Francis Bridgeman (Royal Navy officer)

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This article is about the British admiral. For the British Army officer and MP, see Francis Charles Bridgeman.
Francis Bridgeman
Fbridgeman.JPG
Admiral Sir Francis Bridgeman
Born 7 December 1848
Babworth, Nottinghamshire
Died 17 February 1929(1929-02-17) (aged 80)
Nassau, The Bahamas
Buried at St Michael and All Angels Church, Copgrove
Allegiance United Kingdom United Kingdom
Service/branch Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Royal Navy
Years of service 1862 - 1913
Rank Admiral
Commands held HMS Ramillies
HMS Drake
Home Fleet
Awards Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath
Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order

Admiral Sir Francis Charles Bridgeman Bridgeman GCB, GCVO (7 December 1848 – 17 February 1929) was a Royal Navy officer. As a Captain he commanded a battleship and then an armoured cruiser and then, after serving as second-in-command of three different fleets, he twice undertook tours as Commander-in-Chief of the Home Fleet with a stint as Second Sea Lord in between those tours. He became First Sea Lord in November 1911 but clashed with First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill on technical issues as well as matters relating to a perceived overriding of naval traditions by Churchill: this led to Bridgeman's resignation just a year later.

Naval career[edit]

Born the son of Reverend William Bridgeman Simpson and Lady Frances Laura Wentworth FitzWilliam (herself daughter of the 5th Earl Fitzwilliam), Francis Bridgeman Simpson joined the Royal Navy as a cadet in the training ship HMS Britannia in 1862.[1] He was posted to the sloop HMS Blanche on the Australia Station in 1868 and, having being promoted to sub-lieutenant in 1869 and to lieutenant on 8 April 1873,[2] he specialised in gunnery.[1] He was posted to the corvette HMS Encounter on the China Station as gunnery officer in 1874 and then to the battleship HMS Temeraire in the Mediterranean Fleet also as gunnery officer.[1] Promoted to commander on 30 June 1884,[3] he joined the battleship HMS Triumph on the Pacific Station in 1885 and then went to the gunnery training ship HMS Excellent in 1888.[1]

Simpson (as he was then known) was promoted to captain on 1 January 1890.[4] He became Captain of the battleship HMS Ramillies and Flag Captain of the Mediterranean Fleet in October 1893.[5]

Admiral Sir Francis Bridgeman

Having changed his name to Bridgeman in 1896, he became Flag Captain at Portsmouth Command in September 1897.[5] Appointed Naval Aide-de-Camp to the King on 24 May 1901,[6] he was given command of the armoured cruiser HMS Drake in January 1903[7] and was appointed a Member of the 4th Class of the Royal Victorian Order on 5 May 1903.[8] Promoted to rear admiral on 12 August 1903,[9] he became Second-in-Command of the Channel Fleet in June 1904, Second-in-Command of the Atlantic Fleet in December 1904 and Second-in-Command of the Mediterranean Fleet in March 1906.[5]

Promoted to vice-admiral on 20 February 1907[10] and advanced to Commander of the Royal Victorian Order on 27 February 1907,[11] Bridgeman went on to be Commander-in-Chief of the Home Fleet in March 1907, hoisting his flag in the battleship HMS Majestic and then in the battleship HMS Dreadnought.[5] Having been advanced to Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order on 3 August 1907[12] and appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath on 26 June 1908,[13] he became Second Sea Lord in March 1909.[5] Having taken part in the funeral of King Edward VII in May 1910,[14] he became Commander-in-Chief of the Home Fleet again in March 1911.[5] He was promoted to full admiral on 12 April 1911[15] and was advanced to Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order on 24 June 1911.[16]

The battleship HMS Majestic, Bridgeman's flagship as Commander-in-Chief of the Home Fleet

Bridgeman became First Sea Lord in November 1911,[17] and allegedly "got the job by default. From a thin list, Bridgeman had one unusual quality in the pre-1914 navy: a willingness to delegate".[17] By October 1912 Bridgeman had clashed with First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill on technical issues as well as matters relating to a perceived overriding of naval traditions by Churchill. Bridgeman, stating that Churchill's actions were denigrating the authority of senior officers and harming the efficiency of the service, threatened to take his case to Prime Minister H. H. Asquith and King George V. Churchill acted on reports of personal correspondence from Bridgeman to other officers concerning his attacks of appendicitis and bronchitis, and advised the Bridgeman on 2 December 1912 that his resignation would be accepted. He was replaced that month.[17] It was subsequently acknowledged, in response to questions in Parliament, that the initiative for resignation on grounds of health emanated from Churchill rather than from Bridgeman himself.[18] In the opinion of one historian: "The combination of frequent change and weak appointees (Wilson, Bridgeman and Battenberg) ensured that the professional leadership of the Royal Navy lost its direction in the four years preceding the war."[17] However, others have taken a more nuanced view of these men. Arthur Marder wrote that while Bridgeman and Battenberg "were not especially forceful and allowed Churchill a good deal of rope", Bridgeman "did possess sound judgement and he might have made a moderately successful First Sea Lord had he served under anybody but Churchill."[19] Indeed it was Bridgeman's efforts to blockade some of Churchill's more controversial schemes that led to his dismissal, as he himself recognized in a letter to Francis Hopwood: "I was forced out without warning, but it was not because I was too weak, but because I was too strong!"[20]

Following his resignation Bridgeman was advanced to Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath on 10 December 1912.[21] In retirement he lived at Copgrove Hall near Burton Leonard in North Yorkshire[1] and officiated as Vice-Admiral of the United Kingdom from 1920 until his death[22] at Nassau in The Bahamas on 17 February 1929.[1]

Family[edit]

On 6 November 1889, he married Emily Charlotte Shiffner, daughter of Thomas Shiffner; they had no children.[23]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Admiral Sir Francis Bridgeman". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 4 December 2012. 
  2. ^ The London Gazette: no. 23966. p. 1922. 11 April 1873. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
  3. ^ The London Gazette: no. 25372. p. 3009. 1 July 1884. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
  4. ^ The London Gazette: no. 26007. p. 7553. 31 December 1889. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
  5. ^ a b c d e f "Senior Royal Navy Appointments". Retrieved 4 December 2012. 
  6. ^ The London Gazette: no. 27322. p. 3926. 11 June 1901. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
  7. ^ "Captains commanding Royal Navy Warships". Retrieved 4 December 2012. 
  8. ^ The London Gazette: no. 27560. p. 3526. 2 June 1903. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
  9. ^ The London Gazette: no. 27589. p. 5223. 18 August 1903. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
  10. ^ The London Gazette: no. 27998. p. 1281. 22 February 1907. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
  11. ^ The London Gazette: no. 28001. p. 1573. 5 March 1907. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
  12. ^ The London Gazette: no. 28048. p. 5390. 6 August 1907. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
  13. ^ The London Gazette: no. 28151. p. 4641. 23 June 1908. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
  14. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 28401. p. 5481. 26 July 1910. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
  15. ^ The London Gazette: no. 28485. p. 2967. 14 April 1911. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
  16. ^ The London Gazette: no. 28510. p. 4928. 4 July 1911. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
  17. ^ a b c d Strachan, p. 380
  18. ^ Massie, pp. 778-779
  19. ^ Marder, pp. 255, 258
  20. ^ Marder, p. 259
  21. ^ The London Gazette: no. 28670. p. 9395. 10 December 1912. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
  22. ^ The London Gazette: no. 33480. p. 2084. 26 March 1929. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
  23. ^ "thePeerage". Retrieved 4 December 2012. 

Sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Stewart Ross (1998). Admiral Sir Francis Bridgeman. Cambridge, UK: Baily's. ISBN 0-9523628-8-0. 

External links[edit]

Military offices
Preceded by
Sir William May
Second Sea Lord
1909–1911
Succeeded by
Sir George Egerton
Preceded by
Sir Arthur Knyvet Wilson
First Sea Lord
1911–1912
Succeeded by
Prince Louis of Battenberg
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Sir Michael Culme-Seymour, Bt
Vice-Admiral of the United Kingdom
1920–1929
Succeeded by
Sir Stanley Colville