Francis Michael Longstreth Thompson FBA (born 1925) is an English economic and social historian.
He was Reader in Economic History at University College London in 1963. He became Professor of Modern History at Bedford College in 1968, and was from 1977 to 1990 director of the Institute of Historical Research, University of London.
He was president of the Royal Historical Society from 1989 to 1993. 
- Victorian England: the horse-drawn society; an inaugural lecture (1970) at Bedford College
- English Landed Society in the Nineteenth Century (1963)
- The Rise of Suburbia (1982) editor
- Horses in European Economic History: a preliminary canter (1983) editor
- The Rise of Respectable Society: A Social History of Victorian Britain, 1830-1900 (1988)
- The University of London and the World of Learning, 1836-1986 (1990)
- The Cambridge Social History of Britain, 1750–1950 (1990, three volumes) editor
- Gentrification and the Enterprise Culture: Britain 1780-1980 (1993) Ford Lectures
- Landowners, Capitalists and Entrepreneurs (1994, editor)
- Kelly Boyd (editor) (1999), Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing, article p. 1189.