Foz do Iguaçu

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Foz do Iguaçu
The skyline of Foz do Iguaçu
The skyline of Foz do Iguaçu
Nickname(s): Terra das Cataratas (Land of the Waterfalls)
Location of Foz do Iguaçu
Location of Foz do Iguaçu
Coordinates: 25°33′S 54°35′W / 25.550°S 54.583°W / -25.550; -54.583Coordinates: 25°33′S 54°35′W / 25.550°S 54.583°W / -25.550; -54.583
Country Brazil
Region Sul
State Paraná
Founded 10 June 1910
Government
 • Mayor Paulo MacDonald Ghisi (PDT)
Area
 • City 617.70 km2 (238.5 sq mi)
Elevation 173.6 m (567.58 ft)
Population (2012)
 • City 255,718
 • Density 500.41/km2 (1,296.07/sq mi)
 • Urban 98%
Time zone UTC-3 (UTC-3)
 • Summer (DST) UTC-2 (UTC-2)
Area code(s) +55 45
HDI (2000) 0.890 – high
Website http://www.fozdoiguacu.pr.gov.br

Foz do Iguaçu (Iguazú River Mouth) (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈfɔz dw iɡwɐˈsu]) is the 7th largest city in Paraná state, Brazil, with a population of 255,900 inhabitants. It is located approximately 650 km (400 mi) west of Curitiba, Parana's capital city, being the westernmost city in that state. The inhabitants of the city are known as iguaçuenses.

Economy[edit]

The city is one of Brazil's most-frequented tourist destinations. Most tourists are Brazilians and Argentines, but Canadians, Americans, British, Germans, Italians, French, Portuguese, Spanish, Korean, Japanese and Chinese tourists are also numerous. The city has about 100 hotels and inns. Its main attractions are:

  • Iguaçu Falls, which has a flow capacity equal to three times that of Niagara Falls. Part of the falls are on the Brazilian side. Others are on the Argentine side. "Devil's Throat" ( "Garganta do Diabo" in Portuguese) is the tallest of the falls, which is 97 m (318 ft) high.
  • Parque Nacional do Iguaçu (Iguaçu National Park), in both Brazil and Argentina, where the falls are. It is protected by the IBAMA
  • Itaipu Dam, the first-largest generator of hydro-electric power in the world, in the Parana river, between Brazil and Paraguay
  • The Tríplice Fronteira (Triple Frontier) location where Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay meet. Each side has its own Marco (landmark)
  • The Omar Ibn Al-Khattab mosque, the largest in Latin America
  • The Bird Park (Parque das Aves), which features a collection of wild birds, and the "Bosque Guaraní", the city's zoo
The Iguaçu falls, viewed from Argentina
A view from the Triple Frontier, with rivers Iguaçu (left) and Paraná (right)

The Itaipu Dam produces about 20% of Brazil's electricity needs, and employs (directly and indirectly) about 5,000 Iguaçuenses.

Many Iguacuenses work in the neighboring city of Ciudad del Este in Paraguay, which is a duty-free market. All trade between Brazil and Paraguay uses the Friendship Bridge (called Ponte da Amizade in Brazil). Another bridge, the Fraternity Bridge (Ponte da Fraternidade, or Ponte Tancredo Neves, in Brazil), connects Foz do Iguaçu with its Argentine neighbor, Puerto Iguazú. The Fraternity Bridge, however, is far less important than the Friendship Bridge. Recently, the Friendship Bridge has faced problems such as traffic congestion as well as protests and blockades.

The city is strategically positioned, due to its position in Mercosur, and it is expected that its importance will increase following the formation of the UNASUR (Union of South American Nations).

Foz do Iguaçu has few industries apart from electrical energy generation; most are textile-related. Because of the importance of tourism, domestic and international crises can affect the city's economy by reducing tourist numbers and by bringing fewer consumers to Ciudad del Este.

Sports[edit]

Foz do Iguaçu has also recently won the bid to host part of the Summer X Games.

History[edit]

In 1549, a Spanish explorer, Cabeza de Vaca, found the falls while trailing down the river. Very impressed, he named them "Quedas de Santa Maria". Later the name changed to Quedas del Iguazu; this name is a native name from the Guarani Indians who lived there.

Until 1860, it was under the disputed territory between Brazil and Paraguay, but given the latter's defeat in the Paraguayan War, the falls were recognized as part of the Brazilian territory.

The region was almost uninhabited, and there was only a military colony until 1897, with the creation of a postal office in the region. Given the little attention of the political authorities, the region was very predated by foreigners, mainly Argentines.

In 1910, the colony's status was upgraded to the position of "vila" (town or village), named "Vila Iguazu", and, in 1914, to city. At that time, the city was known as Foz do Iguassu.

In 1916, Alberto Santos-Dumont visited the region and, impressed with the beauties of the region, suggested more attention of the government to the area and asked for the appropriation of the land where currently is the Parque do Iguaçu (Iguazu Park). Until 1917, this region had an owner, Jezus Val. The state appropriated the land in the next year, and, in 1939, the Parque Nacional do Iguaçu was created.

In 1945, an agreement between the Brazilian Academy of Letters and the Academy of Lisbon changed the city name to Foz do Iguaçu.

The city experienced a big economical boom in the 1960s to the late 1980s, first with the construction of the Friendship Bridge, concluded in 1965, and the Itaipu Dam, finished in the beginning of the 1990s. However, the city suffered with the world economy's recession, that resulted in fewer tourists and fewer consumers of Ciudad del Este's imported goods.

In 2004, the city's economy started again to grow up, after a long time of recession.

On October 19, 2005, a proposal was made to adjust the city name to: Foz do Iguassu. The proposal was approved in a first debate and then rejected in a second debate, at the Town Hall (Câmara Municipal), by four votes for and eight against. The bill was initiated by city councillor Djalma Pastorello, of the PSDB. The purpose of the adjustment to the city name was to return the spelling to the original form, as at the foundation of the city in 1914. The change occurred due language reforms of 1945, which changed the orthography of Brazilian Portuguese; however, existing proper names were not obliged to change. Another reason for the proposed adjustment back to the original was that 146 of the 198 member countries of the United Nations do not have the "ç" character in their alphabets. The adjustment would therefore rationalise any search for the city in search engines, since Foz do Iguaçu's claim to fame world wide is due almost entirely to the falls, which are known as the Iguassu Falls. Djalma Pastorello felt that tourism to the city of Foz do Iguaçu would be improved greatly by a clarification of its association with the now-famous Iguassu Falls. However, he estimates that 70% of the city's population were against the name change because the local media anticipated the change and presented it in a distorted way, so that locals were unable to see that the intention was to benefit the population.

Population[edit]

Buddhist temple in Foz do Iguaçu.

The city has a population of 255,900 inhabitants, whilst the Triplice Fronteira (Tri Frontier) region (Ciudad del Este, Hernandarias, Puerto Iguazú and the rural areas included within those municipalities) has a total of 820,000. The city is very heterogeneous, with many immigrant communities, such as: Arabs, Chinese, Germans, Italians, Lebanese, Paraguayans, Argentines, Palestinians, French, Swedes, Portuguese and Ukrainians.

The city has the second largest Chinese community in Brazil (approx. 55,000, and second only to São Paulo)[citation needed], and the third largest Islamic community[citation needed].

The city is predominantly Roman Catholic but a relatively large minority of Muslims and Buddhists are represented in the city as well. The city itself has a large mosque and a Buddhist temple.

Fenartec is an annual event held in the city's convention centre commemorating the city's multicultural diversity, usually in May.

Climate[edit]

The climate of Foz do Iguaçu is sub-tropical, with two distinctive seasons; one humid and hot in the summer and another, dry and cold, in the winter. The city's annual average temperature is 23.8 °C (74.8 °F), but can be as high as 40 °C (104 °F) in the summer (highest) or as low as -5 °C (23 °F) in the winter (lowest). The average in the summer is 26.5 °C (79.7 °F)and in the winter 15.4 °C (59.6 °F).

The climate of the city is generally hot or warm throughout the year, due to the relatively low altitude (standing only 173 m, 567 ft (173 m), above sea level).

Generally, the city is sunny during the year, but rain is fairly common during the spring and in the summer. The weather of the city, however, changes very constantly, because the region where the city stands is the zone where frequently three fronts meet. As consequence, it is not uncommon to see temperatures as high as 35 °C (95 °F) and in the summer as low as 8 °C (46 °F) in the city and, frequently, thunderstorms.

Climate data for Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 33
(91)
33
(91)
31
(88)
28
(82)
25
(77)
23
(73)
24
(75)
25
(77)
27
(81)
29
(84)
31
(88)
33
(91)
28.5
(83.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 25
(77)
26
(79)
24
(75)
21
(70)
18
(64)
15
(59)
15
(59)
16
(61)
18
(64)
19
(66)
23
(73)
23
(73)
20.3
(68.5)
Average low °C (°F) 20
(68)
20
(68)
19
(66)
16
(61)
13
(55)
10
(50)
9
(48)
10
(50)
12
(54)
14
(57)
17
(63)
18
(64)
14.8
(58.6)
Precipitation mm (inches) 188
(7.4)
194
(7.64)
184
(7.24)
146
(5.75)
136
(5.35)
137
(5.39)
90
(3.54)
111
(4.37)
142
(5.59)
232
(9.13)
150
(5.91)
172
(6.77)
1,879
(73.98)
 % humidity 77 80 82 85 86 85 83 80 79 78 75 74 80
Mean monthly sunshine hours 179 145 147 139 142 131 158 124 118 155 197 217 1,852
Source: The Weather Network [1]

Transport[edit]

Foz do Iguaçu is connected to the east by the BR-277, to Paranaguá, and also to the east by the Friendship Bridge to Ciudad del Este, and to the south to Puerto Iguazú by the Fraternity Bridge. Both the BR-277 and the Friendship Bridge are very busy roads, linking Paraguay to the Paranaguá's seaport.

The city is served by the Foz do Iguaçu/Cataratas International Airport, in which 1,155,615 passengers transited in 2010.

Public transport[edit]

The city does not operate its own municipal transport networks, but instead licenses four private bus companies to operate services on its behalf. The bus fares are set by the municipality for all four companies. In 2003, the city initiated an integrated city fare and created a hub near the city centre. Now, most of the bus routes pass through this hub and passengers pay a standard fare within the city zone, which enables them to transfer routes, even when these may be operated by another company. The transport network extends to certain distant areas, such as the city's airport and the Iguazu Park, but not between the city and its neighbor Ciudad del Este, nor with Puerto Iguazú, which are serviced by other companies. These routes are not part of the integrated network, a situation reflected by higher fares.

Informal transportation[edit]

Every day, hundreds of vans act as commuter vehicles for people whose earnings are based in the informal economy (mainly smuggling). This worsens the traffic problems in the Friendship Bridge, where they act, and are claimed to increase the deficits of Brazilian commerce with smuggling and crime rates near the bridge.

Avenida Brasil (Brazil Avenue)[edit]

Since Foz do Iguaçu's foundation, Brazil Avenue is the city's main road. While during its early years the street was primarily the military headquarters' location (now they are just in the right beginning of the Avenue), nowadays the street is a very active place where many retail stores are located. It is located at the downtown of the city and it is 5 km (3 mi) long (of which 3 km, 2 mi (3.2 km), is arterial road).

As of 2004, the prefecture of the city decided that a major revitalization of "Avenida Brasil" (Brazil Avenue) was needed. Attracting many consumers from many different areas of the city and even from its neighbours Ciudad del Este and Puerto Iguazú, the avenue, wide enough only to support two cars side-by-side, is frequently used during business days, and even more in important holidays (Christmas, Children's day, Easter, Mother's day), with many cars competing for a parking space.

The revitalization proposals asks for removal of parking space, giving major attention to pedestrians. Also, the avenue would be wide enough only to support one car side-by-side. The project started at the end of 2004, and by 2006 was concluded. The avenue does not have a bus route, by municipal order.

Social care and problems[edit]

Health and education are two extremes in the city. Recently, in a survey, citizens declared that public education and transport (particular companies, although heavily subsidized) as the strongest points of the city. Citizens gave emphasis to the effort that the prefecture is doing in transportation and daycare.

Foz do Iguaçu has a Human Development Index of approximately ~0.890 (high).

Education[edit]

The city has a literacy rate of 95.5%, with most children attending public or private schools. Public education has been a priority of the municipality of the city and the government of the state of Paraná; however, most middle and upper-class families continue to send their children to elite private schools.

The city has approximately 30 private schools and approximately 120 public schools (including daycare and kindergarten schools). In addition, there are six universities: Cesufoz, UDC, Uniamérica, Unifoz, Unioeste and Anglo-Americano Faculdades., .

In January 2010, the Universidade Federal da Integração Latino-Americana (UNILA) was founded.

Health[edit]

As most Brazilian cities, health care in Foz is either public or private. While the private system provides the city's middle and elite classes with a rather good, modern and reliable health care, the public system is completely efficient and sufficient to suit the demand of the lower income or very poor classes (which compose 40% of the city's population).[citation needed]

Sanitation[edit]

Sanepar is responsible for water treatment, distribution and sewage. 98% of the population has access to clean water, and 90% to public sanitary services (sewer and/or garbage collection). Most of the sanitary problems in the city are over.

Communications[edit]

Foz do Iguaçu area phone code (called DDD in Brazil) is 45.[2] Brazil international code is 55, so to call Foz do Iguaçu from abroad you have to dial 00 55 45 + phone number .[3]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Climate Data for Foz do Iguaça, Brazil (1961-1990)". November 24, 2011. 
  2. ^ "DDD 45 Parana (PR) Foz do Iguaçu" (in portuguese). DDI DDD brasil. Retrieved 16 August 2012. 
  3. ^ "DDD 45 Iguaçu e DDI Brasil" (in portuguese). DDI DDD brasil. Retrieved 16 August 2012. 

External links[edit]