Fratres is a composition by the Estonian composer Arvo Pärt, exemplifying his tintinnabuli style of composition. The first version was written in 1977, and was followed many others scored for a wide variety of instrumentations. It is a "mesmerising set of variations on a six-bar theme combining frantic activity and sublime stillness that encapsulates Pärt's observation that 'the instant and eternity are struggling within us'."
Structure and versions
Structurally, Fratres consists of a set of eight or nine chord sequences separated by a recurring percussion motif. The chord sequences themselves follow a clear pattern, and while the progressing chords explore a rich harmonic space, they nevertheless appear to have been generated by means of a simple formula. The first version for string quintet and wind quintet (early music ensemble) was written by Pärt in 1977. Further versions were written over the years leading up to about 1992. It exists most prominently in its versions for solo violin, string orchestra, percussion, and for violin and piano. The similarity between versions varies: for instance, the versions for viola and piano, or cello and piano, are almost exactly the same as that for violin, whereas the version for string quartet is more similar to the cello version.
- 1997 German film Winter Sleepers
- 2005 six-part BBC documentary Auschwitz: The Nazis and the ‘Final Solution’ produced by Laurence Rees, used the composition performed in 1997 by the Hungarian State Opera Orchestra, conducted by Tamás Benedek.
- 2007 film There Will Be Blood directed by Paul Thomas Anderson.
- 2013 film The Place Beyond the Pines directed by Derek Cianfrance
- 2013 teaser trailer for the upcoming film A Single Shot, starring Sam Rockwell.
In other compositions
- Rade Zivanovic (2012). "Arvo Part’s Fratres and his Tintinnabuli Technique". Retrieved 2013-04-30.
- Arvo Pärt, Sinfini Music website
- Linus Åkesson (2007-12-03). "Fratres". Retrieved 2007-12-03.
- Frank J. Oteri (2014). "Aaron Parks: Make Me Believe A Melody". Retrieved 2014-06-17.
- The 1997 release by the Hungarian State Opera Orchestra, used in the 2005 BBC documentary Auschwitz: The Nazis and the ‘Final Solution’
- An Official Video of a London-based violinist Lana Trotovšek performing a solo violin version
- Free recording of Fratres for Cellos by the Columbia University Orchestra.
- A Remixed version for Violin and Piano by Beats Antique of Oakland California
- Permutintinnabulism – An drone ambient adaption by Kim Christensen of Gothenburg, Sweden