Frank Borman

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Frank Borman
Frank Borman.jpg
NASA Astronaut
Nationality American
Status Retired
Born (1928-03-14) March 14, 1928 (age 86)
Gary, Indiana, U.S.
Other names
Frank Frederick Borman, II
Other occupation
Fighter pilot, test pilot
USMA, B.S. 1950
CalTech, M.S. 1957
Rank Colonel, USAF
Time in space
19d 21h 35m
Selection 1962 NASA Group 2
Missions Gemini 7, Apollo 8
Mission insignia
Gemini VII patch.png Apollo-8-patch.png
Retirement July 1, 1970
Awards Dfc-usa.jpg Congressional Space Medal of Honor

Frank Frederick Borman, II (born March 14, 1928), (Col, USAF, Ret.), is a retired United States Air Force pilot, aeronautical engineer, test pilot, and NASA astronaut, best remembered as the Commander of Apollo 8, the first mission to fly around the Moon, making him, along with crew mates Jim Lovell and Bill Anders, the first of only 24 humans to do so. Before flying on Apollo, he set a fourteen-day spaceflight endurance record on Gemini 7, and also served on the NASA review board which investigated the Apollo 1 fire. After leaving NASA, he was the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of Eastern Air Lines from 1975 to 1986. Borman is a recipient of the Congressional Space Medal of Honor.

Biography[edit]

Education and early career[edit]

Borman was born on March 14, 1928, in Gary, Indiana, where the Frank Borman Expressway is named after him. He is of German descent, born as the first and only child to parents Edwin and Marjorie Borman. Because he suffered from numerous sinus problems in the cold and damp weather, his father packed up the family and moved to the better climate of Tucson, Arizona, which Borman considers his home town. He started to fly at the age of 15.

He is a graduate of the Tucson High School. Borman received a Bachelor of Science degree from the United States Military Academy in 1950, where he served as an Army Football Manager, and along with part of his graduating class, he entered the United States Air Force (USAF) and became a fighter pilot. He received his Master of Science degree in Aeronautical Engineering from the California Institute of Technology in 1957. Later, Borman was selected for the Aerospace Research Pilot School and became a test pilot. He completed the Harvard Business School's Advanced Management Program in 1970.

Borman married Susan Bugbee in 1950, and they have two sons: Frederick (born October 4, 1951) and Edwin (born July 20, 1953).

Frank Borman and Jim Lovell walking up the ramp to the elevator before the Gemini 7 mission

Flight experience[edit]

Following graduation, Borman was a career U.S. Air Force officer. Prior to joining the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's space program in 1962, he served as a fighter pilot with the 44th Fighter Bomber Squadron in the Phillipine Islands from 1951 to 1953, and as an operational pilot and instructor in various squadrons in the United States, from 1953 until 1956.

In 1957, he became an assistant professor of thermodynamics and fluid mechanics at West Point, where he served until 1960. In 1960, Borman begun serving as an experimental test pilot engaged in organizing and administering special projects for the USAF Aerospace Pilot School, 1960–1962.

During his military service, he logged over 6,000 hours of flying time.

In 1966 and 1968, Borman served as special presidential ambassador on trips throughout the Far East and Europe. In 1970, he undertook another special presidential mission, a worldwide tour to seek support for the release of American prisoners of war held by North Vietnam.[1]

NASA career[edit]

Project Gemini[edit]

Main article: Gemini 7

Borman was selected by NASA for the second NASA astronaut group in 1962, and was chosen as the Command Pilot for Gemini 7. He was one of just four of this group chosen to command their first Gemini missions, the others being James McDivitt, Neil Armstrong, and Elliot See. (See was killed in a T-38 trainer jet crash three months before his mission. Astronauts Gerald Carr and Joe Engle, selected later, also commanded their first space flights.)

Borman flew Gemini 7 in December 1965 with Pilot James A. Lovell, Jr. This was a long-endurance flight which set a fourteen-day record, and also acted as the target vehicle in the first space rendezvous performed by Gemini 6A. The two craft came within one foot (30 centimeters) of each other and they took turns flying around each other, taking both still and motion pictures.

Apollo program[edit]

Main article: Apollo 8

Borman was selected in late 1966 to command the third manned Apollo mission, planned as an elliptical medium Earth orbit test of the second manned Lunar Module (LM) on the first manned launch of the Saturn V lunar rocket sometime in 1967 or early 1968. But in January 1967, the crew of the first manned Apollo mission, Virgil I. "Gus" Grissom, Ed White, and Roger B. Chaffee were killed in a cabin fire aboard their Apollo 1 Command Module, also designated AS-204.

Borman was chosen as the only astronaut to serve on the AS-204 Accident Review Board, charged with investigating the root causes of the fire and recommending corrective measures. In April 1967, while serving on the board, Borman was one of five astronauts who testified before a United States Senate committee investigating the Apollo 1 fire. His testimony helped convince Congress that Apollo would be safe to fly again.

In-flight footage of Frank Borman (center) during the Apollo 8 mission

Borman was then reassigned to his LM test mission, now planned to fly as "Apollo 9" in early 1969 after a first, low Earth orbit LM flight commanded by McDivitt in December 1968. But the LM was not ready for its first flight, leading NASA management to decide to replace Borman's mission with a lunar orbit flight using just the Command/Service Module as Apollo 8 in December, making McDivitt's flight Apollo 9 in March 1969. Borman's "Lunar Module Pilot" (and spacecraft systems engineer) was William Anders. The Command Module Pilot and navigator, Michael Collins, had to have back surgery and was replaced by his backup, James Lovell, reuniting Borman with his Gemini 7 crewmate. Apollo 8 went into lunar orbit on December 24 and made ten orbits of the Moon in 20 hours before returning to Earth.

And, from the crew of Apollo 8, we close with good night, good luck, a Merry Christmas, and God bless all of you—all of you on the good Earth.

— Frank Borman, live broadcast from lunar orbit (1968)[2][3]

The Apollo 8 mission is also notable for the Earthrise photograph taken of the Earth rising above the Lunar horizon as the Command Module orbited the Moon, and for the reading from Genesis that was broadcast to Earth from Lunar orbit.[4]

The success of Apollo 8 avoided jeopardizing the goal of making the first manned Moon landing by the end of 1969 by not waiting for the delayed LM, and also provided invaluable experience in navigation to the Moon.

Space journalist Andrew Chaikin claims that, following the death of Gus Grissom, Borman became astronaut chief Deke Slayton's choice to command the first Moon landing attempt. In the fall of 1968 Slayton offered command of the first landing to Borman, who turned it down, choosing to retire instead.[5]

Post-NASA career[edit]

Eastern Air Lines[edit]

In early 1969, Borman became a special advisor to Eastern Airlines and after retiring from NASA and the U.S. Air Force in 1970 as a Colonel, he was made Senior Vice President-Operations Group at the airline company. In 1972, Borman received a phone call one evening informing him that Eastern Airlines Flight 401 had disappeared off the radarscope near Florida’s Everglades. Soon, Borman himself was wading through the murky swamps, helping rescue crash victims and loading survivors into rescue helicopters.

He was later promoted to Executive Vice President-General Operations Manager and was elected to Eastern Airlines's Board of Directors in July 1974. In May 1975, Borman was elected President and Chief Operating Officer. He was named Chief Executive Officer of Eastern Airlines in December 1975 and became Chairman of the Board in December 1976.[6]

After Borman became Eastern Airlines's CEO, it went through the four most profitable years in the company's history. However, in 1983, contentious battles with labor unions, particularly the International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers (IAM) led the company to abandon several profitable programs and the resulting losses led to the sale of the airline to Texas Air Corporation, headed by Frank Lorenzo. Borman retired from Eastern Airlines in June 1986.[7]

Retirement[edit]

Borman with Jim Lovell and William Anders in December 2008

Borman and his wife returned to reside in Tucson, Arizona, and then in 2006 they moved to Las Cruces, New Mexico, where he enjoyed rebuilding and flying vintage airplanes from the World War II and Korean War era. He was a member of the Society of Antique Modelers (SAM).[8][9]

Borman gave the Commencement Address to the graduating class of 2008 at the University of Arizona.[10]

He also delivered the Commencement Address to the graduating class of 2001 at Lynchburg College in Virginia.

For a time during his retirement, Borman was the majority owner of a Chevrolet dealership founded by his son Fred Borman.[11]

Borman has since appeared in the documentary When We Left Earth: The NASA Missions. On November 13, 2008, Borman and his fellow Apollo 8 crewmates, Jim Lovell and Bill Anders, appeared on the NASA TV channel to discuss the Apollo 8 mission.

Borman also appeared in the 2005 documentary “Race to the Moon,” which was shown as part of the PBS American Experience series. The film, renamed in 2013 as “Earthrise: The First Lunar Voyage,” centered on the events that led up to NASA’s Apollo 8 mission.

As of 2013, Borman resides with his wife Susan Borman in Bighorn, Montana.

Awards and honors[edit]

This article incorporates information from the equivalent article on the Russian Wikipedia.

In media[edit]

In the 1998 HBO miniseries From the Earth to the Moon, Borman was played by David Andrews.

Quotes[edit]

"There's no question that it was a coffin, and I'd have flown it gladly." — Public comment on the hazardous design and construction of the Apollo Command Module, during 1967 congressional testimony after serving on the AS-204 Accident Review Board.[14] At the time, Borman was scheduled to command the third manned flight of the Apollo spacecraft. He coordinated the redesign effort to improve the safety of the spacecraft.

"Had that rocket not fired, I'd still be orbiting the Moon. Forever. And I really didn't want to do that." — Spoken of the Apollo 8 mission during the documentary When We Left Earth: The NASA Missions

"I've long said that capitalism without bankruptcy is like Christianity without Hell. But it's hard to see any good news in this." — as chairman of Eastern Airlines[15]

Tributes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Colonel Borman's flight experience
  2. ^ Williams, David R. (September 25, 2007). "The Apollo 8 Christmas Eve Broadcast". NASA National Space Science Data Center. 
  3. ^ Borman, Frank; Lovell, James; Anders, William (December 25, 1968). The Apollo 8 Christmas Eve Broadcast (MOV) (Live broadcast). NASA National Space Science Data Center. 
  4. ^ Frank Borman, Jim Lovell, Bill Anders (1968-12-24). "1968 Apollo 8 reading Genesis". Retrieved 2014-01-31. 
  5. ^ Chaikin, Andrew (1999). A Man on the Moon. Time-Life, Inc. p. 128. 
  6. ^ http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/borman-f.html
  7. ^ http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/borman-f.html
  8. ^ "The AMA History Program Presents: Biography of Col. Frank Borman" (PDF). Academy of Model Aeronautics. July 2003.  Archive of July/August 2003 article in SAM Speaks, Bruce Augustus.
  9. ^ Society of Antique Modelers International Home Page. AntiqueModeler.org.
  10. ^ "A New Beginning". University Communications. University of Arizona. May 18, 2008. 
  11. ^ Diven, William (November 1992). "Auto dealers: sign of the times - The New Mexico Private 100". New Mexico Business Journal. Retrieved February 21, 2012. 
  12. ^ "National Aviation Hall of fame: Our Enshrinees". National Aviation Hall of Fame. Retrieved February 10, 2011. 
  13. ^ Frank Borman inducted into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame
  14. ^ To The Moon (6-record documentary with accompanying book about the early space program, the Space Race, and the Apollo program to the first Moon landing) (LP). Time-Life. 1969. 
  15. ^ Nash, J. Madeleine; Van Voorst, Bruce; Taylor III, Alexander L. (October 18, 1982). "The Growing Bankruptcy Brigade". Time Magazine. Retrieved May 11, 2011. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Borman, Frank; Serling, Robert J. (October 1988). Countdown: An Autobiography. Silver Arrow. ISBN 0-688-07929-6. 

External links[edit]