Frédéric Joliot-Curie

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Frédéric Joliot)
Jump to: navigation, search
Frédéric Joliot-Curie
Joliot-fred.jpg
Born Jean Frédéric Joliot
(1900-03-19)19 March 1900
Paris, France
Died 14 August 1958(1958-08-14) (aged 58)
Paris, France
Nationality France
Fields Physics
Alma mater School of Chemistry and Physics of the city of Paris
Known for Atomic nuclei
Notable awards Nobel Prize for Chemistry (1935)
Hughes Medal (1947)
Spouse Irène Joliot-Curie

Jean Frédéric Joliot-Curie (French: [fʁe.de.ʁik ʒɔ.ljo ky.ʁi]; 19 March 1900 – 14 August 1958), born Jean Frédéric Joliot, was a French physicist, husband of Irène Joliot-Curie and Nobel laureate.

Biography[edit]

Early years[edit]

Born in Paris, France, he was a graduate of the École Supérieure de Physique et de Chimie Industrielles de la Ville de Paris.[1] In 1925 he became an assistant to Marie Curie, at the Radium Institute. He fell in love with her daughter Irène Curie, and soon after their marriage in 1926 they both changed their surnames to Joliot-Curie. At the insistence of Marie, Joliot-Curie obtained a second baccalauréat, a bachelor's degree, and a doctorate in science, doing his thesis on the electrochemistry of radio-elements.

Career[edit]

While a lecturer at the Paris Faculty of Science, he collaborated with his wife on research on the structure of the atom, in particular on the projection, or recoil, of nuclei that had been struck by other particles, which was an essential step in the discovery of the neutron by Chadwick in 1932. In 1935 they were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their discovery of "artificial radioactivity," resulting from the creation of short-lived radioisotopes from the bombardment of stable nuclides such as boron, magnesium, and aluminum with alpha particles.

In 1937 he left the Radium Institute to become a professor at the Collège de France working on chain reactions and the requirements for the successful construction of a nuclear reactor that uses controlled nuclear fission to generate energy through the use of uranium and heavy water. Joliot-Curie was one of the scientists mentioned in Albert Einstein's letter to President Roosevelt as one of the leading scientists on the course to chain reactions. The Second World War, however, largely stalled Joliot's research, as did his subsequent post-war administrative duties.

Stamp Issued by Romania commemorating Frédéric Joliot-Curie.

At the time of the Nazi invasion in 1940, Joliot-Curie managed to smuggle his working documents and materials to England with Hans von Halban and Lew Kowarski. During the French occupation he took an active part in the French Resistance as a member of the National Front. Collins and LaPierre in their book Is Paris Burning? note that during the Paris uprising in August 1944 he served in the Prefecture of Police manufacturing for his fellow insurgents Molotov cocktails, the Resistance's principal weapon against German tanks. The Prefecture was the scene of some of the most intense fighting during the uprising.

Post-war[edit]

After the Liberation, he served as director of the French National Center for Scientific Research, and appointed by Charles De Gaulle in 1945, he became France's first High Commissioner for Atomic Energy. In 1944 French physicists, Pierre Auger and Jules Gueron were working on the British nuclear weapons research program at Chalk River in Canada. As France was being liberated by the Normandy invasion, they returned to France to inform Frederic Joliot-Curie of the progress of the American/British nuclear weapon program. Frederic passed on that information to his Soviet friends. In 1948 he oversaw the construction of the first French atomic reactor. A devoted communist, he was purged in 1950 and relieved of most of his duties, but retained his professorship at the Collège de France. Joliot-Curie was one of the eleven signatories to the Russell-Einstein Manifesto in 1955. On the death of his wife in 1956, he took over her position as Chair of Nuclear Physics at the Sorbonne.

Joliot-Curie was a member of the French Academy of Sciences and of the Academy of Medicine and named a Commander of the Legion of Honour. He was awarded the Stalin Peace Prize in 1951 for his work as president of the World Council of Peace.

Personal life[edit]

The Joliot-Curies in the 1940s

Frédéric and Irène hyphenated their surnames to Joliot-Curie after they married on October 4, 1926 in Paris, France, although their daughter, Hélène Langevin-Joliot has said, "Many people used to name my parents Joliot-Curie, but they signed their scientific papers Irène Curie and Frédéric Joliot."[2] Their daughter Hélène, who would also become a noted physicist, was born in 1927. Their son, Pierre, a biologist, was born in 1932. Frédéric Joliot-Curie devoted the last years of his life to the creation of a centre for nuclear physics at Orsay, where his children were educated.

On his religious views, Joliot-Curie was an atheist.[3]

Legacy[edit]

The crater Joliot on the Moon is named after him. A street in an upmarket neighborhood of Sofia, Bulgaria and the nearby metro station is named after Frédéric Joliot-Curie. There is furthermore a street named after him in the Rivière-des-Prairies borough of North Montreal, Canada and in Bucharest, Romania, and in Warsaw and Wrocław, Poland.

External links[edit]

Goldsmith, Maurice (1976). Frédéric Joliot-Curie: a biography. London: Lawrence & Wilshart. ISBN 0-85315-342-6. 

Biquard, Pierre (1966). Joliot-Curie: The Man and His Theories. New York: Paul S. Erickson. 

References[edit]

  1. ^ ESPCI ParisTech Alumni 1923
  2. ^ "Marie & Pierre Curie’s granddaughter, Hélène Langevin-Joliot, visits the United States". Eurekalert.org. Retrieved 2007-01-17. 
  3. ^ "Raised in a completely nonreligious family, Joliot never attended any church and was a thoroughgoing atheist all his life." Perrin, Francis: "Joliot, Frédéric", Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography Vol. 7 p. 151. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008.

Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press