|Francis Howard Greenway|
20 November 1777|
near Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia
|Cause of death||Typhoid fever|
|Resting place||Glebe Cemetery, East Maitland, New South Wales
|Monuments||Francis Greenway High School, Beresfield|
|Residence||New South Wales, Australia|
|Known for||Early colonial Australian architecture|
|Notable work(s)||List of works|
|Criminal penalty||14 years transportation to Australia|
|Children||six (names unknown)|
Francis Howard Greenway (20 November 1777 – September 1837) was an English-born architect who was transported to Australia for the crime of forgery. In New South Wales he worked for the Governor, Lachlan Macquarie, as Australia's first government architect. He became widely known and admired through his work displayed in buildings such as St Matthew's Church in Windsor, New South Wales, St James' Church, Sydney and Hyde Park Barracks, Sydney.
Life and career
Greenway was born at Mangotsfield, Gloucestershire (near the English city of Bristol), the son of Francis Greenway and Ann, née Webb. Greenway became an architect "of some eminence" in Bristol and Bath. His only remaining building in the United Kingdom is the Clifton Club in Bristol, originally the Clifton Hotel and Assembly Rooms. He also designed Christ Church Downend near Mangotsfield (see Gomme an Architectural history of Bristol and church website). In 1809 he became bankrupt and in 1812 he pleaded guilty "under the advice of his friends", to forging a financial document and was sentenced to death; this sentence was later commuted to 14 years transportation. Why he pleaded guilty is unknown; he may have been told it was the only way to save his life. Whilst awaiting deportation to Sydney, Greenway spent time in Newgate Prison where he completed paintings depicting trials and scenes within the prison. 
Greenway arrived in Sydney, New South Wales on the transport General Hewitt in February 1814 to serve his sentence. On board the ship was the surgeon Dr. John Harris who was to give Greenway his first private commission in the colony which involved extending his residence on his Ultimo estate. Greenway first met Lachlan Macquarie in July 1814 to whom he had come recommended by Admiral Arthur Phillip. During the initial meeting Macquarie sought to test Greenway by asking him to copy a design of a town hall and courthouse from a pattern book. Greenway was so offended by this that he responded with a letter declaring his skills and quoting Sir William Chambers that his Excellency should utilise the opportunity for a classical design.
"...immediately copy the drawing Your Excellency requested me to do, notwithstanding it is rather painful to my mind as a professional man to copy a building that has no claim to classical proportion and character" - Francis Greenway
Between 1816 and 1818, while still a convict, Greenway was responsible for the design and construction of the Macquarie Lighthouse on the South Head at the entrance to Port Jackson. After the success of this project he was emancipated by the governor Lachlan Macquarie, and in the role of Acting Civil Architect and Assistant Engineer responsible to Captain J. M. Gill, Inspector of Public Works, went on to build many significant buildings in the new colony.
Greenway's works include Hyde Park Barracks, the Government House and what is considered to be his masterpiece;[who?] St James' Church, Sydney (chosen as one of Australia's only two man-made 'treasures' by Dan Cruickshank in the BBC series Around the World in 80 Treasures). There are still 49 buildings in central Sydney attributed to Greenway's designs.
Greenway fell into disrepute when Macquarie accused him of charging high fees whilst on a government retainer, and he was dismissed by the next governor, Thomas Brisbane, in 1822. He continued to follow his profession with little success. Although he got his grant of land, he does not appear to have received the promised cattle.
In 1835, he advertised that "Francis Howard Greenway, arising from circumstances of a singular nature is induced again to solicit the patronage of his friends and the public". In other words, he was destitute.
Greenway died of typhoid near Newcastle in 1837, aged 59. The exact date of his death is not known. He was buried in the Glebe Cemetery at East Maitland on 25 September 1837, but his grave is unmarked.
Greenway's face was shown on the first Australian decimal-currency $10 note (1966–93), making him probably the only convicted forger in the world to be honoured on a banknote.
Francis Greenway Drive in the suburb of Cherrybrook is named in honour of Francis Greenway.
The Vaucluse home of the renowned Australian architect Leslie Wilkinson (1882–1973) was named "Greenway" in honour of Francis Greenway.
List of works
The following Greenway buildings are listed on the Register of the National Estate.
- Macquarie Lighthouse, Watsons Bay
- Windsor Court House
- Government House, Sydney (partly designed by Greenway)
- St Matthew's, Windsor
- Supreme Court, Sydney
- Judge's House, Sydney (attributed to W.Harper by some sources)
- St James' Church, Sydney
- Hyde Park Barracks, Sydney
- Obelisk, Macquarie Place (1818)
- St Luke's, Liverpool
- Sydney Conservatorium of Music (originally constructed in 1821 as the Government Stables)
- Liverpool College (formerly Liverpool Hospital)
- Government House, Parramatta (timber portico only)
- Hobartville, Richmond (uncertain)
- Cleveland House, Surry Hills (uncertain)
- Cadmans Cottage (construction supervised by Greenway)
- James, Clare (25 March 2008). "Francis Greenway Memorial" (PDF). Maitland City Council. Retrieved 12 April 2011.
- Broadbent, James; Hughes, Joy (1997). Francis Greenway Architect. Glebe, N.S.W.: Historic Houses Trust of New South Wales.
- Morton Herman, 'Greenway, Francis (1777–1837)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 1, MUP, 1966, pp 470–473. Retrieved 27 December 2008
- "Inside Newgate Prison". Discover Collections. State Library of New South Wales. Retrieved 14 February 2013.
- "Francis Greenway". Historic Houses Trust of NSW. Retrieved 14 February 2013.
- Dupain, Max; J M Freeland (1980). Francis Greenway : a celebration. North Ryde, N.S.W.: Mead & Beckett. p. 11-12. ISBN 0726922153.
- Howard Tanner, ed. (1981). Architects of Australia (1st ed.). Sth Melbourne: MacMillian. pp. 10–18. ISBN 0-333-29929-9.
- "Advertisement - Francis Howard Greenway". The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser. 20 January 1835. p. 3.
- The Heritage of Australia, Macmillan Company, 1981
- Sydney Architecture, John Haskell (UNSW Press) 1997, p.67
- Sydney Architecture, John Haskell (UNSW Press) 1997, p.16
- Serle, Percival (1949). "Greenway, Francis". Dictionary of Australian Biography. Sydney: Angus and Robertson.
- Dictionary of Australian Artists Online
- Francis Greenway Drive
Media related to Francis Greenway at Wikimedia Commons