20th Century Fox

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This article is about the film studio. For its parent company, see 21st Century Fox. For the song by The Doors, see Twentieth Century Fox (The Doors song).
Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation
Type Subsidiary of 21st Century Fox
Industry Film
Founded May 31, 1935 (1935-05-31),[1] by merger of Fox Film Corporation (founded in 1915) and 20th Century Pictures, Inc. (founded in 1932)
Founder(s) Joseph M. Schenck
Darryl F. Zanuck
William Fox
Headquarters Fox Plaza, Century City, Los Angeles, California, United States
Key people Rupert Murdoch
(Chairman)
Products Motion pictures, television films
Owner(s) Independent
(1935–1985)
News Corporation
(1985–2013)
21st Century Fox
(2013–present)
Parent Fox Filmed Entertainment
(Fox Entertainment Group)
Divisions 20th Century Fox Animation
Fox Searchlight Pictures
Fox Digital Studio
Fox 2000 Pictures
Fox Animation Studios
Fox Atomic
Fox Interactive
Subsidiaries Blue Sky Studios
Fox Star Studios
20th Century Fox Home Entertainment
Fox Television Studios
20th Television
20th Century Fox Television
20th Century Fox Japan
TSG Entertainment
FNM Films
Website www.foxmovies.com

Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation (Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation, with hyphen, from 1935 to 1985)—also known as 20th Century Fox, 20th Century Fox Pictures, or simply Fox, is one of the six major American film studios. Located in the Century City area of Los Angeles, just west of Beverly Hills, the studio used to be a subsidiary of News Corporation, but now it is currently a subsidiary of 21st Century Fox. It's the world's second largest major film studio, after Warner Bros. Pictures.

The company as we know today, was formed on May 31, 1935,[1] as the result of the merger between Fox Film Corporation, founded by William Fox in 1915, and Twentieth Century Pictures, founded in 1933 by Darryl F. Zanuck and Joseph M. Schenck.

20th Century Fox has distributed various commercially successful film series, including the live action Alvin and the Chipmunks, Avatar, Titanic, the first two Star Wars trilogies, Ice Age, X-Men, Die Hard, Planet of the Apes, Night at the Museum, Fantastic Four, Alien and Predator. Television series produced by Fox include The Simpsons, M*A*S*H, The X-Files, Bones, Family Guy, Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Futurama, How I Met Your Mother, Glee, Modern Family, New Girl, and 24. Among the most famous actresses to come out of this studio were Shirley Temple, who was 20th Century Fox's first film star, Betty Grable, Gene Tierney, Marilyn Monroe and Jayne Mansfield. The studio also contracted the first African-American cinema star, Dorothy Dandridge. 20th Century Fox is a member of the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA).[2]

History[edit]

Fox Film Corporation[edit]

The Fox Film Corporation was formed in 1915 by theater chain pioneer William Fox, who formed Fox Film Corporation by merging two companies he had established in 1913: Greater New York Film Rental, a distribution firm, which was part of the Independents; and Fox (or Box, depending on the source) Office Attractions Company, a production company. This merging of companies of two different types was an early example of vertical integration. Only a year before, the latter company had distributed Winsor McCay's groundbreaking cartoon Gertie the Dinosaur.

Always more of an entrepreneur than a showman, Fox[3] concentrated on acquiring and building theaters; pictures were secondary. The company's first film studios were set up in Fort Lee, New Jersey where it and many other early film studios in America's first motion picture industry were based at the beginning of the 20th century.[4][5][6] In 1917, William Fox sent Sol M. Wurtzel to Hollywood to oversee the studio's West Coast production facilities where a more hospitable and cost-effective climate existed for filmmaking. Fox had purchased the Edendale studio of the failing Selig Polyscope Company, which had been making films in Los Angeles since 1909 and was the first motion picture studio in Los Angeles.

With the introduction of sound technology, Fox moved to acquire the rights to a sound-on-film process. In the years 1925–26, Fox purchased the rights to the work of Freeman Harrison Owens, the U.S. rights to the Tri-Ergon system invented by three German inventors, and the work of Theodore Case. This resulted in the Movietone sound system later known as "Fox Movietone". Later that year, the company began offering films with a music-and-effects track, and the following year Fox began the weekly Fox Movietone News feature, which ran until 1963. The growing company needed space, and in 1926 Fox acquired 300 acres (1.2 km2) in the open country west of Beverly Hills and built "Movietone City", the best-equipped studio of its time.

When rival Marcus Loew died in 1927, Fox offered to buy the Loew family's holdings. Loew's Inc. controlled more than 200 theaters, as well as the MGM studio. When the family agreed to the sale, the merger of Fox and Loew's Inc. was announced in 1929. But MGM studio boss Louis B. Mayer was not included in the deal and fought back. Using political connections, Mayer called on the Justice Department's antitrust unit to delay giving final approval to the merger. Fox was badly injured in a car crash in the summer of 1929, and by the time he recovered he had lost most of his fortune in the fall 1929 stock market crash, ending any chance of the merger going through even without the Justice Department's objections.

Overextended and close to bankruptcy, Fox was stripped of his empire in 1930 and ended up in jail. Fox Film, with more than 500 theatres, was placed in receivership. A bank-mandated reorganization propped the company up for a time, but it soon became apparent that despite its size, Fox could not stand on its own. Under new president Sidney Kent, the new owners began negotiating with the upstart, but powerful independent Twentieth Century Pictures in the early spring of 1935.

Twentieth Century Pictures[edit]

Twentieth Century Pictures was created in 1932 by Joseph Schenck (the former president of United Artists) and Darryl F. Zanuck from Warner Brothers. Financial backing came from Schenck's younger brother Nicholas Schenck, president of Loew's, the theater chain that owned M-G-M, and Louis B. Mayer of M-G-M, who wanted a position for his son-in-law, William Goetz. The company product was distributed by United Artists (UA), and leased space at Samuel Goldwyn Studios.[7]

Schenck was President of 20th Century, while Zanuck was named Production Chief and Goetz and Raymond Griffith served as vice-presidents. Their initial stars under contract were George Arliss, Constance Bennett, and Loretta Young however the Goetz connection meant that talent could be borrowed from MGM. The company was successful right from the very beginning - out of their first 18 films only one, Born to Be Bad - was not a financial success.[8] Their 1934 production, The House of Rothschild was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Picture.

In 1935, they produced the classic film Les Misérables, from Victor Hugo's novel, which was also nominated for Best Picture. Early in the late winter of 1934, Zanuck began negotiate with the UA board to acquire stock of the company and become a board member, but became outraged by UA's co-founder Mary Pickford's refusal to reward Twentieth Century with the company's stock, fearing it would have diluted the value of holdings by another UA stockholder and co-founder, D.W. Griffith. Schenck, who had been a UA stockholder for over ten years, resigned from United Artists in protest of the shoddy treatment of Twentieth Century, and Zanuck; thus began discussions with other distributors, which have led to talks with the bankrupt Fox Studios.

Twentieth Century/Fox merger[edit]

Carmen Miranda in The Gang's All Here. In 1945, she was the highest-paid actress in the United States.[9]

Schenck and Zanuck began merger talks with Fox management Kent and Spyros Skouras, then manager of the Fox West Coast Theaters, helped make it happen (and later became president of the new company). Although it was still much smaller than Fox, Twentieth Century was the senior partner in the merger.[citation needed] Aside from the theater chain and a first-rate studio lot, Zanuck and Schenck felt there wasn't much else to Fox. The studio's biggest star, Will Rogers, died in a plane crash weeks after the merger. Its leading female star, Janet Gaynor, was fading in popularity and promising leading men James Dunn and Spencer Tracy had been dropped because of heavy drinking. At first, it was expected that the new company was originally to be called "Fox-Twentieth Century". However, 20th Century brought more to the bargaining table besides Schenck and Zanuck; it was more profitable than Fox and had considerably more talent. The new company, The Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation, began trading on May 31, 1935; the hyphen was dropped in 1985. Schenck became Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, while Kent remained as President. Zanuck became Vice President in Charge of Production, replacing Fox's longtime production chief Winfield Sheehan.

The company's films retained the 20th Century Films searchlight logo on their opening credits as well as the 20th Century opening fanfare, but with the name changed to 20th Century-Fox.

After the merger was completed, Zanuck quickly signed young actors who would carry Twentieth Century-Fox for years:[citation needed] Tyrone Power, Linda Darnell, Carmen Miranda, Don Ameche, Henry Fonda, Gene Tierney, Sonja Henie, and Betty Grable. Also on the Fox payroll he found two players who he built up into the studio's leading assets, Alice Faye and seven-year-old Shirley Temple. Favoring popular biographies and musicals, Zanuck built Fox back to profitability. Thanks to record attendance during World War II, Fox overtook RKO and MGM (Hollywood's biggest studio) to become the third most profitable film studio. While Zanuck went off for eighteen months' war service, junior partner William Goetz kept profits high by going for light entertainment. The studio's — indeed the industry's — biggest star was creamy blonde Betty Grable.

In 1942,[citation needed] Spyros Skouras succeeded Kent as president of the studio. Together with Zanuck, who returned in 1943, they intended to make Fox's output more serious-minded. During the next few years, with pictures like The Razor's Edge, Wilson, Gentleman's Agreement, The Snake Pit, Boomerang, and Pinky, Zanuck established a reputation for provocative, adult films. Fox also specialized in adaptations of best-selling books such as Ben Ames Williams' Leave Her to Heaven (1945), starring Gene Tierney, which was the highest-grossing Fox film of the 1940s. Fox also produced film versions of Broadway musicals, including the Rodgers and Hammerstein films, beginning with the musical version of State Fair, the only work that the famous team wrote especially for films, in 1945, and continuing years later with Carousel in 1956, The King and I, and The Sound of Music. They also made the 1958 film version of South Pacific. Fox released B pictures made by producers Edward L. Alperson from the mid-1940s and Robert L. Lippert (Regal and later Associated Pictures Inc.) in the mid 50s.

Don Ameche, Alice Faye, and Carmen Miranda in That Night in Rio, produced by Fox in 1941.
From the 1952 film Viva Zapata!

After the war and with the advent of television audiences slowly drifted away. Twentieth Century Fox held on to its theaters until a court-mandated divorce - they were spun off as Fox National Theaters in 1953.[citation needed] That year, with attendance at half the 1946 level, Twentieth Century Fox gambled on an unproven gimmick. Noting that the two film sensations of 1952 had been Cinerama, which required three projectors to fill a giant curved screen, and "Natural Vision" 3D, which got its effects of depth by requiring the use of polarized glasses, Fox mortgaged its studio to buy rights to a French anamorphic projection system which gave a slight illusion of depth without glasses. President Spyros Skouras struck a deal with the inventor Henri Chrétien, leaving the other film studios empty-handed, and in 1953 introduced CinemaScope in the studio's ground-breaking feature film The Robe.

The success of The Robe was so massive that in February 1953 Zanuck announced that henceforth all Fox pictures would be made in CinemaScope.[citation needed] To convince theater owners to install this new process, Fox agreed to help pay conversion costs (about $25,000 per screen); and to ensure enough product, Fox gave access to CinemaScope to any rival studio choosing to use it. Seeing the box-office for the first two CinemaScope features, The Robe and How to Marry a Millionaire, Warner Bros., MGM, Universal Pictures (then known as Universal-International), Columbia Pictures and Disney quickly adopted the process. In 1956 Fox engaged Robert Lippert to establish a subsidiary company, Regal Pictures, later Associated Producers Incorporated to film B pictures in CinemaScope (but "branded" RegalScope).

CinemaScope brought a brief up-turn in attendance, but by 1956 the numbers again began to slide. That year Darryl Zanuck announced his resignation as head of production. Zanuck moved to Paris, setting up as an independent producer; he did not set foot in California again for twenty years.

Production and financial problems[edit]

Zanuck's successor, producer Buddy Adler, died a year later. President Spyros Skouras brought in a series of production executives, but none had Zanuck's success. By the early 1960s Fox was in trouble. A new version of Cleopatra had begun in 1959 with Joan Collins in the lead. As a publicity gimmick, producer Walter Wanger offered one million dollars to Elizabeth Taylor if she would star; she accepted, and costs for Cleopatra began to escalate, aggravated by Richard Burton's on-set romance with Taylor, the surrounding media frenzy, and Skouras' selfish preferences and inexperienced micromanagement on the film's production. Not even his showmanship made up for his considerable lack of filmmaking in speeding up production on Cleopatra.

Meanwhile, another remake—of the 1940 Cary Grant hit My Favorite Wife— was rushed into production in an attempt to turn over a quick profit to help keep Fox afloat. The romantic comedy entitled Something's Got to Give paired Marilyn Monroe, Fox's most bankable star of the 1950s, with Dean Martin, and director (George Cukor). The troubled Monroe caused delays on a daily basis, and it quickly descended into a costly debacle. As Cleopatra's budget passed the ten-million-dollar mark, settling somewhere around $40 million, Fox sold its back lot (now the site of Century City) to Alcoa in 1961 to raise cash. After several weeks of script rewrites on the Monroe picture and very little progress, mostly due to the director George Cukor's slow and repetitive filming, in addition to Monroe's chronic sinusitus, Marilyn Monroe was fired from Something's Got to Give and two months later she was found dead, although controversially to this day. According to Fox files she was rehired within weeks for a two-picture deal totaling one million dollars, $500K to finish Something's Got To Give, plus a bonus at completion, and $500K for What a Way to Go. Elizabeth Taylor's highly disruptive[neutrality is disputed] reign on the Cleopatra set continued unchallenged from 1960 into 1962, though three Fox executives went to Rome in June 1962 to fire her.[citation needed] They learned that director Joseph L. Mankiewicz had filmed out of sequence and had only done interiors, so Fox was then forced to allow Taylor several more weeks of filming. In the meantime that summer of '62, Fox released nearly all of its contract stars, including Jayne Mansfield.

With few pictures on the schedule, Skouras wanted to rush Zanuck's big-budget war epic The Longest Day, a highly accurate account of the Allied invasion of Normandy on June 6, 1944, with a huge international cast, into release as another source of quick cash. This offended Zanuck, still Fox's largest shareholder, for whom The Longest Day was a labor of love that he had dearly wanted to produce for years. After it became clear that Something's Got to Give would not be able to progress without Monroe in the lead (Martin had refused to work with anyone else), Skouras finally decided that something had to give and re-signed her. But days before filming was due to resume, she was found dead at her Los Angeles home and the picture resumed filming as Move Over, Darling, with Doris Day and James Garner in the leads. Released in 1963, the film was a hit. The unfinished scenes from Something's Got to Give were shelved for nearly 40 years. Rather than being rushed into release as if it were a B-picture, The Longest Day was lovingly and carefully produced under Zanuck's supervision. It was finally released at a length of three hours, and went on to be recognized as one of the great World War II films.

At the next board meeting, Zanuck spoke for eight hours, convincing directors that Skouras was mismanaging the company and that he was the only possible successor. Zanuck was installed as chairman, and then named his son Richard Zanuck as president. This new management group seized Cleopatra and rushed it to completion, shut down the studio, laid off the entire staff to save money, axed the long-running Movietone Newsreel and made a series of cheap, popular pictures that restored Fox as a major studio. The biggest boost to the studio's fortunes came from the tremendous success of The Sound of Music (1965), an expensive and handsomely produced film adaptation of the highly acclaimed Rodgers and Hammerstein Broadway musical, which became one of the all-time greatest box office hits and went on to win five Academy Awards, including Best Director (Robert Wise) and Best Picture of the Year.

Fox also had two big science-fiction hits in the 1960s: Fantastic Voyage (which introduced Racquel Welch to film audiences) in 1966, and the original Planet of the Apes, starring Charlton Heston, Kim Hunter, and Roddy McDowall, in 1968. Fantastic Voyage was the last film made in CinemaScope, which was ultimately replaced by Panavision lenses.

Zanuck stayed on as chairman until 1971, but there were several expensive flops in his last years, resulting in Fox posting losses from 1969 to 1971. Following his removal, and after an uncertain period, new management brought Fox back to health. Under president Dennis Carothers Stanfill and production head Alan Ladd, Jr., Fox films connected with modern audiences. Stanfill used the profits to acquire resort properties, soft-drink bottlers, Australian theaters, and other properties in an attempt to diversify enough to offset the boom-or-bust cycle of picture-making. Foreshadowing a pattern of film production still yet to come, in late 1973 Twentieth Century-Fox joined forces with Warner Bros. to co-produce The Towering Inferno (1974), an all-star action blockbuster from Producer Irwin Allen. Both studios found themselves owning the rights to books about burning skyscrapers. Allen insisted on a meeting with the heads of both studios and announced that as Fox was already in the lead with their property it would be career suicide to have competing movies. And so the first joint venture studio deal was struck. In hindsight whilst it may be common place now, back in the 1970s it was a risky, but revolutionary idea that paid off handsomely at both the domestic and international box offices around the world.

In 1977, Fox's success reached new heights and produced the most profitable film made up to that time, Star Wars. The film, which - at the time - was thought by many as an unmitigated disaster to begin with, is considered to be a landmark film in cinema history, thanks to its imaginative and visionary direction and storytelling by George Lucas, groundbreaking visual effects and production values, John Williams' musical score, and the acting led by newcomers Mark Hamill, Harrison Ford, and Carrie Fisher.[10]

Rupert Murdoch era[edit]

Main article: Rupert Murdoch
Fox Plaza, Century City headquarters, completed in 1987

With financial stability came new owners, and in 1978 control passed to the investors Marc Rich and Marvin Davis. Fox's assets included Pebble Beach Golf Links, the Aspen Skiing Company, and a Century City property upon which Davis built and twice sold Fox Plaza.

By 1985 Rich was a fugitive from U.S. justice, and Davis bought out his interest in Fox for $116 million.[11] Davis sold this interest to Rupert Murdoch for $250 million in March 1984. Davis later backed out of a deal with Murdoch to purchase John Kluge's Metromedia television stations.[11] Murdoch went alone and bought the stations, and later bought out Davis' remaining stake in Fox for $325 million.[11]

To gain FCC approval of Fox's purchase of Metromedia's television holdings, once the stations of the old DuMont network, Murdoch had to become a U.S. citizen. He did so in 1985, and in 1986 the new Fox Broadcasting Company took to the air. Over the next 20-odd years, the network and owned-stations group expanded to become extremely profitable for News Corp.

Since January 2000, this company has been the international distributor for MGM/UA releases. In the 1980s, Fox — through a joint venture with CBS, called CBS/Fox Video—had distributed certain UA films on video, thus UA has come full circle by switching to Fox for video distribution. Fox also makes money distributing films for small independent film companies.

In 2008, Fox announced an Asian subsidiary, Fox STAR Studios, a joint venture with STAR TV, also owned by News Corporation. It was reported that Fox STAR would start by producing films for the Bollywood market, then expand to several Asian markets.[12]

As of 2012, in Australia, 20th Century Fox have an expanded movie deals to replay movie and television content from television broadcasters, Network Ten, Eleven and One.

In August 2012, 20th Century Fox signed a five-year deal with DreamWorks Animation to distribute on domestic and international markets. However, the deal does not include the distribution rights of previously released films.

In 2012, Rupert Murdoch announced that News Corp. would be split into two publishing and media-oriented companies; a new News Corporation, and 21st Century Fox, which houses Fox Entertainment Group and 20th Century Fox. Murdoch considered the name of the new company a way to maintain the 20th Century Fox's heritage as the group advances into the future.[13][14]

Television[edit]

20th Television is Fox's television syndication division. 20th Century Fox Television is the studio's television production division.

During the mid-1950s features were released to television in the hope that they would broaden sponsorship and help distribution of network programs. Blocks of one-hour programming of feature films to national sponsors on 128 stations was organized by Twentieth Century Fox and National Telefilm Associates. Twentieth Century Fox received 50 percent interest in NTA Film network after it sold its library to National Telefilm Associates. This gave 90 minutes of cleared time a week and syndicated feature films to 110 non-interconnected stations for sale to national sponsors.[15]

Music[edit]

Main articles: 20th Century Records and Fox Music

Between 1933 and 1937, a custom record label called Fox Movietone was produced starting at F-100 and running through F-136. It featured songs from Fox movies, first using material recorded and issued on Victor's Bluebird label and halfway through switched to material recorded and issued on ARC's dime store labels (Melotone, Perfect, etc.). These scarce records were sold only at Fox Theaters.

Fox Music has been Fox's music arm since 2000. It encompasses music publishing and licensing businesses, dealing primarily with Fox Entertainment Group television and film soundtracks.

Prior to Fox Music, 20th Century Records was its music arm from 1958 to 1982.

Radio[edit]

The 'Twentieth Century Fox Presents' radio series[16] were broadcast between 1936 and 1942. More often than not, the shows were a radio preview featuring a medley of the songs and soundtracks from the latest movie being released into the theaters, much like the modern day movie trailers we now see on TV, to encourage folks to head down to their nearest Picture House.

The radio shows featured the original stars, with the announcer narrating a wonderful lead up, which really encapsulated the performance, such as in the film, Irene.

"Almost everybody who has listened to a radio has heard the haunting melodies of Alice Blue Gown. Written 21 years ago, it has remained the popular classic ballad during all these years. Deciding to make this tune the main feature number of his picture, producer Wilcox garnered all the resources of Hollywood to make this, one of the greatest production numbers of all time. Photographed entirely in dazzling technicolor, and wearing her Alice Blue Gown, Anna Neagle sings..." (who then began to sing the opening notes of the song).

Motion Picture Film Processing[edit]

From its earliest ventures into movie production, Fox Film Corporation operated its own processing laboratories. The original lab was located in Fort Lee, New Jersey along with the studios. A lab was included with the new studio built in Los Angeles in 1916.[17] Headed by Alan E. Freedman, the Fort Lee lab was moved into the new Fox Studios building in Manhattan in 1919. [18] In 1932, Freedman bought the labs from Fox for $2,000,000 to bolster what at that time was a failing Fox liquidity.[19][20] He renamed the operation "DeLuxe Laboratories" which much later became DeLuxe Entertainment Services Group. In the 1940s Freedman sold the labs back to what was then 20th Century Fox and remained as president into the 1960s. Under Freedman's leadership, DeLuxe added two more labs in Chicago and Toronto and processed film from studios other than Fox.

Logo and fanfare[edit]

The 20th Century Fox logo used from 1953 to 1981, created for the new CinemaScope process with the slanted "0".

The fanfare was originally composed in 1933 by Alfred Newman, who became head of Twentieth Century-Fox's music department from 1940 until the 1960s. It was re-recorded in 1935 when 20th Century Fox was officially established.

The Art Deco 20th Century Fox logo, designed by special effects animator and matte painting artist Emil Kosa, Jr., originated as the 20th Century Pictures logo, with the name "Fox" substituted for "Pictures, Inc." in 1935. The logo was originally created as a painting on several layers of glass and animated frame-by-frame. Over the years the logo was modified several times.[21] Kosa's last major work for Fox was the matte painting of the Statue of Liberty in Planet of the Apes, shortly before his death.

20th Century Fox's CGI logo used from 1994 to 2010; still used on 20th Century Fox websites.

In 1953, Rocky Longo, an artist at Pacific Title, was hired to recreate the original design for the new CinemaScope process. In order to give the design the required "width", Longo tilted the "0" in 20th. It was first used on the film How to Marry a Millionaire, released in the same year. The Robe, the first film released in CinemaScope, used the sound of a choir singing over the logo, instead of the regular fanfare. In 1981, Longo repainted the logo design once again, and straightened the "0". The Fox fanfare was re-orchestrated in 1981, as Longo's revised logo was being introduced.

By the 1970s the Fox fanfare was being used in films sporadically. George Lucas enjoyed the Alfred Newman music so much that he insisted it be used for Star Wars (1977), which features the CinemaScope version (but the variation conducted by Lionel Newman, as the Alfred Newman original version had been misfiled). Composer John Williams composed the Star Wars main theme in the same key (B major) as the Fox fanfare, serving as an extension to Newman's score. In 1980, Williams conducted a new version of the extended fanfare for The Empire Strikes Back. Williams' recording of the Fox fanfare has been used in every Star Wars film since. Since the introduction of the CGI Fox logo in the 1990s, the series continued to have use the static angle version of the new logo, to allow for the animated Lucasfilm logo to appear during the extension.

In 1994, after a few failed attempts (which even included trying to film the familiar monument as an actual three-dimensional model), Fox in-house television producer Kevin Burns was hired to produce a new logo for the company — this time using the new process of computer-generated imagery (CGI). With the help of graphics producer Steve Soffer and his company Studio Productions (which had recently given face-lifts to the Paramount and Universal logos), Burns directed that the new logo contain more detail and animation, so that the longer (21 second) Fox fanfare with the "CinemaScope extension" could be used as the underscore. This required a virtual Los Angeles Cityscape to be designed around the monument. In the background can be seen the Hollywood sign, which would give the monument an actual location (approximating Fox's actual address in Century City). One final touch was the addition of store-front signs—each one bearing the name of Fox executives who were at the studio at the time. One of the signs reads, "Murdoch's Department Store"; another says "Chernin's" and a third reads: "Burns Tri-City Alarm" (an homage to Burns' late father who owned a burglar and fire alarm company in Upstate New York). The 1994 CGI logo was also the first time that Twentieth Century Fox was recognized as "A News Corporation Company" in the logo.

As the CGI logo was being prepared to premiere at the beginning of True Lies (1994), Burns asked composer Bruce Broughton for a new version of the familiar fanfare. In 1997 Alfred's son, composer David Newman, recorded the new version of the fanfare in Anastasia (1997). This rendition is still in use as of 2010.

In 2009, a newly updated CGI logo, done by Blue Sky Studios, debuted in the film Avatar. A 75th Anniversary version of this new logo was used to coincide with 20th Century Fox's 75th anniversary; it made its official debut with Percy Jackson & the Olympians: The Lightning Thief, and last appeared in Gulliver's Travels.[22]

As television grew as a medium, the practice of placing production logos at the end of programs became commonplace. For Fox's television arm, a truncated version of the Newman fanfare has been used with a brief shot of the Fox logo. Syndicated programs would overlay "Television" over "Century" in an animation, resulting in the logo reading "20th Television Fox". Today, CGI logos are used, with 20th Century Fox Television primarily for Fox network programming, and 20th Television for other programming (such as cable and syndication).

Parodies of the fanfare have appeared at the start of the films Those Magnificent Men in Their Flying Machines (played by a small band, imitating the silent era of films), The Cannonball Run (cars drive around the logo and knock out the searchlights), White Men Can't Jump (rap version of the fanfare), The Day After Tomorrow (thunderstorm on the set), Live Free or Die Hard (where the searchlights go out as a result of a power outage), The Rocky Horror Picture Show (featuring a silent-movie piano version of the fanfare), The Simpsons Movie (Ralph Wiggum "sings along" with the fanfare; in trailers and commercials, the "0" in the tower is replaced by a pink, half-bitten doughnut of the type Homer eats), Daredevil (the picture morphs into a negative image of the logo – as if perceived by the main character's radar sense), Ice Age: Dawn of the Dinosaurs (with snow and volcanoes covering the logo, but the regular 20th Century Fox logo was shown on the film's DVD and Blu-ray release instead, but is shown on the 3D DVD release), Rio 2 (Samba version of the fanfare) and Minority Report (where the logo, alongside its DreamWorks counterpart, appears immersed in water, similar to the film's "precog" characters). The fanfare was also used within What a Way to Go!, as the theme of Lush Budged Productions, opening Shirley MacLaine's fantasy of her marriage to Robert Mitchum.

In the first 3 X-Men films and X-Men: Days of Future Past", the "X" in "Fox" remains ghosted on the screen as the scene fades out. In trailers for X-Men Origins: Wolverine, the logo appears chrome to match Wolverine's claws. In Moulin Rouge! the logo appears on a stage behind a red curtain with a conductor directing an orchestra playing the fanfare. In the 2003 production of The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen the logo appears as a huge unlit monument dominating the nighttime London skyline. In the Diary of a Wimpy Kid films, the studio placed a cartoon version of the 20th Century Fox structure on the main studio logo.

The fanfare from 1983 film Return of the Jedi, conducted by John Williams.

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At the end of Fox's Futurama, set in the 30th and 31st centuries, the logo is shown with the words "30th Century Fox Television".

As a surprise twist, the opening fanfare for Alien3 has the music freeze on the penultimate melody tone (an E-flat minor chord), and then adds wailing French horns and bending strings, before continuing with a crash into the opening titles, thus setting the dark mood for the film.

Also on The Simpsons Season 10 DVD, each disc's opening shows Bart Simpson running around the logo (after tagging it with "El Barto"), while being chased by the squeaky-voiced teenager.

Fox Searchlight Pictures, Foxstar Productions, and Fox Studios Australia are just a few of the other corporate entities that have used variations on the original 1933 design. 21st Century Fox, the corporate successor to News Corporation, uses a logo incorporating a minimalist representation of the searchlights.[13]

Films[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "20th Century Fox: Chronology". Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  2. ^ "Motion Picture Association of America – About Us". MPAA. Retrieved May 27, 2012. 
  3. ^ Statistics on the Box Office Revenue of 20th Century Fox in the USA in 2011. Box Office Mojo, January 2012.
  4. ^ Koszarski, Richard (2004). Fort Lee: The Film Town. Rome, Italy: John Libbey Publishing -CIC srl. ISBN 0-86196-653-8. 
  5. ^ "Studios and Films". Fort Lee Film Commission. Archived from the original on April 25, 2011. Retrieved May 30, 2011. 
  6. ^ Fort Lee Film Commission (2006). Fort Lee Birthplace of the Motion Picture Industry. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 0-7385-4501-5. 
  7. ^ Solomon, Aubrey (2002). Twentieth Century-Fox: A Corporate and Financial History (p. 19-20). Lanham: Scarecrow Press.
  8. ^ Mel Gussow, Darryl F. Zanuck: "Don't Say Yes Until I Finish Talking", Da Capo 1971 p 60
  9. ^ O centenário da atriz e cantora Carmen Miranda
  10. ^ Britannica.com
  11. ^ a b c Michael Wolff (May 5, 2010). The Man Who Owns the News: Inside the Secret World of Rupert Murdoch. Random House. pp. 167–. ISBN 978-1-4090-8679-6. Retrieved February 19, 2012. 
  12. ^ Fox opens Asian studio
  13. ^ a b "21st Century Fox logo unveiled ahead of News Corp split". The Verge. Retrieved May 9, 2013. 
  14. ^ "Rupert Murdoch splits empire but keeps faith in tomorrow's newspapers". The Guardian. June 18, 2013. Retrieved June 18, 2013. 
  15. ^ Boddy, W. (1990). Fifties Television: The Industry and Its Critics. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.
  16. ^ "20th Century Fox Presents". www.RUSC.com. 
  17. ^ Fox Folks Vol. I, No. 4, August, 1922.
  18. ^ Fox Folks Vol. I, No. 4, August, 1922. Also, Vol. III, No. 7, July, 1924, p. 12 and back outside cover, and Vol. III, No. 8, August, 1924, p. 8.
  19. ^ Image, DeLuxe Laboratories, Inc. check 101 to Fox Film Corporation for $2,000,000.
  20. ^ The Film Daily, New York, April 3, 1932, p. 1. https://archive.org/stream/filmdailyvolume55859newy#page/799/mode/1up
  21. ^ "20th Century Fox Logo". FamousLogos.net. Retrieved May 8, 2011. 
  22. ^ "Is Fox really 75 this year? Somewhere, the fantastic Mr. (William) Fox begs to differ". New York Post. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Custen, George F., Twentieth Century's Fox: Darryl F. Zanuck and the Culture of Hollywood; New York: BasicBooks, 1997; ISBN 0-465-07619-X
  • Lev, Peter. Twentieth Century-Fox: The Zanuck-Skouras Years, 1935-1965 (University of Texas Press; 2013) 314 pages
  • Chrissochoidis, Ilias (ed.). Spyros P. Skouras, Memoirs (1893-1953). Stanford, 2013.
  • Chrissochoidis, Ilias (ed.). CinemaScope: Selected Documents from the Spyros P. Skouras Archive. Stanford, 2013.
  • Chrissochoidis, Ilias (ed.). The Cleopatra Files: Selected Documents from the Spyros P. Skouras Archive. Stanford, 2013.

External links[edit]