The Franks Casket (or the Auzon Casket) is a small Anglo-Saxon whale's bone (not baleen) chest from the early eighth century, now in the British Museum. The casket is densely decorated with knife-cut narrative scenes in flat two-dimensional low-relief and with inscriptions mostly in Anglo-Saxon runes. Generally reckoned to be of Northumbrian origin, it is of unique importance for the insight it gives into early Anglo-Saxon art and culture. Both identifying the images and interpreting the runic inscriptions has generated a considerable amount of scholarship.
The imagery is very diverse in its subject matter and derivations, and includes a single Christian image, the Adoration of the Magi, along with images derived from Roman history (Emperor Titus) and Roman mythology (Romulus and Remus), as well as a depiction of at least one legend indigenous to the Germanic peoples: that of Weyland the Smith. It has also been suggested that there may be an episode from the Sigurd legend, an otherwise lost episode from the life of Weyland's brother Egil, a Homeric legend involving Achilles, and perhaps even an allusion to the legendary founding of England by Hengist and Horsa.
The inscriptions "display a deliberate linguistic and alphabetic virtuosity; though they are mostly written in Old English and in runes, they shift into Latin and the Roman alphabet; then back into runes while still writing Latin". Some are written upside down or back to front.
- 1 History
- 2 Description
- 3 Interpretations
- 3.1 Front panel
- 3.2 Left panel
- 3.3 Rear panel
- 3.4 Lid
- 3.5 Right panel
- 3.6 Runological Considerations
- 4 See also
- 5 Notes
- 6 References
- 7 Literature
- 8 External links
A monastic origin is generally accepted for the casket, which was perhaps made for presentation to an important secular figure, and Wilfrid's foundation at Ripon has been specifically suggested, The post-medieval history of the casket before the mid-19th century was unknown until relatively recently, when investigations by W.H.J. Weale revealed that the casket had belonged to the church of Saint-Julien, Brioude; it is possible that it was looted during the French Revolution. It was then in the possession of a family in Auzon, a village in Haute Loire (upper Loire region) France. It served as a sewing box until the silver hinges and fittings joining the panels were traded for a silver ring. Without the support of these the casket fell apart. The parts were shown to a Professor Mathieu from nearby Clermont-Ferrand, who sold them to an antique shop in Paris, where they were bought in 1857 by Sir Augustus Wollaston Franks, who subsequently donated the panels in 1867 to the British Museum, where he was Keeper of the British and Medieval collections. The missing right end panel was later found in a drawer by the family in Auzon and sold to the Bargello Museum, Florence, where it was identified as part of the casket in 1890. The British Museum display includes a cast of it.
The casket is 22.9 cm long, 19 cm wide and 10.9 cm high - 9 x 7½ by 5⅛ inches, and dateable from the language of its inscriptions and other features to the first half of the eighth century AD. There are other inscriptions, "tituli" identifying some figures that are not detailed below and appear within the image field. The mounts in precious metal that were undoubtedly originally present are missing, and it is "likely" that it was originally painted in colour.
The chest is clearly modelled on Late Antique ivory caskets such as one at Brescia; the Veroli Casket in the V&A Museum is a Byzantine interpretation of the style, in revived classical style, from about 1000.
Leslie Webster regards the casket as probably originating in a monastic context, where the maker "clearly possessed great learning and ingenuity, to construct an object which is so visually and intellectually complex. ... it is generally accepted that the scenes, drawn from contrasting traditions, were carefully chosen to counterpoint one another in the creation of an overarching set of Christian messages. What used to be seen as an eccentric, almost random, assemblage of pagan Germanic and Christian stories is now understood as a sophisticated programme perfectly in accord with the Church's concept of university history". It may have been intended to hold a book, perhaps a psalter, and intended to be presented to a "secular, probably royal, recipient"
The front panel, which originally had a lock fitted, depicts elements from the Germanic legend of Wayland the Smith in the left-hand scene, and the Adoration of the Magi on the right. Wayland (also spelled Weyland) stands at the extreme left in the forge where he is held as a slave by King Niðhad, who has had his hamstrings cut to hobble him. Below the forge is the headless body of Niðhad's son, whom Wayland has killed, making a goblet from his skull; his head is probably the object held in the tongs in Wayland's hand. With his other hand Wayland offers the goblet, containing drugged beer, to Bodvild, Niðhad's daughter, whom he then rapes when she is unconscious. Another female figure is shown in the centre; perhaps Wayland's helper, or Bodvild again. To the right of the scene Wayland (or his brother) catches birds; he then makes wings from their feathers, with which he is able to escape.
In a sharp contrast, the right-hand scene shows one of the commonest Christian subjects depicted in the art of the period; however here "the birth of a hero also makes good sin and suffering". The Three Magi, identified by an inscription ("magi"), led by the large star, approach the enthroned Madonna and Child bearing the traditional gifts. A goose-like bird by the feet of the leading magus may represent the Holy Spirit, usually shown as a dove, or an angel. The human figures, at least, form a composition very comparable to those in other depictions of the period.
Around the panel runs the following alliterating inscription, which does not relate to the scenes but is a riddle on the material of the casket itself as whale bone, and specifically from a stranded whale:
- fisc flodu ahof on fergenberig
- warþ gasric grorn þær he on greut giswom
- hronæs ban
This has been interpreted as:
- The fish beat up the sea(s) on to the mountainous cliff
- The king of ?terror became sad when he swam onto the grit.
- Whale's bone.
According to Becker (2002), as the two alliterating runes 'f' (feoh) and 'g' (gift) on the front panel can be understood as Old English feogift (bounty, largesse) and as the pictures of the Magi (bringers of gift) and of the mythical goldsmith (maker of feoh i.e. trinkets etc.) express the same, the box may have served a king as his hoard box from which he handed out his gifts to his followers in the hall.
The left panel depicts the mythological twin founders of Rome, Romulus and Remus, being suckled by a wolf lying on her back at the bottom of the scene. The same wolf, or another, stands above, and there are two men with spears approaching from each side. The inscription reads:
- Romwalus and Reumwalus, twœgen gibroþær,
- afœddæ hiæ wylif in Romæcæstri,
- oþlæ unneg.
- Romulus and Remus, two brothers,
- a she-wolf nourished them in Rome,
- far from their native land.
Carol Neuman de Vegvar (1999) observes that other depictions of Romulus and Remus are found in East Anglian art and coinage (for example the very early Undley bracteate).  She suggests that because of the similarity of the story of Romulus and Remus to that of Hengist and Horsa, the brothers who were said to have founded England, "the legend of a pair of outcast or traveller brothers who led a people and contributed to the formation of a kingdom was probably not unfamiliar in the 8th-century Anglo-Saxon milieu of the Franks Casket and could stand as a reference to destined rulership."
The rear panel depicts the Taking of Jerusalem by Titus in the First Jewish-Roman War. The inscription is partly in Old English and partly in Latin, and part of the Latin portion is written in Roman letters (indicated below in upper case letters), with the remainder transcribed phonetically into runic letters. Two isolated words stand in the lower corners. It reads:
- her fegtaþ titus end giuþeasu
- HIC FUGIANT HIERUSALIM afitatores
- dom / gisl
- Here Titus and a Jew fight:
- Here its inhabitants flee from Jerusalem.
- Judgement / Hostage
At left in the upper register the Romans, led by Titus in a helm with a sword, attack a domed building, probably the Temple of Jerusalem, in the centre. At upper right the Jewish population flee, casting glances backwards. In the lower register at left, a seated judge announces the "doom" or fate of the defeated Jews, which as recounted in Josephus was to be sold into slavery. In the lower right hand scene, the "gisl" or slaves/hostages are led away.
The lid as it now survives is incomplete. Leslie Webster has suggested that there may have been relief panels in silver making up the missing areas. The empty round area in the centre probably housed the metal boss for a handle. The lid shows a scene of an archer, labelled Ægili, single-handedly defending a fortress against a troop of attackers, who from their larger size may be giants.
In 1866, Sophus Bugge "followed up his explanation of the Weland picture on the front of the casket with the suggestion that the bowman on the top piece is Egil, Weland's brother, and thinks that the 'carving tells a story about him of which we know nothing. We see that he defends himself with arrows. Behind him appears to sit a woman in a house; possibly this may be Egil's spouse Ölrún.'" In Norse mythology, Egil is named as a brother of Weyland (Weland), who is shown on the front panel of the casket. The Þiðrekssaga depicts Egil as a master archer and the Völundarkviða tells that he was the husband of the swan maiden Olrun. The Pforzen buckle inscription, dating to about the same period as the casket, also makes reference to the couple Egil and Olrun (Áigil andi Áilrun). The British Museum webpage and Leslie Webster concur, the former stating that "The lid appears to depict an episode relating to the Germanic hero Egil and has the single label 'aegili' = 'Egil'."
Josef Strzygowski (quoted by Viëtor 1904) proposed instead that the lid represents a scene pertaining to the fall of Troy, but did not elaborate. Karl Schneider (1959) identifies the word Ægili on the lid as either the nominative singular or dative singular Anglo-Saxon form of the name of the Greek hero Achilles. As nominative singular, it would indicate that the archer is Achilles, while as dative singular it could mean either that the citadel belongs to Achilles, or that the arrow that is about to be shot is meant for Achilles.
Schneider himself interprets the scene on the lid as representing the massacre of Andromache's brothers by Achilles at Thebes in a story from the Iliad, with Achilles as the archer and Andromache's mother held captive in the room behind him. Amy Vandersall (1975) confirms Schneider's reading of Ægili as relating to Achilles, but would instead have the lid depict the Trojan attack on the Greek camp, with the Greek bowman Teucer as the archer and the person behind the archer (interpreted as a woman by most other authors) as Achilles in his tent.
Leopold Peeters (1996:44) proposes that the lid depicts the defeat of Agila, the Arian Visigothic ruler of Cordoba in Spain, by Roman Catholic forces in 554 A.D.
Webster (2012b:46-8) notes that the unusual two-headed beast both above and below the figure in the room behind the archer also appears beneath the feet of Christ in an illustration from an 8th-century Northumbrian manuscript of Cassiodorus, Commentary on the Psalms.
This, the Bargello panel, has produced the most divergent readings of both text and images, and no reading of either has achieved general acceptance. At left an animal figure sits on a small rounded mound, confronted by an armed and helmeted warrior. In the centre a standing animal, usually seen as a horse, faces a figure, holding a stick or sword, who stands over something defined by a curved line. At right are three figures; the two outer ones perhaps hold fast the one in the middle.
Raymond Page reads the inscription as
- Her Hos sitiþ on harmberga
- agl[.] drigiþ swa hiræ Ertae gisgraf
- sarden sorga and sefa torna.
- risci / wudu / bita
- Here Hos sits on the sorrow-mound;
- She suffers distress as Ertae had imposed it upon her,
- a wretched den (?wood) of sorrows and of torments of mind.
- rushes / wood / biter 
However, a definitive translation of the lines has met with difficulty, partly because the runes are run together without separators between words, and partly because two letters are broken or missing. As an extra challenge for the reader, on the right panel only, the vowels are encrypted with a simple substitution cipher. Three of the vowels are represented consistently by three invented symbols. However, two additional symbols represent both a and æ, and according to Page, "it is not clear which is which or even if the carver distinguished competently between the two."
Page writes, "What the scenes represent I do not know. Excited and imaginative scholars have put forward numbers of suggestions but none convinces."  Several of these theories are outlined below.
Sigurd and Grani?
In 1899, Sigurd Söderberg proposed that the right panel depicts "a representation of a scene from the Sigurd myth explained by Runic inscriptions." In 1930, Eleanor Clark added, "Indeed, no one seeing the figure of the horse bending over the tomb of a man could fail to recall the words of the Guthrunarkvitha (II,5):
- The head of Grani was bowed to the grass,
- The steed knew well his master was slain."
While Clark admits that this is an "extremely obscure legend," she assumes that the scene must be based on a Germanic legend, and can find no other instance in the entire Norse mythology of a horse weeping over a dead body. She concludes that the small, legless person inside the central mound must be Sigurd himself, with his legs gnawed off by the wolves mentioned in Guthrun's story. She interprets the three figures to the right as Guthrun being led away from Sigurd's tomb by his slayers Gunnar and Hogne, and the female figure before Grani as the Norn-goddess Urd, who passes judgement on the dead. The warrior to the left would then be Sigurd again, now restored to his former prime for the afterlife, and "sent rejoicing on his way to Odainsaker, the realms of bliss for deserving mortals. The gateway to these glittering fields is guarded by a winged dragon who feeds on the imperishable flora that chracterized the place, and the bodyless cock crows lustily as a kind of eerie genius loci identifying the spot as Hel's wall."
Hengist and Horsa?
A.C. Bouman (1965) and Simonne d'Ardenne (1966) instead interpret the mournful stallion (Old English hengist) at the center of the right panel as representing Hengist, who, with his brother Horsa, first led the Old Saxons, Angles, and Jutes into Britain, and eventually became the first Anglo-Saxon king in England, according to both Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People and the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. The miniature person inside the burial mound he grieves over would then be Horsa, who died at the battle of Ægelesthrep in 455 A.D. and was buried in a flint tumulus at Horsted near Aylesford. Bouman suggests that the female mourner could then be Hengist's famous daughter Renwein.
Bouman and d'Ardenne identify the strange creature on the left with the head of a horse, the clothing and posture of a man, and the wings of a spirit, as Horsa again, this time as a spirit seated on his own burial mound. Horsa (whose name means horse in Old English) would then be the "Hos" referred to in the panel's inscription as sitting on a "sorrow-mound." They note that there is a miniature horse in each corner of the panel, in keeping with its theme of two famous "horses."
The Diety of the Grove?
Usually her hos sitæþ is read, "here sits the horse". However, Wilhelm Krause (1959) instead separates herh (temple) and os (divinity). Alfred Becker (1973, 2002), following Krause, interprets herh as a sacred grove, the site where in pagan days the Æsir were worshipped, and os as a goddess or valkyrie. On the left, a warrior "has met his fate in guise of a frightening monster... As the outcome, the warrior rests in his grave shown in the middle section. There (left of the mound) we have a horse marked with two trefoils, the divine symbols.... Above the mound we see a chalice and right of the mound a woman with a staff in hand. It is his Valkyrie, who has left her seat and come to him in the shape of a bird. Now she is his beautiful sigwif, the hero's benevolent, even loving companion, who revives him with a draught from that chalice and takes him to Valhalla. The horse may be Sleipnir, Woden's famous stallion." 
Krause and Becker call attention to the significance of the two trefoil marks or valknutr between the stallion's legs, which denote the realm of death and can be found in similar position on picture stones from Gotland, Sweden like the Tängelgårda stone and the Stora Hammars stones. Two other pictures of the Franks Casket show this symbol. On the front it marks the third of the Magi, who brings myrrh. It also appears on the lid, where according to Becker Valhalla is depicted.
The Madness of Nebuchadnezzar?
Leopold Peeters (1996) proposes that the right panel provides a pictorial illustration of the biblical Book of Daniel, ch. 4 and 5: The wild creature at the left represents Nebuchadnezzar after he “was driven away from people and given the mind of an animal; he lived with the wild asses and ate grass like cattle.” The figure facing him is then the “watchful one” who decreed Nebuchadnezzar’s fate in a dream (4.13-31), and the quadruped in the center represents one of the wild asses with whom he lived. Some of the details Peeters cites are specific to the Old English poem based on Daniel.
According to Peeters, the three figures at the right may then represent Belshazzar’s wife and concubines "conducting blasphemous rites of irreverence (Dan. 5:1-4, 22)." The corpse in the central burial mound would represent Belshazzar himself, who was murdered that night, and the woman mourning him may be the queen mother. The cryptic runes on this panel may be intended to invoke the mysterious writing that appeared on the palace wall during these events.
The Death of Balder?
David Howlett (1997) identifies the illustrations on the right panel with the story of the death of Balder, as told by the late 12th century Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus in his Gesta Danorum. According to Saxo, Balder’s rival Hother meets three women in a dank wood late at night, who provide him with a belt and girdle that will enable him to defeat Balder. Hother wounds Balder, who dies three days later and is buried in a mound.
Howlett identifies the three figures at the right with the three wood maidens (who may be the three Norns), and the shrouded man within the central mound with Balder. “The woman to the right of the mound is Hel, Saxo’s Proserpina, prophesying Balder’s death and condemning Woden to sorrow and humiliation. The stallion to the left of the mound is Balder’s father Woden.” In Saxo’s story, Woden then begets a second son, Boe (or Bous), to avenge Balder’s death. Howlett inteprets the warrior at left as Boe, and “one infers that the mound is depicted twice and that the stallion mourning in the center of the panel is identical with the figure seated at the left end, where he retains his horse’s head and hooves.”
Schneider (1959) similarly identified the right panel with Saxo’s version of the death of Balder.
The Penance of Rhiannon?
Ute Schwab (2008), following Heiner Eichner (1991), interprets the left and central scenes on the right panel as relating to the Welsh legend of Rhiannon. According to the Mabinogion, a medieval collection of ancient Welsh stories, Rhiannon was falsely accused of murdering and eating her infant son Pryderi, who, according to Schwab, is represented by the swaddled infant in the central scene. As a penance, she was required, as depicted in the scene on the left, "to sit beside the horse-block outside the gates of the court for seven years, offering to carry visitors up to the palace on her back, like a beast of burden.... Rhiannon's horse-imagery and her bounty have led scholars to equate her with the Celtic horse-goddess Epona."
Satan and the Nativity?
Austin Simmons (2010) parses the frame inscription into the following segments:
- herh os-sitæþ on hærm-bergæ
- agl drigiþ swæ hiri er tae-gi-sgraf
- sær-den sorgæ and sefa-tornæ
This he translates, "The idol sits far off on the dire hill, suffers abasement in sorrow and heart-rage as the den of pain had ordained for it." Linguistically, the segment os- represents the verbal prefix oþ- assimilated to the following sibilant, while in the b-verse of the second line er "before" is an independent word before a three-member verbal compound, tae-gi-sgraf. The first member tae- is a rare form of the particle-prefix to-.
The inscription refers specifically to the scene on the left end of the casket's right side. According to Simmons, the 'idol' (herh) is Satan in the form of an ass, being tortured by a personified Hell in helmet. The scene is a reference to the apocryphon Decensus ad Inferos, a popular medieval text translated into Anglo-Saxon. In one version of the story, a personified Hell blames Satan for having brought about the Crucifixion, which has allowed Christ to descend to Hell's kingdom and free the imprisoned souls. Therefore, Hell tortures Satan in retribution. Simmons separates the other scenes on the right side and interprets them as depictions of the Nativity and the Passion.
Alfred Becker (1973, 2002) interprets the casket as a whole, finding a programme documenting a warrior-king's life and after life, with each of the scenes emblematic of a certain period in life, and having a dominant alliterating runic letter or letters with connotations derived from the rune names in the Old English rune poem. The front (f and g) panel stands for "birth" and assistance by the Fylgja, the picture and inscription on the left panel (r) meant to protect the hero on his way to war, the back panel (t) documenting the peak of a warrior-king's life is glory won by victory over his enemies, the right panel (s) alluding to a heroic death in battle. According to Becker, each scene corresponds with a certain rune in a definite position (f, g, r, t, s, æ, producing a value of 3 x 24). Becker also presents a numerological analysis of the inscriptions, counting a total of 288 or 12 x 24 signs (runes, Latin letters and punctuation). The number of runes refers to a ten-year solar calendar while their value produces a lunar calendar.
Marijane Osborn in an article titled "The Seventy-Two Gentile Nations and the Theme of the Franks Casket" says that "several scholars have observed that the number of runes plus dots in the inscriptions on the front and the two sides of the casket in each case adds up to seventy-two, the number of the futhoric or rune-list multiplied by three. Whereas Alfred Becker sees this as indicating pagan magic, I see it as another example of the Franks Casket artist turning his pagan materials to a Christian evangelical purpose. As he is manipulating his runes very carefully, on the left side and front supplementing their numbers with dots and on the right side reducing their number with a Roman letter and a bindrune, so that each of the three inscriptions contains precisely seventy-two items, there can be no question here of us introducing a symbolism that was not intended. But it may be misinterpreted."
- The first considerable publication, by George Stephens, Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England (1866-1901) I-II:470-76, 921-23, III:200-04, IV:40-44, placed it in Northumbria and dated it in the eighth century. Although A.S. Napier (1901) concurs with an early 8th-century Northumbrian origin, Mercia, and a 7th-century date, have also been proposed. The British Museum website (see external links) says Northumbria and "first half of the 8th century AD", as does Webster (2012a:92), "early part of the eighth century".
- Vandersall summarises the previous scholarship as at 1972 in setting the casket into an art-historical, rather than linguistic context. Mrs Leslie Webster, former Keeper at the British Museum and the leading expert, has published a new short book on the casket (Webster 2012b).
- Webster (2000).
- Parsons (1999, 98-100) has an important discussion on the runes used in the Franks Casket.
- Webster (2012a:97); Ripon was suggested by Wood, who was able to connect Ripon with Brioude through the Frankish scholar Frithegod "active in both areas in the middle tenth century (Wood 1990, 4-5)" - Webster (1991) from BM collection database.
- Vandersall 1972:24 note 1.
- Webster (1991), from British Museum collection database
- Measurements from British Museum Collections Database webpage. For date see note to lead.
- Webster (2012a:92).
- Webster (1991); Webster (2012a:92); Webster (2012b:30-33).
- Webster (2000).
- Webster (2012a:96-97). (both quoted, in that order)
- This scene was first explained by Sophus Bugge, in Stephens (1866-1901, Vol. I, p. lxix), as cited by Napier (1901, p. 368). See also Henderson (1971, p. 157).
- Webster (1991)
- Transcriptions and translations follow Page (1999, p. 175 ff). Words are run together in the inscription, and other sources may separate the words differently.
- Page (1999, p. 175).
- Another Anglo-Saxon bone plaque, existing only in a fragment at the Castle Museum, Norwich, which was found at Larling, Norfolk, also shows Romulus and Remus being suckled, with other animal ornament. (Wilson 1984, p. 86).
- Neuman de Vegvar (1999, pp. 265-6)
- Page (1999, pp. 176-7).
- MacGregor, Arthur. Bone, Antler, Ivory and Horn, Ashmolean Museum, 1984, ISBN 0-7099-3507-2, ISBN 978-0-7099-3507-0, Google books
- Napier (1901, p. 366), quoting Bugge in Stephens (1866-1901, vol. I, p. lxx).
- British Museum Collections Database webpage, accessed Jan. 26, 2013; Webster (2012), p. 92
- Page (1999, 178-9). Page's translations are endorsed by Webster (1999). See Napier (1901), Krause (1959), d'Ardenne (1966), and Peeters (1996) for discussion of alternative readings.
- Page (1999: 87)
- Page (1999: 178).
- As cited by Clark (1930, p. 339)
- Translation of H.A. Bellows, Oxford Univ. Press, 1926, as cited by Clark (1930, p. 339).
- Clark (1930, p. 340)
- Clark (1930, p.342)
- Clark (1930, pp. 352-3).
- D'Ardenne independently put forward Bouman's Hengist and Horsa reading, which she only discovered as her own article was going to press.
- Becker (2000, unpaginated section "H-panel (Right Side) - The Picture").
- Peeters (1996: 29), citing Daniel 5:21.
- Peeters (1996: 31).
- Howlett (1997: 280-1).
- Howlett (1997: 281).
- Green (1993, p. 30).
- Simmons (2010).
- Simmons (2010).
- Osborn (1991).
- d'Ardenne, Simonne R.T.O., "Does the right side of the Franks Casket represent the burial of Sigurd?" Études Germaniques, 21 (1966), pp. 235–242.
- Becker, Alfred, Franks Casket: Zu den Bildern und Inschriften des Runenkästchens von Auzon. Regensburg, 1973.
- Becker, Alfred, Franks Casket website dated 2002, with English and German versions.
- Bouman, A.C., "The Franks Casket," Neophilologus 3 (1965): 241-9.
- Clark, Eleanor Grace, "The Right Side of the Franks Casket," Publications of the Modern Language Association 45 (1930): 339-353.
- Eichner, Heiner, Zu Franks Casket/Rune Auzon, in Alfred Bammesbergen, ed., Old English Runes and their Continental Background (= Altenglische Forschngen 217). Heidelberg, 1991, pp. 603–628.
- Elliott, Ralph W.V., Runes: An Introduction. Manchester University Press, 1959.
- Green, Miranda Jane, Celtic Myths. British Museum Press, 1993.
- Henderson, George, Early Medieval Art, 1972, rev. 1977, Penguin, pp. 156–158.
- Howlett, David R., British Books in Biblical Style. Dublin, Four Courts Press, 1997.
- Krause, Wolfgang, "Erta, ein anglischer Gott", Die Sprache 5; Festschrift Havers (1959), 46-54.
- Napier, Arthur S., in An English Miscellany, in honor of Dr. F.J. Furnivall, Oxford, 1901.
- Neuman de Vegvar, Carol L. "The Travelling Twins: Romulus and Remus in Anglo-Saxon England." Ch. 21 in Jane Hawkes and Susan Mills, eds., Northumbria's Golden Age, Sutton Publishing, Phoenix Mill Thrupp, Strand, Gloucestershire, 1999, pp. 256–267.
- Osborn, Marijane. "The Seventy-Two Gentiles and the Theme of the Franks Casket." Neuphilologische Mitteilungen: Bulletin de la Societe Neophilologique/ Bulletin of the Modern Language Society 92 (1991): 281-288.
- Page, R.I. An Introduction to English Runes, Woodbridge, 1999.
- Parsons, D. Recasting the Runes: the Reform of the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc (Runron 14), Uppsala 1999.
- Peeters, Leopold, "The Franks Casket: A Judeo-Christian Interpretation.", 1996, Amsterdamer Beiträge zur älteren Germanistik 46: 17-52.
- Schneider, Karl, "Zu den Inschriften und Bildern des Franks Casket und einer ae. Version des Mythos von Balders Tod." In Festschrift für Walther Fischer Heidelberg, Universitätsverlag, 1959.
- Schwab, Ute, Franks Casket: fünf Studien zum Runenkästchen von Auzon, ed. by Hasso C. Heiland. Vol. 15 of Studia medievalia septentrionalia, Vienna: Fassbaender, 2008.
- Simmons, Austin The Cipherment of the Franks Casket on Project Woruldhord, dated Jan. 2010.
- Söderberg, Sigurd, in London Academy, Aug. 2, 1899, p. 90. (As cited by Clark 1930)
- Stephens, George, The Old-Norse Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England (4 volumes), London: J.R. Smith, 1866-1901.
- Vandersall, Amy L., "The Date and Provenance of the Franks Casket," Gesta 11, 2 (1972), pp. 9–26.
- Vandersall, Amy L., "Homeric Myth in Early Medieval England: The Lid of the Franks Casket". Studies in Iconography 1 (1975): 2-37.
- Viëtor, W., "Allgemeinwissenschaftliches; Gelehrten-, Schrift-, Buch- und Bibliothekswesen." Deutsche Literaturzeitung. Vol. 25, 13 Feb. 1904.
- Webster, Leslie (1991), "The Franks Casket," in L. Webster - J. Backhouse (eds), The Making of England: Anglo-Saxon Art and Culture, AD 600-900, London 1991, pp. 101–103 (text on British Museum collection database.
- Webster, Leslie (2000), The Franks Casket, pp. 194–195, The Blackwell encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England (Editors: Michael Lapidge, John Blair, Simon Keynes), Wiley-Blackwell, 2000, ISBN 0-631-22492-0, ISBN 978-0-631-22492-1.
- Webster, Leslie (2012a), Anglo-Saxon Art, British Museum Press, ISBN 9780714128092.
- Webster, Leslie (2012b), The Franks Casket: Objects in Focus, British Museum Press, 2012b, ISBN 0-7141-2818-X, 9780714128184.
- Wilson, David M.; Anglo-Saxon Art: From The Seventh Century To The Norman Conquest, Thames and Hudson (US edn. Overlook Press), 1984.
- Wood, Ian N., "Ripon, Francia and the Franks Casket in the Early Middle Ages", Northern History, 26 (1990), pp. 1–19.
- Alfred Becker, Franks Casket Revisited," Asterisk, A Quarterly Journal of Historical English Studies, 12/2 (2003), 83-128.
- Alfred Becker, The Virgin and the Vamp," Asterisk, A Quarterly Journal of Historical English Studies, 12/4 (2003), 201-209.
- Alfred Becker, A Magic Spell "powered by" a Lunisolar Calendar," Asterisk, A Quarterly Journal of Historical English Studies, 15 (2006), 55 -73.
- M. Clunies Ross, A suggested Interpretation of the Scene depicted on the Right-Hand Side of the Franks Casket, Medieval Archaeology 14 (1970), pp. 148–152.
- Jane Hawkes and Susan Mills (editors), Northumbria's Golden Age (1999); with articles by L. Webster, James Lang, C. Neuman de Vegvar on various aspects of the casket.
- W. Krogmann, "Die Verse vom Wal auf dem Runenkästchen von Auzon," Germanisch-Romanische Monatsschrift, N.F. 9 (1959), pp. 88–94.
- J. Lang, "The Imagery of the Franks Casket: Another Approach," in J. Hawkes & S. Mills (ed.) Northumbria’s Golden Age (1999) pp. 247 – 255
- K. Malone, "The Franks Casket and the Date of Widsith," in A.H. Orrick (ed.), Nordica et Anglica, Studies in Honor of Stefán Einarsson, The Hague 1968, pp. 10–18.
- J. Huston McCulloch, The Franks Casket: A Tribute to the Founding and Destiny of England website, 2012
- Th. Müller-Braband, Studien zum Runenkästchen von Auzon und zum Schiffsgrab von Sutton Hoo; Göppinger Arbeiten zur Germanistik 728 (2005)
- M. Osborn, "The Grammar of the Inscription on the Franks Casket, right Side," Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 73 (1972), pp. 663–671.
- M. Osborn, The Picture-Poem on the Front of the Franks Casket, Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 75 (1974), pp. 50–65.
- M. Osborn, "The Lid as Conclusion of the Syncretic Theme of the Franks Casket," in A. Bammesberger (ed.), Old English Runes and their Continental Background, Heidelberg 1991, pp. 249–268.
- P. W. Souers, "The Top of the Franks Casket," Harvard Studies and Notes in Philology and Literature, 17 (1935), pp. 163–179.
- P. W. Souers, "The Franks Casket: Left Side," Harvard Studies and Notes in Philology and Literature, 18 (1936), pp. 199–209.
- P. W. Souers, "The Magi on the Franks Casket," Harvard Studies and Notes in Philology and Literature, 19 (1937), pp. 249–254.
- P. W. Souers, "The Wayland Scene on the Franks Casket," Speculum 18 (1943), pp. 104–111.
- K. Spiess, "Das angelsächsische Runenkästchen (die Seite mit der Hos-Inschrift)," in Josef Strzygowski-Festschrift, Klagenfurt 1932, pp. 160–168.
- L. Webster, "The Iconographic Programme of the Franks Casket," in J. Hawkes & S. Mills (ed.) Northumbria’s Golden Age (1999), pp. 227 – 246
- L. Webster, "Stylistic Aspects of the Franks Casket," in R. Farrell (ed.), The Vikings, London 1982, pp. 20–31.
- A. Wolf, "Franks Casket in literarhistorischer Sicht," Frühmittelalterliche Studien 3 (1969), pp. 227–243.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Franks Casket.|
- British Museum, The Franks Casket, elementary Explore/Highlights page, with 4 low-resolution photos
- British Museum, The Franks Casket / The Auzon Casket, more technical Research/Collection Database page, with more detailed discussion and 35 higher-resolution photos
- British Library, UK Web Archive Franks Casket, preserving Alfred Becker's website