Frank Church—River of No Return Wilderness
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|Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness|
Middle Fork Salmon River
|Location||Idaho / Valley / Lemhi / Custer counties, Idaho, USA|
|Nearest city||Yellow Pine, ID|
|Area||2,366,827 acres (9,578.2 km²)|
|Established||January 1, 1980|
|Governing body||U.S. Forest Service
U.S. Bureau of Land Management
The Frank Church—River of No Return Wilderness Area is a protected wilderness area in Idaho. It was created in 1980 by the United States Congress and renamed in 1984 as the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness Area in honor of U.S. Senator Frank Church.
At 2.367 million acres (9,580 km2), it is the second largest protected wilderness in the contiguous United States, after Death Valley. Nicknamed "The Frank," the wilderness protects several mountain ranges, extensive wildlife, and a popular whitewater rafting river: the Salmon River.
Together with the adjacent Gospel Hump Wilderness and surrounding unprotected roadless Forest Service land, it is the core of a 3.3 million acre (13,000 km²) roadless area. It is separated from the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness, to the north, by a single dirt road (the Magruder Corridor). The wilderness contains parts of several mountain ranges, including the Salmon River Mountains, the Clearwater Mountains, and the Bighorn Crags. The ranges are split by steep canyons of the Middle and Main forks of the Salmon River. The Salmon River is a popular destination for whitewater rafting, and is colloquially known as the "River of No Return" for its swift current which makes upstream travel difficult. Most of the area is covered by coniferous forests, with dry, open land along the rivers at lower elevations.
While designation as a Wilderness Area in the United States generally requires the prohibition of any motorized machinery, the use of jetboats (On the Main Fork of the Salmon River) and several airstrips are permitted in this wilderness as grandfathered existing uses before the wilderness was designated.
National Forests 
The Frank Church—River of No Return Wilderness is located in six different National Forests plus a relatively tiny portion of land of the Bureau of Land Management, more components than any other wilderness. In descending order of acreage they are:
- Payette National Forest (33.45%)
- Challis National Forest (21.78%)
- Salmon National Forest (17.81%) (now administratively combined with Challis NF, so that their total is 39.59%)
- Boise National Forest (14.06%)
- Bitterroot National Forest (8.18%)
- Nez Perce National Forest (4.68%)
- Bureau of Land Management (0.034%)
In 1931, 1,090,000 acres (4,400 km²) in Central Idaho were declared by the U.S. Forest Service as The Idaho Primitive Area. In 1963, the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness was split into three parts: The Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness, the Salmon River Breaks Primitive area, and the Magruder Corridor-the land between the two areas.
Frank Church was the Senate floor sponsor for The Wilderness Act of 1964, which protected 9 million acres (36,000 km²) of United States land as part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. In 1968, he introduced the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act, which included the Middle Fork of the Salmon River, so that rivers "shall be preserved in free-flowing condition, and that they and their immediate environments shall be protected for the benefit and enjoyment of present and future generations."
Church's environmental legislation culminated in 1980 with the passage of the Central Idaho Wilderness Act. The act created the River of No Return Wilderness by combining the Idaho Primitive Area, the Salmon River Breaks Primitive Area, and a portion of the Magruder Corridor. The Act also added 125 miles (200 km) of the Salmon River to the Wild and Scenic Rivers System. President Carter had taken his family on a three-day float trip down the Middle Fork of the Salmon River in August 1978, accompanied by Interior Secretary Cecil Andrus, the former (and future) Idaho governor. The administration forwarded a central Idaho wilderness proposal to Congress later that year and Carter signed the final act on July 23, 1980.
Diagnosed with pancreatic cancer in January 1984, Congress honored Senator Church by renaming the area, The Frank Church—River of No Return Wilderness. Idaho Senator Jim McClure introduced the measure in the Senate in late February, and President Reagan signed the act on March 14, less than four weeks before Church's death on April 7 at age 59.
Because of its size the wilderness area provides a secluded habitat for a wide variety of mammal species, including some rare, vulnerable species. The wilderness is inhabited by a large population of mountain lions and grey wolves that visit the area. Populations of black bears, as well as: lynx, coyote, and red fox are scattered throughout the area. Other observable ruminant wildlife within the wilderness include: bighorn sheep, mountain goats, elk, moose, mule deer, and white tail deer. While this area has been deemed as one of the few remaining areas in the contiguous states with suitable habitat for grizzly bears, no established populations are known to exist. The wilderness also offers some of the most critical habitat for wolverines in the lower 48 states.
See also 
- "Wilderness.net search page". Retrieved 2011-12-25.
- "Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness". Wilderness.net. Retrieved 2011-12-25.
- "Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness acreage breakdown". Wilderness.net. Retrieved 2012-07-06.
- "Carter: he may get wet, but he won't starve". Lewiston Morning Tribune. Associated Press. August 23, 1978. p. 1.
- "Idaho wilderness area proposed". Tri-City Herald. Associated Press. December 21, 1978. p. 30.
- "President signs bill establishing Idaho wilderness". Eugene Register-Guard. UPI. July 23, 1980. p. 5A.
- "Idaho acts to rename area after Frank Church". Deseret News. UPI. February 28, 1984. p. 10B.
- "Reagan signs bill naming area after Frank Church". Spokane Chronicle. Associated Press. March 15, 1984. p. 3.
- "Idaho ex-Sen. Frank Church dies of cancer". Spokesman-Review. Associated Press. April 8, 1984. p. 1.
- "Frank Church dies of cancer". Lewiston Morning Tribune. (from The Washington Post). April 8, 1984. p. 1.
- Dant, Sara (May 2008). "Making Wilderness Work: Frank Church and the American Wilderness Movement". Pacific Historical Review 77: 237–272.
- US Forest Service Page on the Frank Church-RNR Area
- User's Guide – December 2001 revision
- Wilderness.net wilderness information
- TopoQuest map of the wilderness
- Wolverines: Ghosts In Our Woods from Sun Valley Guide
- Idaho Public Television – The Frank Church Wilderness