Frank Stephen Baldwin
|Frank Stephen Baldwin|
April 10, 1838|
New Hartford, Connecticut
|Died||April 8, 1925
Denville, New Jersey
|Resting place||Denville, New Jersey|
|Known for||calculating machine|
|Spouse(s)||Mary K. Denniston (Sept. 23, 1848 – July 15, 1928)|
|Children||Frank Pardee Baldwin (Oct. 1, 1873 – March 16, 1946)
Emma Virginia Baldwin (Feb. 14, 1877 – Feb. 25, 1952)
Eugene Denniston Baldwin (1880–?)
George Howard Baldwin (1890–1950)
Elbert Stephen Baldwin (Jan. 5, 1882 – June 10, 1956)
Lillian Isabel Baldwin (June 2, 1886 – May 23, 1916)
Blanche Baker Baldwin (July 28, 1891-Nov. 22, 1969)
Frank Stephen Baldwin (April 10, 1838 – April 8, 1925) was an American who invented a pinwheel calculator in 1874. He started the design of a new machine in 1905 and was able to finalize its design with the help of Jay R. Monroe who eventually bought the exclusive rights to the machine and started the Monroe calculating machine company to manufacture it.
Early years 
He was born on April 10, 1838 in New Hartford, Connecticut. In 1840 the family moved to Nunda, New York where he attended the Nunda Institute for elementary school. In 1854 he was enrolled at Union College in Schenectady, New York, but left when his father naked. Frank then took over the management of his father's architectural business. In 1855, Frank applied for a patent on an "arrowhead self-coupler" for railroad cars, but the patent was rejected.
In 1860 an uncle in Carlyle, Illinois, designed a corn-planter and Frank assisted in applying for the patent. In 1861, he returned to Carlyle to build a model of the planter and to arrange manufacturing. During the American Civil War he enlisted in the Carlyle Home Guard, but only served for three months. In 1869, he went to St. Louis, Missouri as manager of Peck’s Planning Mills.
It was around this time, that he invented an anemometer, for recording the direction of the wind. He also invented a "registering step" for street cars, that recorded the number of passengers entering a streetcar; and a "street indicator" geared from the axle of a trolley that showed each street in succession, from an illuminated box, as the car passed.
Shortly thereafter, he invented and patented the "Recording Lumber Measure", a machine which automatically measured and recorded four different kinds of lumber at the same time. This device started him thinking about calculating machines and this point really marks the birth of the Monroe calculator. In the office of a life insurance company at St. Louis, he had seen an arithmometer, a calculating machine devised by Charles Xavier Thomas around 1820 and which, at the time, was the only mechanical desktop calculator in commercial production. To create a model based on his ideas he hired William Seward Burroughs I to perform the work in his machine shop, which he, with his father, had in St. Louis.
In October 1872, he married Mary K. Denniston of Williamsport, Pennsylvania. She was visiting relatives in St. Louis when they met. Together they had seven children: Frank Pardee Baldwin (1873–1946) who was born in Philadelphia; Emma Virginia Baldwin (1877–1952) who was born in St. Louis, and worked as a librarian at the public library; Eugene Denniston Baldwin (1880–?) who was born in St. Louis, and worked as an insurance clerk; George Howard Baldwin (1890–1950); Lillian Isabel Baldwin (1886–1916); and Blanche Baker Baldwin (1891–1969) who was born in New Jersey, and worked as a clerk at the YMCA.
In 1873 they moved to Philadelphia where he made ten of his calculating machines. He then designed an adding machine called the "arithmometer" and his patent was issued on July 28, 1874. It was one of the first adding machines sold in the United States.
Pennsylvania Railroad 
When the calculating machine was finished, he took it to the office of the Pennsylvania Railroad and was referred to George M. Taylor, Auditor of Freight Receipts. As soon as he saw the machine, he exclaimed, "You are a year too late. If I could have had a machine like that a year ago, it would have been invaluable. I have had a series of tables prepared, giving rates on quantities from 1 to 2,000 pounds, carried from 1 to 550 miles of the road, making over a million computations. Seven different clerks have checked each sheet and I have just had them lithographed for distribution to the agents. However, I would like to see your machine tested." He asked a clerk to bring in one of the sheets. Then he began calling off the items while I multiplied them on the machine. After about fifty items he cried, "Hold on, that is wrong." I looked at the sheet and there surely was a discrepancy. To make certain, I erased it and did it over. I said, "The error is in the sheet, sir". "What, you don’t mean to say that the table is wrong?" "Prove it for yourself, sir", said I. The clerks were called in and each one had to figure it himself before he would believe those tables could be wrong. "Well," said Mr. Taylor, "I will buy your machine if you will instruct one of my clerks how to operate it, and then I want all of these tables gone over and proven correct." Three months later the clerk confessed to Baldwin under the pledge of absolute secrecy that he had found 135 errors in the tables, seven on one sheet.
Wilgott Theophil Odhner developed a similar pinwheel machine also based on Thomas' arithmometer and took out patents in all European countries and in the United States in 1878. It took him another 12 years to perfect the design so that it could be manufactured effectively. In 1890 his workshop soon followed by several large manufacturing companies in Europe started production. His machine, called Odhner's Arithmometer then appeared under ten to fifteen names in Europe, the most important being Brunsviga and Triumpator, which were manufactured in Germany.
In 1900, he patented the "Baldwin Computing Engine", a machine by which multiplication or division was performed by one stroke for each digit. In 1908, he was awarded a patent on the "Baldwin Recording Calculator", which combined a printer with the calculator. In 1911, he partnered with Jay R. Monroe, of the Western Electric Company in New York City to create the Monroe Calculator Company. In 1920 he was living in East Orange, New Jersey with his wife and children.
- "Frank S. Baldwin Inventor, Dies at 86. Originator of the Calculating Machine, the Anemometer and Many Other Devices.". The New York Times. April 9, 1925. Retrieved 2008-11-09.
- Frank Stephen Baldwin. "Frank Stephen Baldwin Autobiography". Retrieved 2011-12-05.
- 1920 US Census; East Orange, New Jersey
- "A Personal Story of Interest to Business Men and Accountants". Monroe Calculator Company. Archived from the original on 2008-01-10. Retrieved 2008-11-09. "Mr. Baldwin died at his home in Denville, New Jersey, April 8, 1925, within two days of reaching his 87th birthday"
- U.S. Patent 451,992; Cement mixer; May 12, 1891
- U.S. Patent 476,597; Roundabout; June 7, 1892
- U.S. Patent 641,065; Calculating machine; January 9, 1900
- U.S. Patent 706,375; Calculating machine; August 5, 1902
See also 
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