Frederick II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg

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Frederick II
Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
Christian Schilbach - Porträt des Herzogs Friedrich II. von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg.jpg
Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
Reign 1691–1732
Predecessor Frederick I
Successor Frederick III
Regent Bernhard I and Heinrich
Spouse Magdalena Augusta of Anhalt-Zerbst
Issue
among others...
Frederick III
Prince John August
Augusta, Princess of Wales
House House of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
Father Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
Mother Magdalene Sibylle of Saxe-Weissenfels
Born (1676-07-28)28 July 1676
Gotha
Died 23 March 1732(1732-03-23) (aged 55)
Altenburg
Religion Lutheranism

Frederick II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (28 July 1676, in Gotha – 23 March 1732, in Altenburg), was a duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg.

He was the fifth child and first son of Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg and Magdalene Sibylle of Saxe-Weissenfels.

After the death of his father, in 1691, Frederick II assumed the duchy of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg.

Because he was still under age, a guardianship and co-regency was formed between his uncles, the dukes Bernhard I of Saxe-Meiningen and Heinrich of Saxe-Römhild. In 1693, after he returned from a journey to Holland and England, he wrote to the emperor for a license of adult age and took independent control of the government of his duchy. Frederick was a splendor-loving baroque ruler; his yard attitude and the standing army, whom he had taken over from his father and even expanded, devoured some of his income. As a solution, Frederick rented his soldiers to foreign princes, which brought him a great difficulty in 1702, when the King Louis XIV of France rented his troops and used them in his war against the Emperor.

Relating to domestic affairs, Frederick essentially continued the policy of his father. He created an orphanage in Altenburg (1715), a breed and a lunatic asylum in Kahla (1726), as well as the Magdalenenstift -in honor of his mother and wife (both with the same name)- (1705), a school for noble women. For 100,000 talents from his private property, he bought the famous numismatic collection of the Prince Anton Günther of Schwarzburg Arnstadt, which formed the current collection of coins (Münzkabinetts) in the Schloss Friedenstein.

By accumulation of parts of Saxe-Coburg (became extinct in 1699), Saxe-Eisenberg (became extinct in 1707) and Saxe-Römhild (became extinct in 1710), he succeeded to all, however only at long hereditary disputes under the other Ernestine Duchies, which went only to 1735 with an arbitral award of the Emperor finally to end reaching in each case area increases for his country.

Issue[edit]

At Friedenstein Castle in Gotha on 7 June 1696, he married his first cousin, Magdalena Augusta of Anhalt-Zerbst.
They had nineteen children:

  1. Sophie (b. Gotha, 30 May 1697 – d. of smallpox, Gotha, 29 November 1703)
  2. Frederick III, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (b. Gotha, 14 April 1699 – d. Gotha, 10 March 1772)
  3. stillborn son (Gotha, 22 April 1700)
  4. Wilhelm (b. Gotha, 12 March 1701 – d. Gräfentonna, 31 May 1771), married on 8 November 1742 to Anna of Holstein-Gottorp. Their marriage was childless.
  5. Karl Frederick (b. Gotha, 20 September 1702 – d. [of smallpox?] Gotha, 21 November 1703)
  6. a daughter (b. and d. Gotha, 8 May 1703)
  7. Johann August (b. Gotha, 17 February 1704 – d. Stadtroda, 8 May 1767)
  8. Christian (b. Gotha, 27 February 1705 – d. of smallpox, Gotha, 5 March 1705)
  9. Christian Wilhelm (b. Gotha, 28 May 1706 – d. Stadtroda, 19 July 1748), married on 27 May 1743 to Luise Reuss of Schleiz. Their marriage was childless.
  10. Ludwig Ernst (b. Gotha, 28 December 1707 – d. Gotha, 13 August 1763)
  11. Emanuel (b. Gotha, 5 April 1709 – d. Gotha, 10 October 1710)
  12. Moritz (b. Altenburg, 11 May 1711 – d. Altenburg, 3 September 1777)
  13. Sophie (b. Altenburg, 23 August 1712 – d. Altenburg, 12 November 1712)
  14. Karl (b. Gotha, 17 April 1714 – d. Gotha, 10 July 1715)
  15. Fredericka (b. Gotha, 17 July 1715 – d. Langensalza, 12 May 1775), married on 27 November 1734 to Johann Adolf II, Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels
  16. stillborn son (Gotha, 30 November 1716)
  17. Magdalena Sibylle (b. Gotha, 15 August 1718 – d. Gotha, 9 November 1718)
  18. Augusta (b. Gotha, 30 November 1719 – d. Carlton House, 8 February 1772), married on 8 May 1736 to Frederick, Prince of Wales. They had 9 children, their second child later became King George III of Great Britain.
  19. Johann Adolf (b. Gotha, 18 May 1721 – d. Friedrichstanneck, 29 April 1799)

Ancestry[edit]

Frederick II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
Born: 28 July 1676 Died: 23 March 1732
Preceded by
Frederick I
Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
1691–1732
Succeeded by
Frederick III