Frankincense

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Frankincense from Yemen

Frankincense, also called olibanum, is an aromatic resin obtained from trees of the genus Boswellia, particularly Boswellia sacra, B. carteri, B. thurifera, B. frereana and B. bhaw-dajiana (Burseraceae). The English word is derived from Old French "franc encens" (i.e., high quality incense)[1] and is used in incense and perfumes.

There are four main species of Boswellia that produce true frankincense and resin from each of the four is available in various grades. The grades depend on the time of harvesting. The resin is hand-sorted for quality.

Frankincense is mentioned in the Bible as one of the three gifts the wise men gave to the young child Jesus.

Description[edit]

Flowers and branches of the Boswellia sacra tree, the species from which most frankincense is derived

Frankincense is tapped from the scraggly but hardy trees by slashing the bark, which is called striping, and allowing the exuded resin to bleed out and harden. These hardened resins are called tears. There are several species and varieties of frankincense trees, each producing a slightly different type of resin. Differences in soil and climate create even more diversity of the resin, even within the same species. Boswellia Sacra trees are considered unusual for their ability to grow in environments so unforgiving that they sometimes grow out of solid rock. The initial means of attachment to the rock is unknown but is accomplished by a bulbous disk-like swelling of the trunk. This growth prevents it from being ripped from the rock during violent storms. This feature is slight or absent in trees grown in rocky soil or gravel. The trees start producing resin when they are about eight to 10 years old.[2] Tapping is done two to three times a year with the final taps producing the best tears due to their higher aromatic terpene, sesquiterpene and diterpene content. Generally speaking, the more opaque resins are the best quality. Fine resin is produced in Somalia and along the northern coast of Somalia, from which the Roman Catholic Church draws its supplies.[3]

Recent studies have indicated that frankincense tree populations are declining, partly due to over-exploitation. Heavily tapped trees produce seeds that germinate at only 16% while seeds of trees that had not been tapped germinate at more than 80%. In addition, burning, grazing, and attacks by the longhorn beetle have reduced the tree population.[4] Conversion (clearing) of frankincense woodlands to agriculture is also a major threat.[5]

History[edit]

Indirect burning of frankincense on a hot coal

Frankincense has been traded on the Arabian Peninsula and in North Africa for more than 5000 years.[6] A mural depicting sacks of frankincense traded from the Land of Punt adorns the walls of the temple of ancient Egyptian Queen Hatshepsut, who died circa 1458 BC.[7]

Frankincense was one of the consecrated incenses (HaKetoret) described in the Hebrew Bible and Talmud used in Ketoret ceremonies.[8] The frankincense of the Jews, as well as of the Greeks and Romans, is also called Olibanum (from the Arabic al-lubbān). Old Testament references report it in trade from Sheba (Isaiah 60:6 ; Jeremiah 6:20). Frankincense is mentioned in the Song of Solomon (Song of Solomon 4:14).[9]

It was offered on a specialized incense altar in the time when the Tabernacle was located in the First and Second Jerusalem Temples. The ketoret was an important component of the Temple service in Jerusalem. It is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible book of Exodus 30:34, where it is named levonah (lebonah in the Biblical Hebrew), meaning "white" in Hebrew.[8] It was one of the ingredients in the perfume of the sanctuary (Exodus 30:34), and was used as an accompaniment of the meal-offering (Leviticus 2:1, 2:16, 6:15, 24:7). When burnt it emitted a fragrant odour, and the incense was a symbol of the Divine name (Malachi 1:11 ; Song of Solomon 1:3) and an emblem of prayer (Psalm 141:2 ; Luke 1:10 ; Revelation 5:8, 8:3). It was often associated with myrrh (Song of Solomon 3:6, 4:6) and with it was made an offering to the infant Jesus (Matthew 2:11). A specially "pure" kind, lebhonah zakkah, was presented with the showbread (Leviticus 24:7).[9]

"While burning incense was accepted as a practice in the later Roman Catholic church, the early church during Roman times forbade the use of incense in services resulting in a rapid decline in the incense trade."[10]

Frankincense was reintroduced to Europe by Frankish Crusaders, although its name refers to its quality, not to the Franks themselves.[1] Although it is better known as "frankincense" to westerners, the resin is also known as olibanum, in Arabic al-lubān (roughly translated: "that which results from milking"), a reference to the milky sap tapped from the Boswellia tree. Some have also postulated that the name comes from the Arabic term for "Oil of Lebanon", since Lebanon was the place where the resin was sold and traded with Europeans.[citation needed]

Frankincense olibanum resin

The lost city of Ubar, sometimes identified with Irem in what is now the town of Shisr in Oman, is believed to have been a center of the frankincense trade along the recently rediscovered "Incense Road". Ubar was rediscovered in the early 1990s and is now under archaeological excavation.

The Greek historian Herodotus was familiar with frankincense and knew it was harvested from trees in southern Arabia. He reported that the gum was dangerous to harvest because of venomous snakes that lived in the trees. He goes on to describe the method used by the Arabs to get around this problem, that being the burning of the gum of the styrax tree whose smoke would drive the snakes away.[11] The resin is also mentioned by Theophrastus and by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis Historia.

Southern Arabia was a major exporter of frankincense in ancient times, with some of it being traded as far as China. The Chinese writer and customs inspector Zhao Rugua wrote on the origin of frankincense, and of its being traded to China:

"Ruxiang or xunluxiang comes from the three Dashi countries of Murbat (Maloba), Shihr (Shihe), and Dhofar (Nufa), from the depths of the remotest mountains.[12] The tree which yields this drug may generally be compared to the pine tree. Its trunk is notched with a hatchet, upon which the resin flows out, and, when hardened, turns into incense, which is gathered and made into lumps. It is transported on elephants to the Dashi (on the coast), who then load it upon their ships to exchange it for other commodities in Sanfoqi. This is the reason why it is commonly collected at and known as a product of Sanfoqi."[13]

Quality[edit]

Frankincense

Frankincense comes in many types, and its quality is based on color, purity, aroma, age, and shape. Silver and Hojari are generally considered the highest grades of frankincense.

Currently, there are two dissertations which may enable the identification of a few Olibanum species according to their specific secondary metabolism products.[14][15]

Production[edit]

Frankincense is often prepared inside a censer, such as the meerschaum dabqaad traditionally used in Somalia and Djibouti.

The current annual world production of frankincense is about 1,000 tons. Most of this product comes from Somalia, with some frankincense also gathered in adjacent Southern Arabia.

In Somalia, frankincense is harvested in three ecological zones: the northern Cal Madow mountain range, a westerly escarpment that runs parallel to the coast and grows frankinscence-bearing species; Cal Miskeed, a middle segment of the frankincense-growing escarpment; and Cal Bari or eastern escarpment, which lies at the eastern fringe of the frankinscence escarpment. Frankincense is also produced in the Karkaar mountains.[16]

Uses[edit]

Frankincense is used in perfumery and aromatherapy. It is also an ingredient that is sometimes used in skincare. The essential oil is obtained by steam distillation of the dry resin. Some of the smell of the frankincense smoke are products of pyrolysis.

Frankincense is used in many Christian churches including the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Catholic churches. According to the gospel of Matthew 2:11, gold, frankincense, and myrrh were among the gifts to Jesus by the biblical magi "from out of the East." The Judaic, Christian and Islamic Abrahamic faiths have all used frankincense mixed with oils to anoint newborn infants, initiates, and members entering into new phases of their spiritual lives.

Conversely, the spread of Christianity depressed the market for frankincense during the 4th century AD. Desertification made the caravan routes across the Rub' al Khali or "Empty Quarter" of the Arabian Peninsula more difficult. Additionally, increased raiding by the nomadic Parthians in the Near East caused the frankincense trade to dry up after A.D. 300.

Traditional medicine[edit]

Boswellia sacra tree, from which frankincense is derived, growing inside Biosphere 2

Frankincense resin is edible and is used in traditional medicines in Africa and Asia for digestion and healthy skin. For internal consumption, it is recommended that frankincense be translucent, with no black or brown impurities. It is often light yellow with a (very) slight greenish tint. It is often chewed like gum, but it is stickier.

In Ayurvedic medicine frankincense (Boswellia serrata), commonly referred to in India as "dhoop," has been used for hundreds of years for treating arthritis, healing wounds, strengthening the female hormone system and purifying the air. The use of frankincense in Ayurveda is called "dhoopan". In Somali, Ethiopian, Arabian, and Indian cultures, it is suggested that burning frankincense daily in the house brings good health.[17]

Frankincense essential oil[edit]

Frankincense (Boswellia carteri) essential oil

The essential oil of frankincense is produced by steam distillation of the tree resin. The oil's chemical components are 75% monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, monoterpenoles, sesquiterpenols, and ketones. It has a good balsamic sweet fragrance, while the Indian frankincense oil has a very fresh smell. Steam or hydro distilled frankincense oil does contain a number of boswellic acids (triterpenoids) which represents a method of validating the authenticity of the essential oil. The chemistry of the essential oil is mainly monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes with small amounts of diterpenoid components being the upper limit in terms of molecular weight.[18][19][20] Frank A, Unger M. J Chromatogr A. 2006 Apr 21;1112(1-2):255-62. Analysis of frankincense from various Boswellia species with inhibitory activity on human drug metabolising cytochrome P450 enzymes using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry after automated on-line extraction.

Perfume[edit]

Olibanum is characterized by a balsamic-spicy, slightly lemon, fragrance of incense, with a conifer-like undertone. It is used in the perfume, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

Medical research[edit]

For therapy trials in ulcerative colitis, asthma and rheumatoid arthritis there are only isolated reports and pilot studies from which there is not yet sufficient evidence of safety and efficacy. Similarly, the long-term effects and side effects of taking frankincense has not yet been scientifically investigated. Nonetheless, several preliminary studies have been published.

Frankincense

A 2008 study reported that frankincense smoke was a psychoactive drug that relieves depression and anxiety in mice.[21][22] The researchers found that the chemical compound incensole acetate[23] was responsible for the effects.[21]

In a different study, an enriched extract of "Indian Frankincense" (usually Boswellia serrata) was used in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study of patients with osteoarthritis. Patients receiving the extract showed significant improvement in their arthritis in as little as seven days. The compound caused no major adverse effects and, according to the study authors, is safe for human consumption and long-term use.[24]

In a study published in 2009, it was reported that "Frankincense oil appears to distinguish cancerous from normal bladder cells and suppress cancer cell viability."[25]

A 2012 study in healthy volunteers determined that exposure to 11-keto-β-boswellic acid (KBA), a lead boswellic acid in the novel solubilized frankincense extract Boswelan, is increased when taken with food. However, simulations based on a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model with single first-order absorption phase proposed that the observed food interaction loses its relevance for the simulated repeated-dose scenario.[26]

In a 2012 study, researchers found that the "behavioral effect [of insensole actetate] was concomitant to reduced serum corticosterone levels, dose-dependent down-regulation of corticotropin releasing factor and up-regulation of brain derived neurotrophic factor transcripts IV and VI expression in the hippocampus. These data suggest that IA modulates the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and influences hippocampal gene expression, leading to beneficial behavioral effects supporting its potential as a novel treatment of depressive-like disorders."[27]

In 2013, Leicester University researchers announced findings that AKBA (acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid), a chemical compound in the resin, has cancer-killing properties and has the potential to destroy ovarian cancer cells. The lead researcher from the University's Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine announced the findings after a year studying the AKBA compound with ovarian cancer cell lines in vitro that showed it is effective at killing late stage cancer cells. Kamla Al-Salmani noted that among surprising findings were that some cells that had become resistant to chemotherapy were killed during the in vitro study. The efficacy of AKBA as a potential medicine for treatment of cancers(colon, breast and prostate) has been tested. The results are based on the preliminary and unverified findings of the laboratory study, which marked the first study to identify an ability to fight ovarian cancer. It is in early stages and, as of 2014, yet to be published in a peer-reviewed journal.[28][29][30]

Chemical composition[edit]

Structure of β-boswellic acid, one of the main active components of frankincense

These are some of the chemical compounds present in frankincense:

See also for example the following references which give a comprehensive overview on the chemical compounds present in different frankincense species:.[14][15]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b >Oxford English Dictionary. 
  2. ^ "Omani World Heritage Sites". www.omanwhs.gov.om. Retrieved 2009-01-14. 
  3. ^ BBC.co.uk
  4. ^ Remy Melina (December 21, 2011). "Christmas Staple Frankincense 'Doomed,' Ecologists Warn". LiveScience. 
  5. ^ Dejenea, T.; M. Lemenih; F. Bongers (February 2013). "Manage or convert Boswellia woodlands? Can frankincense production payoff?". Journal of Arid Environments 89: 77–83. doi:10.1016/j.jaridenv.2012.09.010. 
  6. ^ Paper on Chemical Composition of Frankincense
  7. ^ "Queen Hatshepsut's expedition to the Land of Punt: The first oceanographic cruise?". Dept. of Oceanography, Texas A&M University. Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  8. ^ a b Klein, Ernest, A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language for Readers of English, The University of Haifa, Carta, Jerusalem, p.292
  9. ^ a b "www.Bibler.org - Dictionary - Frankincense". 2012-07-21. 
  10. ^ Gibson (2011), p. 160.
  11. ^ Herodotus 3,107
  12. ^ Ralph Kauz (2010). Ralph Kauz, ed. Aspects of the Maritime Silk Road: From the Persian Gulf to the East China Sea. Volume 10 of East Asian Economic and Socio-cultural Studies - East Asian Maritime History. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 130. ISBN 3-447-06103-0. Retrieved December 26, 2011. "The frankincense was first collected in the Hadhramaut ports of Mirbat, Shihr, and Zufar whence Arab merchant vessels shipped it to Srivijaya, before it was then reexported to China. The term "xunluxiang" is derived from the Arab word "kundur". . . According to Li Xun, frankincense originally came from Persia.92 Laufer refers to the Xiangpu fftff by Hong Chu %Ws (? . . . Zhao Rugua notes: Ruxiang or xunluxiang comes from the three Dashi countries of Murbat (Maloba), Shihr (Shihe), and Dhofar (Nufa), from the depths of the remotest mountains. The tree which yields this drug may generally be compared to the pine tree. Its trunk is notched with a hatchet, upon which the" 
  13. ^ Ralph Kauz (2010). Ralph Kauz, ed. Aspects of the Maritime Silk Road: From the Persian Gulf to the East China Sea. Volume 10 of East Asian Economic and Socio-cultural Studies - East Asian Maritime History. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 131. ISBN 3-447-06103-0. Retrieved December 26, 2011. "resin flows out, and, when hardened, turns into incense, which is gathered and made into lumps. It is transported on elephants to the Dashi (on the coast), who then load it upon their ships to exchange it for other commodities in Sanfoqi. This is the reason why it is commonly collected at and known as a product of Sanfoqi.94" 
  14. ^ a b > Chemotaxonomic Investigations on Resins of the Frankincense Species Boswellia papyrifera, Boswellia serrata and Boswellia sacra, respectively, Boswellia carterii: A Qualitative and Quantitative Approach by Chromatographic and Spectroscopic Methodology, Paul, M., Dissertation, Saarland University (2012) http://scidok.sulb.uni-saarland.de/volltexte/2012/4999/pdf/Dissertation_Fertig_211112.pdf
  15. ^ a b > Phytochemical Investigations on Boswellia Species, Basar, S., Dissertation, Hamburg University (2005) http://www.chemie.uni-hamburg.de/bibliothek/2005/DissertationBasar.pdf
  16. ^ Programme, author, War-Torn Societies Project International, Somali (2001). Rebuilding Somalia : issues and possibilities for Puntland. London: HAAN. p. 124. ISBN 1874209049. 
  17. ^ "Joint relief". www.herbcompanion.com. Retrieved 2009-01-12. 
  18. ^ Verghese, J., et al.(1987). "A Fresh Look at the Constituents of Indian Olibanum Oil". Flav. Fragr. J., Vol. 2, (3), 99-102
  19. ^ Hayashi, S., Amemori, H., Kameoka, H., Hanafusa M., Furukawa K. (1998). "Comparison of Volatile Compounds from Olibanum from Various Countries". J. Essent. Oil Res., 10, 25-30
  20. ^ Baser, S., Koch, A., Konig, W.A. (2001). "A Verticillane-type diterpene from Boswellia carterii Essential Oil". Flav. Frag. J., 16, 315-318
  21. ^ a b Moussaieff, Arieh; Rimmerman, Neta; Bregman, Tatiana; Straiker, Alex; Felder, Christian C.; Shoham, Shai; Kashman, Yoel; Huang, Susan M.; Lee, Hyosang; Shohami, Esther; Mackie, Ken; Caterina, Michael J.; Walker, J. Michael; Fride, Ester; Mechoulam, Raphael (August 2008). Incensole acetate, an incense component, elicits psychoactivity by activating TRPV3 channels in the brain 22 (8). The FASEB Journal. pp. 3024–3034. doi:10.1096/fj.07-101865. PMC 2493463. PMID 18492727. 
  22. ^ Moussaieff, A; Gross, M; Nesher, E; Tikhonov, T; Yadid, G; Pinhasov, A (2012). "Incensole acetate reduces depressive-like behavior and modulates hippocampal BDNF and CRF expression of submissive animals". J Psychopharmacol. 26 (12). doi:10.1177/0269881112458729. 
  23. ^ Drahl, Carmen (22 December 2008). "Frankincense And Myrrh". Chemical & Engineering News 86 (51): 38. doi:10.1021/cen-v086n051.p038. ISSN 0009-2347. 
  24. ^ "A double blind, randomized, placebo controlled study of the efficacy and safety of 5-Loxin for treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee". Arthritis Research & Therapy. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  25. ^ "Frankincense oil derived from Boswellia carteri induces tumor cell specific cytotoxicity.". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID 19296830. 
  26. ^ Skarke, Carsten et al. (October 2012). "Increased bioavailability of 11-keto-β-boswellic acid following single oral dose frankincense extract administration after a standardized meal in healthy male volunteers: modeling and simulation considerations for evaluating drug exposures.". J Clin Pharmacol. 52 (10): 1592–1600. doi:10.1177/0091270011422811. PMID 22167571. 
  27. ^ Moussaieff, Arieh; Gross, Moshe; Nesher, Elimelech; Tikhonov, Tatiana; Yadid, Gal; Pinhasov, Albert (December 2012). "Incensole acetate reduces depressive-like behavior and modulates hippocampal BDNF and CRF expression of submissive animals". Journal of Psychopharmacology 26 (12): 1584–93. doi:10.1177/0269881112458729. PMID 23015543. 
  28. ^ Frankincense Effective in Killing Ovarian Cancer Cells, Study, by Stephen Adkins|University Herald; December 20, 2013
  29. ^ Researchers discover cancer-killing properties of frankincense in ovarian cancer- Medical News; December 20, 2103.
  30. ^ Frankincense ‘fights cancer’ - Daily Mail, London; December 22, 2013
  31. ^ a b c "Olibanum.—Frankincense.". Henriette's Herbal Homepage. www.henriettesherbal.com. Retrieved 2009-01-14. 
  32. ^ a b c "Farmacy Query". www.ars-grin.gov. Retrieved 2009-01-14. 
Bibliography
  • Müller, Walter W.: Weihrauch : ein arabisches Produkt und seine Bedeutung in der Antike, Realencyclopaedie / Pauly-Wissowa : Supp. ; 15, 1978, 700-777.
  • Gibson, Dan (2011). Qur'anic Geography: A Survey and Evaluation of the Geographical References in the Qur’an with Suggested Solutions for Various Problems and Issues. Independent Scholars Press, Canada. ISBN 978-0-9733642-8-6.
  • Groom, Nigel (1981). Frankincense & Myrrh: A Study of the Arabian Incense Trade. ISBN 0-86685-593-9.
  • Maloney, George A, (1997). Gold, Frankincense, and Myrrh: An Introduction to Eastern Christian Spirituality. ISBN 0-8245-1616-8.

External links[edit]