Franklin White

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For the British ballet dancer, see Franklin White (dancer).
Franklin White at home, circa 2008

Franklin MM White is an Australian-born Canadian public health scientist-scholar-practitioner focused on capacity building for international and global health education, research and development. He champions the view that: “Public health…must not be left to the international community to define; it is primarily the responsibility of the countries themselves to define their priorities. The global agenda should be viewed as complementary at best”.[1]

Early life[edit]

Born in Perth, Australia (1946), his family lived in Malaya (1946–50) during the Malayan emergency, engaged in reconstruction of the tin mining industry. Returning to Australia, from early years he traveled with his father (then a professor of mining and metallurgical engineering) to visit field sites, and later took seasonal employment in the mining industry. Steadily he came to appreciate that how people live and work impacts their health. In the Australian Navy Cadets, he reached the rank of Petty Officer (1963). He qualified (1963) as a junior rugby union referee, was a Queensland junior (individual) and open (relay) track and field champion (1964), and represented the state in the Australian Athletics Championships (1965). He was active in the 1960s Australian folk music scene.

Education[edit]

His primary education was at Ironside State School and Brisbane Boys College; his secondary education at the Anglican Church Grammar School. Following scholarship-assisted studies at University of Queensland, he migrated to Canada and obtained MD,CM degrees from McGill University in 1969. During his final year and into internship at Royal Jubilee Hospital, he worked in educational research with the Université de Sherbrooke.[2] In 1970-71 he was a trainee with the Ministry of Health (British Columbia), then enrolled with the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) under the tutelage of social epidemiologist Jerry Morris, gaining an MSc in 1973. During these studies he was recruited and seconded by McGill to the Medical Research Council’s Pneumoconiosis Research Unit, Cardiff University School of Medicine, in contact with Archie Cochrane, pioneer of evidence-based medicine. He earned specialty recognition in Canada (FRCPC 1982) and in the United Kingdom (FFPH 2003, by distinction).

Career[edit]

Public Health Surveillance and Investigation[edit]

Appointed to McGill's department of epidemiology and health in 1972, he focused on occupational and environmental health,[3][4] and worked part-time in a community clinic of the Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal. In 1974, he joined Health Canada as chief, communicable disease epidemiology, and in 1975 initiated Canada Diseases Weekly Report, the nation's first data-supported surveillance report, and its Field Epidemiology Program.[5] As director, communicable disease control and epidemiology for Alberta (1977–80), and then director of epidemiology for British Columbia (1980–82), he emphasized surveillance and investigation capacity development. Several novel investigations led to publication, including: Legionnaires disease,[6] shigellosis on a work train in Labrador,[7] gastrointestinal infection related to pooled expressed breast milk,[8] poliomyelitis in an unvaccinated religious community,[9] and brucellosis in a slaughterhouse;[10] he also published on imported diseases,[11] health systems and immunization policy.[12][13] He served on the National Advisory Committee on Epidemiology (1977–82), and the National Immunization Policy Committee (1978–81). He was co-chair (hygiene), Medical Committee, Commonwealth Games, Edmonton 1977-78.

Academic and Professional Leadership[edit]

At age 36, he was appointed "Ezra Butler Eddy" Professor and Head, Community Health and Epidemiology at Dalhousie University (1982-89). Cross-appointed to the Institute of Resource and Environmental Studies, he investigated human exposures to chemicals and pesticides.[14][15][16] Using Canada Fitness Survey data,[17] he focused on obesity measurement and prevalence,[18][19][20] and was first to reveal an independent association of waist:hip ratio (abdominal obesity) with hypertension in males.[21] A field investigation revealed the world's most northerly occurrence of endemic ascariasis.[22] Using records linkage, he investigated cancer incidence and mortality in indoor workers;[23] similar innovative methods were applied to an inter-provincial study of heart disease.[24]

He served on Health Canada's Epidemiology Science Panel (1983–84), Task Force on Obesity (1983–86), and Advisory Committee on Weight Standards (1985–87), and chaired the Review Panel, National Cancer Incidence Reporting System. In 1986, he was appointed Chief Examiner in Community Medicine, Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (3-year term). In 1988, he became a founding member, Board of Trustees, Environmental Health Foundation of Canada, serving until 1994.

Elected President of the Canadian Public Health Association (CPHA) 1986-88, having serving on its board since 1982, he advocated an international role for the association.[25][26] In November 1986, CPHA hosted the First International Conference on Health Promotion, which produced the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. Also in 1986, CPHA launched the federally-funded Canadian International Immunization Initiative, in support of Commonwealth and Francophonie Countries. He served on the board of the Canadian Society for International Health (1992-96).

Capacity Building - International and Global[edit]

In international leadership roles, he emphasized capacity building for public health education, research, policy and program development.[27] As director (1989–95), Caribbean Epidemiology Centre (CAREC/PAHO/WHO), a reference agency for 22 member nations (integrated within CARPHA, the Caribbean Public Health Agency, in 2013), he emphasized resource mobilization.[28] This was applied to: strengthening social and behavioral sciences, laboratory information systems and immunology; priority infectious diseases and related epidemiology training;[29][30] promoting a non-communicable diseases agenda; and guiding the regional response to the HIV/AIDS pandemic.[31][32][33] He served on the Commonwealth Caribbean Medical Research Council, on the Technical Advisory Committee of the Caribbean Environmental Health Institute, as external examiner for the University of the West Indies (MPH and MPhil programs), and had observer status at the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Health Ministers conferences.

For the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO/WHO Washington DC), promoting an evidence-based approach,[34][35] in 1995 he guided development of a regional non-communicable disease (NCD) program focused on Latin America and the Caribbean.[36][37] This included initiatives such as the Declaration of the Americas on Diabetes (DOTA),[38][39][40] a public-private partnership modeled after the St. Vincent Declaration, the CARMEN model of integrated NCD prevention and control,[41] and recognition of cervical cancer,[42] accidents and violence as regional priorities.[43] He served on the Board of Appeal, the Advisory Committee on Women, the Working Group on Indigenous Health, and the Implementation Group: performance planning and evaluation system.

From 1998-2003, he served as Noordin M Thobani Professor and Chair, Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University (AKU), Karachi, and focused mainly on South Asia, espousing the principle: “Public health…must not be left to the international community to define; it is primarily the responsibility of the countries themselves to define their priorities. The global agenda should be viewed as complementary at best...”.[44] At AKU he promoted population health analysis, field studies, systems research, and community sites for undergraduate and postgraduate training.[45][46] He guided the design and implementation of an MSc in health policy and management, and intervention evaluations in hard-to-reach settings, such as the Water and Sanitation Extension Program.[47] In association with University of Alabama at Birmingham (1999-2003) he chaired the US National Institutes of Health, Fogarty International Center: advisory and selection committee for the AIDS International Training and Research Program, and was Principal Foreign Collaborator for: the Maternal and Child Health Research and Training Program, and the International Research and Training in Environmental and Occupational Health Program. From 2004-9, he served on the International Advisory Board, National Action Plan, NCD Prevention, Control & Health Promotion, Pakistan. With colleagues, he published many locally conducted studies, including: childhood illnesses,[48][49][50] tuberculosis,[51][52] HIV/AIDS/STI,[53][54] reproductive health,[55][56] health systems,[57][58][59][60] environmental health,[61][62][63][64] and NCDs.[65][66][67][68][69][70][71][72][73][74]

During the Iraq War and the War in Afghanistan (2001-14), White published his views and concerns in scientific journals: on the case for an epidemiology of terrorism and the potential for successive waves of violence, lamenting the “lack of enlightened leadership... which has brought us to this point”:[75] the targeting of water supply infrastructure,[76]collateral damage” among children,[77] and the need for a stronger response from the global community, citing international law.[78]

Health Systems Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation[edit]

In 2003, White launched Pacific Health & Development Sciences Inc. (PacificSci), a health systems consulting firm engaged mainly in independent third party monitoring and evaluation of organizations and interventions e.g., Amref Health Africa; International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh; Pakistan’s Lady Health Worker Program (working alongside Oxford Policy Management as external reviewer); the International Development Research Centre; and the World Health Organization. He is an associate with Universalia Management Group Ltd. (Montreal), adjunct professor in Public Health and Social Policy, University of Victoria, and in Community Health and Epidemiology, Dalhousie University, and (periodically) visiting professor to Kuwait University, where he guided plans for a Faculty of Public Health (launched 2014). Since 2012, as co-founding executive editor, he helped launch the Global Journal of Medicine and Public Health, published out of Kashmir, India, to promote health science for development settings.[79] His own research on health systems,[80][81][82]emphasizes that "health is mostly made in homes, communities and workplaces and only a minority of ill health can be repaired in clinics and hospitals",[83] and that "nations (must) assess their public health human resource needs and develop their ability to deliver this capacity, and not depend on other countries to supply it."[84]

Contributions to the Reference Literature[edit]

White has published over 300 articles, book chapters, and technical reports. He contributed to several editions of the International Epidemiological Association's Dictionary of Epidemiology,[85] and is an associate editor to John M Last, in A Dictionary of Public Health (2007).[86] He coauthored the chapter on international and global health in the textbook Public Health and Preventive Medicine (2008).[87] His insights are reflected in Global Public Health - Ecological Foundations (2013).[88]

Recognition[edit]

Franklin White is a recipient of the Medal of Honor (1997), highest award conferred by PAHO/WHO on staff officers, the Breakthrough Award for Creativity (1990) conferred by AED (non-profit) (formerly Academy for Educational Development) for promoting socio-behavioral methods in HIV/AIDS control, and other awards. In 2011, he was selected by the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine as a case study of notable alumni (30 selected globally). He has been keynote speaker in several countries, including: webinar to honor the 100th Anniversary of the Canadian Public Health Association (2010); launching of SHOW (Survey of the Health of Wisconsin), USA, 2008; Inauguration Address “Ibn Ridwan” building, AKU, in the presence of His Highness, The Aga Khan, Pakistan 2000; “Bicentenario del Nacimiento de Jose Cayetano Heredia” hosted by la Academia Nacional de Medicina, Peru, 1997; and Visiting Scientist, WHO Collaborating Center for Rural & Border Health, University of Arizona, 1993.

Debra J Nanan and Franklin White Tea at Point No Point, BC, Sept 2012

Personal Life[edit]

White lives in Victoria, British Columbia, with his spouse Debra J Nanan, epidemiologist, evaluation specialist, and co-principal of PacificSci. He has three children by prior marriage: Genevieve, Bernard and Alexander, and three grandchildren. In 1990, at the North American Track & Field Championships,[89] sponsored by World Masters Athletics, he won the silver medal in pentathlon and bronze in 400 metres hurdles. An experienced small boat sailor, in 1992 he published a book on sailing from Nova Scotia to the West Indies.[90] As a balladeer, he has sustained an interest in folk music.





Selected References[edit]

  1. ^ John TJ, White F. Public Health in South Asia. Chapter 10 in: Beaglehole R (ed) Global Public Health: a new era. Oxford University Press. 2003.
  2. ^ Massey D, Fournier-Massey G. Students as programmers. Br J Med Educ 1971,71,5:289-91
  3. ^ White FMM, Swift J, Becklake MR, Rheumatic complaints and pulmonary response to chrysotile dust in the mines and mills of Quebec. Can Med Assoc J 1974, 111: 533 5.
  4. ^ Archer DP, Gurekas VL, White FMM, Urinary fluoride excretion in school children exposed to fluoride air pollution: A Pilot Study. Can J Public Health 1975, 66: 407 10.
  5. ^ White FMM, A Perspective on the control of communicable diseases in Canada, Editorial. Can J Public Health 1976, 67: 449-53.
  6. ^ White F. Legionnaires disease in Canada 1974. Can Med Assoc J 1978, 119: 563.
  7. ^ White FMM, Pedersen BAT, Epidemic shigellosis on a work train in Labrador. Can Med Assoc J 1976, 115: 647 9.
  8. ^ Stiver HG, Albritton WL, Clark J, Friesen P, White F. Nosocomial colonization and infection due to E Coli 0125:K70 (B15) linked to expressed breast milk. Can J Public Health 1977;68:479-82.
  9. ^ White FMM, Constance P, Lacey B. An outbreak of poliovirus infections, Alberta 1978. Can J Public Health 1981, 72: 239 44.
  10. ^ Alleyne BC, Orford RR, Lacey BA, White FMM, Rate of slaughter may increase risk of human brucellosis in a meat packing plant. J Occ Med 1986, 28: 445 50.
  11. ^ White FMM, Imported Diseases: An Assessment of Trends. Can Med Assoc J 1977, 117: 241 5.
  12. ^ White FMM, Mathias RG, Immunization program planning in Canada. Can J Public Health 1982 73: 167 71.
  13. ^ White FMM, Policy for measles elimination in Canada and program implications. Rev Inf Dis 1983, 5: 577 82.
  14. ^ White FMM, Cohen F, Sherman G, McCurdy R, Chemicals, Birth Defects and Stillbirths in New Brunswick: Associations with Agricultural Activity. Can Med Assoc J 1988, 138: 117-24.
  15. ^ Cohen FG, White FMM, McCurdy R, Cote RP, Who Should Know? The Question of Access to Pesticide Registration Data in Canada. Can Med Assoc J. 1987; 136: 329-32.
  16. ^ White F. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticides: Development of Epidemiological Approaches. pp 17-25 In: Forget G, Goodman T, de Villiers A (eds). Impact of Pesticide Use on Health in Developing Countries. IDRC, Ottawa, 1993. ISBN 0-88936-560-1.
  17. ^ White FMM, The Canada Fitness Survey: Implications for health research and public health practice. Can J Pub Health 1983, 74: 91 5.
  18. ^ White FMM, Pereira LH, Obesity: epidemiology and the problem of measurement. Can J Surgery 1984 27: 120 3.
  19. ^ White F, Pereira L, In Search of the Ideal Body Weight. Annals RCPSC 1987, 20, 2: 129 32.
  20. ^ Pereira L, White F, Prevalence and Health Consequences of Obesity. National Institute of Nutrition. Rapport 1987 2: 6 7.
  21. ^ White FMM, Pereira LH, Garner JB, The associations of body mass index and waist-hip ratio with hypertension. Can Med Assoc J. 1986; 135: 313-19,
  22. ^ Embil J, Pereira L, White FMM, Garner J, Manuel F, Prevalence of ascaris lumbricoides in a small Nova Scotia community. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1984, 33: 595 8.
  23. ^ White F, Dingle J, Heyge E, Cancer Incidence and Mortality among Office Workers. Can J Public Health 1988, 79: 31-6.
  24. ^ Nova Scotia-Saskatchewan Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology Group, Estimation of the Incidence of Acute Myocardial Infarction Using Record Linkage. Can J Pub Health.1989;80:412-7.
  25. ^ White F, The Canadian Public Health Association and International Health: A Perspective. Can J Public Health 1988,79:82-5.
  26. ^ Sustainability and Equity: Primary Health Care in Developing Countries, Position Paper sponsored by a CPHA Task Force (F.White, member), CPHA Health Digest 1990, 14: 2-5
  27. ^ White F. Capacity building for health research in developing countries: a manager’s approach. Pan Am J Public Health 2002; 12: 165-71.
  28. ^ White F, British Support for CAREC. Lancet 1991, 337: 1040-1.
  29. ^ White F, Hospedales CJ. Communicable Disease Control as a Caribbean Health Priority. Bull Pan Am Health Org. 1994, 28: 73-6.
  30. ^ White F, Miner K, Monteil S, Alperin M, Thomson N, Brachman P. Epidemiology training initiatives in the English-speaking Caribbean: preliminary evaluation. West Indian Med J. 1994, 43 (suppl.1): 19.
  31. ^ Narain JP, White F, Kimball A, Zessler L, Zacarias F. Combating AIDS in the Caribbean. A Coordinated Approach. Bull Pan Am Health Org 1990, 24: 335-40.
  32. ^ Lamptey P, White F, Figeroa JP, Gringle R (eds). Handbook for AIDS Prevention in the Caribbean. Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. 1992 ISBN 0-939704-10-2.
  33. ^ Newton EAC, White FMM, Sokal DC, King TDN, Forsythe SS. Modelling the HIV/AIDS Epidemic in the English Speaking Caribbean. Bull Pan Am Health Org. 1994, 28: 239-49.
  34. ^ White F. De la evidencia al desempeno: como fijar prioridades y tomar buenas decisiones. Current Topics. Pan Am J Public Health 1998, 4: 69-74.
  35. ^ Jadue L, Vega J, Aedo C, Salazar R, Delgado I, White F, Robles S. Menejo de la Diabetes Mellitus: Aplicacion de un Programa Estandardizado de Evaluacion y Auto-control. S-53. Revista de la Asociacion Latinoamericana de Diabetes. 1998, VI, 2: 125.
  36. ^ Non-Communicable Diseases. Document for 120th Meeting of PAHO Executive Committee. CE120/18 Washington DC 1998
  37. ^ Diabetes in the Americas. Discussion Document for 29th Meeting of PAHO Directing Council. CD39/19 Washington DC 1996
  38. ^ White F (ed). Special Topic: The Declaration of the Americas on Diabetes. International Diabetes Federation Bulletin. 1997. 42: 10-34
  39. ^ Diabetes. In: Health in the Americas. Vol I. pp 175-176. Pan American Health Organization. 1998. Sci Pub No. 569.
  40. ^ White F, Nanan D. National Diabetes Program Status in the Americas. Bull WHO. 1999,77:981-7.
  41. ^ White F. Developing effective and affordable models for noncommunicable disease prevention and control. Int J Epidemiol 2001; 30: 1494-5.
  42. ^ Robles SC, White F, Peruga A. Trends in Cervical Cancer Mortality in the Americas. Bull Pan Am Health Org. 1996. 30: 290-301.
  43. ^ Accidents and Violence. In: Health in the Americas. Vol II pp 176 –186 Pan American Health Organization 1998. Sci Pub No. 569
  44. ^ John TJ, White F. Public Health in South Asia. Chapter 10 in: Beaglehole R (ed) Global Public Health: a new era. Oxford University Press. 2003.
  45. ^ White F. The Urban Health Project, Karachi. Bull WHO. 2000, 78: 565
  46. ^ White F. Editorial - Community Medicine: a specialty whose time has come. J Coll Physicians Surgeons Pakistan. 2001, 11: 733-5.
  47. ^ Nanan D, White F, Azam I, Afsar H, Hozabri S. Evaluation of a water, sanitation and hygiene education intervention on diarrhoea in Northern Pakistan. Bull WHO. 2003; 81: 160-5.
  48. ^ Fatmi Z, White F. A comparison of “cough and cold” and pneumonia: risk factors for pneumonia in under-5 years children revisited. Int J Infectious Diseases 2002; 6,4: 294-301.
  49. ^ Agha A, White F, Younis M, Kadir MM, Alir S, Fatmi Z. Eight key household practices of integrated management of childhood illnesses (IMCI) amongst mothers of children aged 6 to 59 months in Gambat, Sindh, Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc. 2007; 57(6): 288-93
  50. ^ Khan AJ, Hussain H, Omer SB, Chaudry S, Ali S, Khan A, Yasin Z, Khan IJ, Mistry R, Baig IY, White F, Moulton LH, Halsey NA. High incidence of childhood pneumonia at high altitudes in Pakistan: a longitudinal cohort study. Bull WHO 2009;87:193–99.
  51. ^ Akhtar S, White F, Hasan R, Rozi S, Younis M, Ahmed F, Husain S, Khan BS. Hyperendemic pulmonary tuberculosis in peri-urban areas of Karachi, Pakistan. BMC Public Health. 2007, 3; 7:70 doi:10.1186/1471-2458-7-70
  52. ^ Akhtar S, Rozi S, White F, Hasan R. Cohort analysis of directly observed treatment outcomes for tuberculosis patients in urban Pakistan. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2011, 15 (1): 90-6.
  53. ^ Nanan D, Kadir MM, White F. Survey and Surveillance Development in Settings with Low HIV Prevalence. Eastern Med Health J. 2000. 6: 670-677.
  54. ^ Raheel H, White F, Kadir M, Fatmi. Knowledge and beliefs of adolescents regarding STI and HIV/AIDS in a rural district of Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc 2007, 57: 8-11.
  55. ^ Saleem S, Sami N, White F, Hashmi S Emergency Contraception: Experiences of 174 women from squatter settlements of Karachi. J Coll Physicians Surgeons Pak. 2002, 12: 232-5.
  56. ^ Nisar N, White F. Factors affecting utilization of antenatal care among reproductive age group women (15-49 yrs) in an urban squatter settlement of Karachi. J Pak Med Assoc 2003, 53:47-53.
  57. ^ White F. Women, Literacy, and Leadership. Harvard International Review.2000. XXII, 2: 5-7.
  58. ^ Rabbani F, Islam A, Memon Y, Siddiqui F, White F. The Urban Health Program, The Aga Khan University Urban Health Program: An Opportunity to engage in people-centred health and development. In: The Quest for Equity in Access to Health and Development. Tropical Institute of Community Health and Development in Africa. Africa. 310-33. 2003. ISBN 9966-9796-0-3.
  59. ^ Akhtar S, White F. Animal disease surveillance: prospects for development in Pakistan. Scientifique et Technique de l’ Office International Epizooties 2003; 22: 977-87.
  60. ^ Butt Z, Gilani A, Nanan D, Sheik L, White F. Quality of Pharmacies in Pakistan: a cross-sectional survey. Int J Qual Hlth Care. 2005; 17:307-13. Epub 2005 May 5.
  61. ^ Rahbar MH, White F, Agboatwalla M, Hozhabri S, Luby SP. Factors associated with elevated blood lead concentrations in children in Karachi, Pakistan. Bull WHO. 2002,80:769-75.
  62. ^ Paul R, White F, Luby S. Trends in Lead Content of Petrol in Pakistan. Bull WHO. 2003, 81: 468.
  63. ^ Hozhabri S, White F, Rahbar M, Agboatwalla M, Luby S. Elevated blood lead levels among children living in a fishing community, Karachi, Pakistan. Arch Environ Health 2005,59(1):37-41
  64. ^ Khushk WA, Fatmi Z, White F, Kadir MM. Health and social impact of improved stoves on women: a pilot intervention in rural Sindh, Pakistan. Indoor Air. 2005; 15 (5):311-6.
  65. ^ Nanan D, White F. Hypertension in Pakistani Women. In: The First International Conference on Women, Heart Disease and Stroke. Can J Cardiology. 2000; 16 (Suppl B 28): 23B-24B.
  66. ^ White F, Rafique G. Diabetes prevalence and projections in South Asia. Lancet 2002; 360:804-5
  67. ^ Jafar TH, Levey A, Jafary F, White F, Gul A, Rahbar M, Khan A, Hadden W, Hattersley A, Schmid C, Chaturvedi N. Ethnic subgroup differences of hypertension in Pakistan. J Hypertension. 2003 21:905-12.
  68. ^ Khuwaja AK, Rafique G, White F, Azam SI. Macrovascular complications and their associated factors among persons with Type 2 diabetes in Karachi, Pakistan – a multicentre study. J Pak Med Assoc. 2004; 54: 60-6.
  69. ^ Ismail J, Jafar TH, Jafary FH, White F, Faruqui AM, and Chaturvedi N. Risk factors for nonfatal myocardial infarction in young South Asian adults. Heart 2004; 90:259-63.
  70. ^ Jafar TH, Levey AS, White F, Gul A, Jessani S, Khan AQ, Jafary F, Schmid CH, Chaturvedi N. Ethnic differences and determinants of diabetes and central obesity among South Asians of Pakistan. Diabetic Medicine 2004; 21 (7): 716-23.
  71. ^ Rafique G, Azam SI, White F. Diabetes knowledge, beliefs and practices among people with diabetes attending a university hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. East Med Health J 2006,12,5:591-8.
  72. ^ Nanan D, White F. Overweight and obesity in Pakistan: additional evidence. Can Med Assoc J. On-line. 1 Nov 2006. L.
  73. ^ Azam SI, Khuwaja AK, Rafique G, White F. Assessment of quality of care for the management of type 2 diabetes: a multi-centre study from a developing country. Quality in Primary Care 2010, 18, 207-14.
  74. ^ Khuwaja AK, Lalani S, Dhanani R, Azam IS, Rafique G, White F. Anxiety and depression among outpatients with type 2 diabetes: A multi-centre study of prevalence and associated factors. Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome 2010, 2:72 doi:10.1186/1758-5996-2-72
  75. ^ White F. The case for an epidemiology of terrorism. Int J Epidemiol 2002;31,6:1273-4. http://ije.oxfordjournals.org/content/31/6/1273.extract
  76. ^ White F. Water: life force or instrument of war? Lancet 2002 Supplement 360:s29-s30.
  77. ^ White F. Editorial Infectious disease and malnutrition in children as “collateral damage” in the war on Iraq. Infect Dis J Pak. 2002; 11, 4: 109-110.
  78. ^ White F. Can International Public Health Law help to prevent war? Bull WHO. 2003; 81: 228.
  79. ^ White F. Launching the Global Journal of Public Health (inaugural editorial) GJMEDPH, 2012; 1(1): 1-2.
  80. ^ White F, Nanan D. A Conversation on Health in Canada: revisiting universality and the centrality of primary health care. J Ambul Care Manage 2009;32:141-49.
  81. ^ White F. Development assistance for health - donor commitment as a critical success factor. Can J Public Health 2011; 102,6: 421-3.
  82. ^ White F. Primary health care and public health: foundations of universal health systems. Med Princ Pract 2015;24:103-16.doi:10.1159/000370197
  83. ^ White F, Nanan D. Community Health Case Studies selected from Developing and Developed Countries – common principles for moving from evidence to action. Arch Med Sci 2008; 4,4:358–63.
  84. ^ White F. The imperative of public health education: a global perspective. Med Princ Pract 2013;22:515-529 doi:10.1159/000354198
  85. ^ Porta M.(ed) Dictionary of Epidemiology. 5th edition. International Epidemiological Association. Oxford University Press. 2008. New York.
  86. ^ Last JM. (ed) A Dictionary of Public Health. Oxford University Press 2007.
  87. ^ White F, Nanan DJ. International and Global Health. Chapter 76 in: Maxcy-Rosenau-Last. Public Health and Preventive Medicine. 15th edition. 2008 McGraw Hill.
  88. ^ White, Franklin; Stallones, Lorann; Last, John M. (2013). Global Public Health: Ecological Foundations. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-975190-7. 
  89. ^ World Association of Veteran Athletes. Regional Track and Field Championships. Trinidad. August 23-26, 1990. http://www.mastershistory.org/International-Programs/1990-08-Program-Trinadad.pdf
  90. ^ Franklin White. Sea Road to Trinidad – a voyage from Nova Scotia to the West Indies in a small boat. Paria Publishing Co. Ltd., Port of Spain Trinidad W.I. 1992. ISBN – 976-8054-409

External links[edit]