Fraxinus velutina (Velvet Ash or Arizona Ash or Modesto Ash) is a species of Fraxinus native to southwestern North America, in the United States from southern California east to Texas, and in Mexico from northern Baja California east to Coahuila and Nuevo León.
Fraxinus velutina is a small deciduous tree growing to 10 m tall, with a trunk up to 30 cm diameter. The bark is rough gray-brown and fissured, and the shoots are velvety-downy. The leaves are 10–25 cm long, pinnately compound with five or seven (occasionally three) leaflets 4 cm or more long, with an entire or finely serrated margin. The flowers are produced in small clusters in early spring; it is dioecious, with male and female flowers on separate trees. The fruit is a samara 1.5–3 cm long, with an apical wing 4–8 mm broad.
Fraxinus velutina is closely related to Fraxinus latifolia (Oregon Ash) and Fraxinus pennsylvanica (Green Ash), replacing these species to the south of their respective ranges; it intergrades with F. latifolia in central California (around Kern County, without a clear boundary between the species.
In Arizona, the range of Fraxinus velutina is centered on the Mogollon Rim, from the northwest in the Grand Canyon feeder canyons, to the central-east White Mountains (Arizona) merging into the same mountainous area of western New Mexico, then to the Rio Grande valley. In Arizona and northern Sonora it also is found in the sky island mountain ranges, the Madrean Sky Islands, and is found from central-southern Arizona, in the Sonoran Desert mountains, and the desert ranges south into northern Sonora and the very north of the Sierra Madre Occidental cordillera.
- Germplasm Resources Information Network: Fraxinus velutina
- Jepson Flora: Fraxinus velutina
- Southwest Environmental Information Network: Fraxinus velutina
- Griffin, J. R., & Critchfield, W. B. (1976). The Distribution of Forest Trees of California. U.S. Forest Service Research Paper PSW-82.
- Little. Atlas of United States Trees, Volume 3, Minor Western Hardwoods, Map 83, Fraxinus velutina.
- Little. Atlas of United States Trees, Volume 3, Minor Western Hardwoods, Little, Elbert L, 1976, US Government Printing Office. Library of Congress No. 79-653298. Map 83, Fraxinus velutina.