Francisco Craveiro Lopes

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Francisco Craveiro Lopes
Coat of arms of Portugal.svg
12th President of Portugal
In office
21 July 1951 – 9 August 1958
Prime Minister António de Oliveira Salazar
Preceded by Óscar Carmona (effective)
António de Oliveira Salazar (interim)
Succeeded by Américo Tomás
Personal details
Born (1894-04-12)12 April 1894
Lisbon, Kingdom of Portugal
Died 2 September 1964(1964-09-02) (aged 70)
Lisbon, Portuguese Republic
Political party National Union
Spouse(s) Berta Ribeiro Artur
Children João Carlos
Nuno
Manuel
Maria João
Profession Air force officer
Religion Roman Catholicism
Military service
Service/branch Portuguese Air Force
Years of service 1911–1964
Rank Marshal of the air force
Awards Order of Christ
Order of Aviz
Order of the Tower and Sword
Order of the Bath
Royal Victorian Chain

Francisco Higino Craveiro Lopes (Portuguese pronunciation: [fɾɐ̃ˈsiʃku iˈʒinu kɾɐˈvɐjɾu ˈlɔpɨʃ]), GCTE, ComC, GCA, (12 April 1894 – 2 September 1964) was a Portuguese politician and military man. Decorated with the Order of the Bath and the Royal Victorian Chain, he was the 12th President of the Portuguese Republic between 1951 and 1958.

Early life and career[edit]

Born in Lisbon, he was a son of João Carlos Craveiro Lopes, Portuguese army general and 122nd Governor-General of Portuguese India (1929–1936) and his wife Júlia Clotilde Cristiano Salinas.

He concluded his Colégio Militar studies by 1911, having then entered the Escola Politécnica de Lisboa, in the same year he joined a cavalry regiment. He succeeded his father as the 123rd General Governor of Portuguese India (1936–1938).

Presidency[edit]

Salazar chose him as the regime's presidential candidate in 1951 to succeed the late Oscar Carmona. As the electoral system was heavily rigged in favour of Salazar's National Union, this made Craveiro Lopes' election a foregone conclusion.

However, he was not content to be a mere puppet, as Carmona had been. As a result, Salazar picked the seemingly more pliant Américo Tomás as the regime's candidate in 1958. The Democratic Opposition then invited Craveiro Lopes to be their candidate, but he knew he stood no chance of winning and refused. The regime, however, as compensation promoted him to Marshal. He was involved in the failed military attempt to overthrow Salazar, in 1961, led by the Defence Minister, general Júlio Botelho Moniz.

He died in Lisbon on 2 September 1964.

Family[edit]

He married Berta Ribeiro Artur (Lisbon, Pena, 15 October 1899 – Lisbon, Santa Maria de Belém, 5 July 1958), natural daughter of Engineer Sezinando Ribeiro Artur (Lisbon, 1875 – Lourenço Marques, 1918) by Maria Clara Pereira, by whom he had four children.

Political offices
Preceded by
Óscar Carmona
(Effective)
António de Oliveira Salazar
(Interim)
President of Portugal
1951–1958
Succeeded by
Américo Tomás