Habeneck was born at Mézières, the son of a musician in a French regimental band. During his early youth, Habeneck was taught by his father, and at the age of ten played concertos in public. In 1801, he entered the Conservatoire de Paris, where he studied under Pierre Baillot and obtained the violin first prize in 1804. In the same year, he joined the orchestra of the Opéra-Comique, but shortly afterwards moved to that of the Opéra. He conducted student concerts at the Conservatoire from 1806 onwards.
Career at the Paris Opera
On 1 June 1817, Habeneck became an Assistant Conductor (chef d'orchestre adjoint) of the Paris Opera, a post he held until 1 January 1819, when he was replaced by J.-J. Martin. According to the French music historian Arthur Pougin, Habeneck was initially the conductor responsible for the preparation of Spontini's Olimpie (first performed on 22 December), but at one of the general rehearsals Habeneck and Spontini had a violent quarrel, resulting in Habeneck's dismissal, and Henri Valentino was put in charge of Olimpie. On 1 April 1820, on a trial basis, Valentino replaced J.-J. Martin as Second Conductor (deuxième chef d'orchestre, à titre d'essai), but in August, Valentino and Habeneck were jointly designated successors to Rodolphe Kreutzer, the First Conductor (premier chef d'orchestre), only to take effect, however, when Kreutzer left that position. In the meantime, on 1 November 1821, Habeneck became the administrative director of the Opera. On 1 December 1824, when Kreutzer retired as the conductor of the orchestra, Habeneck and Valentino became joint First Conductors, and Raphaël de Frédot Duplantys replaced Habeneck as the Opera's administrator. Valentino resigned on 1 June 1831, and Habeneck remained as the sole First Conductor until his retirement on 1 November 1846. During that time, he conducted the first performances of, among other operas, Robert le diable, La Juive, Les Huguenots and Benvenuto Cellini.
Orchestral concerts, compositions, pupils and later years
Habeneck became the founding conductor of the Orchestre de la Société des Concerts du Conservatoire in 1828. By means of these concerts, he introduced Beethoven's symphonies into France. He composed two concertos, compositions for the violin, and several songs, but published only a few of his compositions. Among his pupils were Jean-Delphin Alard, Hubert Léonard and Édouard Lalo. Hector Berlioz, in his memoirs, denounced Habeneck for incompetence in conducting Berlioz's own Requiem.
Habeneck died in Paris in 1849.
Orchestre de la Société des Concerts du Conservatoire
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.; Thurston, H. T.; Moore, F., eds. (1905). "article name needed". New International Encyclopedia (1st ed.). New York: Dodd, Mead.
- Wild 1989, p. 312.
- Pougin 1880.
- Wild 1989, pp. 307, 312.
- Macdonald 1992 & 2001. Macdonald also credits Habeneck as the conductor of the premiere of Rossini's Guillaume Tell. However, Castil-Blaze 1855, p. 211, reports that the opera was prepared and conducted by Henri Valentino. Castil-Blaze does not mention either conductor in his review of 5 August 1829 in the Journal des débats, "Chronique Musicale, Académie royale de musique, Guillaume Tell (under the byline 'X. X. X.').
- Castil-Blaze (1855). L'Académie impériale de musique: histoire littéraire, musicale, politique et galante de ce théâtre, de 1645 à 1855, vol. 2. Paris: Castil-Blaze. Copy at Google Books.
- Macdonald, Hugh (1992). "Habeneck, François-Antoine" in The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, vol 2, p. 590
- Macdonald, Hugh (2001). "Habeneck, François-Antoine" in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2nd edition, edited by Stanley Sadie. London: Macmillan. ISBN 9781561592395 (hardcover). OCLC 419285866 (eBook).
- Pougin, Arthur (1880). "Valentino (Henri-Justin-Joseph)", pp. 597–598, in Biographie universelle des musiciens et Bibliographie générale de la musique par F.-J. Fétis. Supplément et complément, vol. 2. Paris: Firmin-Didot. View at Google Books.
- Wild, Nicole (1989). Dictionnaire des théâtres parisiens au XIXe siècle: les théâtres et la musique. Paris: Aux Amateurs de livres. ISBN 9780828825863. ISBN 9782905053800 (paperback). View formats and editions at WorldCat.
- Société des concerts du Conservatoire at the Wayback Machine (archived January 4, 2014), ancillary material for D. Kern Holoman's The Société des Concerts du Conservatoire 1828-1967 (University of California Press, 2004).
- Brief biography of Habeneck at the Wayback Machine (archived February 6, 2012), from D. Kern Holoman's The Société des Concerts du Conservatoire website
- Free scores by François Habeneck at the International Music Score Library Project
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