Frederick Herzberg

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Frederick Herzberg
Born April 18, 1923 (1923-04-18)
Lynn, Massachusetts, U.S.
Died January 19, 2000 (2000-01-20)
University Hospital, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, U.S.
Alma mater City College of New York

Frederick Irving Herzberg (April 18, 1923 – January 19, 2000) born in Massachusetts was an American psychologist who became one of the most influential names in business management.[1][2] He is most famous for introducing job enrichment and the Motivator-Hygiene theory. His 1968 publication "One More Time, How Do You Motivate Employees?" had sold 1.2 million reprints by 1987 and was the most requested article from the Harvard Business Review.[3]), clinical psychologist and pioneer of 'job enrichment', is regarded as one of the great original thinkers in management and motivational theory. Frederick I Herzberg was born in Massachusetts on April 18, 1923. His undergraduate work was at the City College of New York, followed by graduate degrees at the University of Pittsburgh. Herzberg was later Professor of Management at Case Western Reserve University, where he established the Department of Industrial Mental Health. He moved to the University of Utah's College of Business in 1972, where he was also Professor of Management (Chapman, 2006). Herzberg was the first to show that satisfaction and dissatisfaction at work nearly always arose from different factors, and were not simply opposing reactions to the same factors. In 1959 Herzberg wrote the following useful little phrase, which helps explain this fundamental part of his theory, and that the factors, which motivate people at work, are different to and not simply the opposite of the factors, which cause dissatisfaction: "We can expand ... by stating that the job satisfies deal with the factors involved in doing the job, whereas the job dissatisfies deal with the factors which define the job context."


Personal life[edit]

Herzberg was the son of Gertrude and Lewis Herzberg, who were Lithuanian immigrants. He joined the City College of New York in 1939. He did not finish his studies as he enlisted in the army. In 1944 he married Shirley Bedell.

He finally finished his studies and graduated from the City College of New York in 1946. He then decided to move to the University of Pittsburgh where he took a masters degree in science and public health. He also completed a Ph.D. that focused on electric shock therapy.

Research[edit]

Herzberg started his research on organisations in the 1950s. He worked at the University of Utah, which he remained at until he retired. Prior to his move to Utah, Herzberg was professor of management at Case Western Reserve University where he established the Department of Industrial Mental Health.

A pioneer of 'job enrichment', Herzberg is regarded as one of the great original thinkers in management and motivational theory. Frederick I Herzberg was born in Massachusetts on April 18, 1923. His undergraduate work was at the City College of New York, followed by graduate degrees at the University of Pittsburgh. Herzberg was later Professor of Management at Case Western Reserve University, where he established the Department of Industrial Mental Health. He moved to the University of Utah's College of Business in 1972, where he was also Professor of Management (Chapman, 2006). Herzberg was the first to show that satisfaction and dissatisfaction at work nearly always arose from different factors, and were not simply opposing reactions to the same factors. In 1959 Herzberg wrote the following useful little phrase, which helps explain this fundamental part of his theory, and that the factors, which motivate people at work, are different to and not simply the opposite of the factors, which cause dissatisfaction: "We can expand ... by stating that the job satisfies deal with the factors involved in doing the job, whereas the job dissatisfies deal with the factors which define the job context."

In his lifetime, Herzberg had consulted for many organisations as well as for the United States and other foreign governments. He has a son who currently lives in West New York.[2]

Motivator-Hygiene Theory[edit]

Main article: Two factor theory

Herzberg proposed the Motivator-Hygiene Theory, also known as the Two factor theory (1959) of job satisfaction. According to his theory, people are influenced by two sets of factors.

The idea is that hygiene factors will not motivate, but if they are not there, they can lower motivation. These factors could be anything from clean toilets and comfortable chairs, to a reasonable level of pay and job security.

Motivational factors will not necessarily lower motivation, but can be responsible for increasing motivation. These factors could involve job recognition, potential for promotion or even the work in itself.[4]

See also[edit]

Criticisms: “One criticism involves the classification of money as a hygiene factor and not as a motivator. There is no universal agreement on this point Some researchers report that salary is a motivator for some groups, such as blue-collar workers, or those for whom money is important for psychological reasons, such as a score-keeping method for their power and achievement needs” (Luthans, 2006, p. 431).

“A second line of criticism is whether Herzberg developed a total theory of motivation. Some argue that his findings actually support a theory of job satisfaction. In other words, if a company gives its people motivators, they will be satisfied; if it denies them motivators, they will not be satisfied; and if the hygiene factors are deficient, they may well be dissatisfied.” (Luthans, 2006, p. 43)

George H. Hines Tested F. Herzberg's 2-factor motivation theory in New Zealand, using ratings of 12 job factors and overall job satisfaction obtained from 218 middle managers and 196 salaried employees. Contrary to dichotomous motivator-hygiene predictions, supervision and interpersonal relationships were ranked highly by those with high job satisfaction, and there was strong agreement between satisfied managers and salaried employees in the relative importance of job factors. Findings are interpreted in terms of social and employment conditions in New Zealand.

(Hines, 1973)

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Biography - Frederick I. Herzberg (1923-2000)". 
  2. ^ a b Feder, Barnaby (2000-02-01). "F. I. Herzberg, 76, Professor And Management Consultant". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-11-18. 
  3. ^ Herzberg, F.I. 1987, 'One more time: How do you motivate employees?', Harvard Business Review, Sep/Oct87, Vol. 65 Issue 5, p109-120 (note: the reference to sales numbers is in the abstract written by the editors.)
  4. ^ Herzberg, Frederick (1959), The Motivation to Work, New York: John Wiley and Sons, ISBN 978-1-56000-634-3 

Chapman, A. (2006). Frederick Herzberg's motivation and hygiene factors. In Business

 Balls . Retrieved January 30, 2015, from http://www.businessballs.com/herzberg.htm

Luthans, F. D. (2006). International management: culture, strategy, and behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill.

External links[edit]