parents Television Council during the middle of 2004:
- FOX kotisivu | FOX. Foxtv.fi. Retrieved on December 12, 2013.
- FOX in augustus in Nederland op de buis - Tech & Media - VK. Volkskrant.nl (July 26, 2013). Retrieved on August 16, 2013.
- FOX NL: De nieuwe digitale TV-zender | FOX NL: De nieuwe digitale zender. Foxtv.nl. Retrieved on December 12, 2013.
- Alex Ben. Block (1990), Outfoxed ISBN 0-312-03904-2
- Daniel M. Kimmel (2004), The Fourth Network ISBN 1-56663-572-1
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