Franz Joseph Emil Fischer (19 March 1877 in Freiburg im Breisgau – 1 December 1947 in Munich) was a German chemist. He and Hans Tropsch discovered the Fischer-Tropsch process. With Hans Schrader he developed the Fischer Assay, a standardized laboratory test for determining the oil yield from oil shale to be expected from a conventional shale oil extraction. Franz Fischer was father to Arthur and Siegfried Fischer. Fischer also worked with Wilhelm Ostwald and Emil Fischer. In 1913 he became Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Coal Research in Mülheim.