Frederick Marquis, 1st Earl of Woolton

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The Right Honourable
The Earl of Woolton
CH PC
Lord Woolton crop HU48187.jpg
Lord President of the Council
In office
28 May – 27 July 1945
Monarch George VI
Prime Minister Winston Churchill
Preceded by Clement Attlee
Succeeded by Herbert Morrison
In office
28 October 1951 – 24 November 1952
Monarch George VI
Elizabeth II
Prime Minister Winston Churchill
Preceded by The Viscount Addison
Succeeded by The Marquess of Salisbury
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
In office
24 November 1952 – 20 December 1955
Monarch Elizabeth II
Prime Minister Winston Churchill
Anthony Eden
Preceded by The Viscount Swinton
Succeeded by The Earl of Selkirk
Personal details
Born Frederick James Marquis
(1883-08-23)23 August 1883
Salford, England
Died 14 December 1964(1964-12-14) (aged 81)
Arundel, Sussex, England
Nationality English
Political party Conservative
Alma mater Victoria University of Manchester
Occupation Businessman, politician

Frederick James Marquis, 1st Earl of Woolton, CH, PC (23 August 1883 – 14 December 1964) was an English businessman, statesman and politician. A successful department store owner and wartime Minister of Food, Lord Woolton became Conservative Party Chairman from 1946 to 1955. He rebuilt the local organizations with an emphasis on membership, money, and a unified national propaganda appeal on critical issues. To broaden the base of potential candidates, the national party provided financial aid to candidates, and assisted the local organizations in raising local money. Woolton also proposed changing the name of the party to the Union Party, but when that suggestion fell on deaf ears he instead emphasized a rhetoric that characterized opponents as "Socialist" rather than "Labour". He is given significant credit for the Conservative victory in 1951, their first since 1935.[1]

Early career[edit]

Lord Woolton was born in Salford, Lancashire, in 1883 to Thomas Robert Marquis (died 1944) and his wife, Margaret Marquis née Ormerod. Educated at Manchester Grammar School and the University of Manchester (where he was a Research Fellow), Woolton was an active member of the Unitarian Church. He was active in social work in Liverpool (1906–18)

He was an executive of Lewis's department store in Liverpool (1928–51), becoming Managing Director. He was knighted in 1935 and was awarded a peerage in 1939 for his contribution to British industry. Despite his wishes, he was informed that it was not possible to be Baron Marquis (because "Marquess", or "Marquis", is another grade of the nobility of the United Kingdom) and so he took the title Baron Woolton after the Liverpool suburb of that name in which he had lived. He subsequently served on a number of government committees (including the Cadman committee). He refused to affiliate himself with any political party.

Second World War[edit]

Lord Woolton (right) being interviewed in London in 1944

In April 1940 he was appointed as Minister of Food by Neville Chamberlain, one of a number of ministerial appointments from outside politics. Woolton retained this position until 1943. He supervised 50,000 employees and over a thousand local offices where people could obtain ration cards. His ministry had a virtual monopoly of all food sold in Britain, whether imported or local. His mission was to guarantee adequate nutrition for everyone. With food supplies cut sharply because of enemy action and the needs of the services, rationing was essential. Woolton and his advisors had one scheme in mind but economists convinced them to instead try point rationing. Everyone would have a certain number of points a month that they could allocate any way they wanted. They tried an experiment and it worked very well. Indeed, food rationing was a major success story in Britain's war.[2]

In the dark days of late June 1940, with a German invasion threatened, Woolton reassured the public that emergency food stocks were in place that would last "for weeks and weeks" even if the shipping could not get through. He said "iron rations" were stored for use only in great emergency. Other rations were stored in the outskirts of cities liable to German bombing.[3] When the Blitz began in late summer 1940 he was ready with more than 200 feeding stations in London and other cities under attack.[4]

Woolton was faced with the task of overseeing rationing due to wartime shortages. He took the view that it was insufficient to merely impose restrictions but that a programme of advertising to support it was also required. He warned that meat and cheese, as well as bacon and eggs, were in very short supply and would remain that way. Calling for a simpler diet, he noted that there was plenty of bread, potatoes, vegetable oils, fats and milk.[5]

By January 1941 the usual overseas food supply had fallen in half. However, by 1942 ample food supplies were arriving through Lend Lease from the U.S. and a similar Canadian program. Lend Lease was a gift and there was no charge. Most food was now rationed. Worried about children, he made sure that by 1942 Britain was providing 650,000 children with free meals at schools; about 3,500,000 children received milk at school, in addition to priority supplies at home. The bad news was that his "national loaf" of wholemeal brown bread replaced the ordinary white variety, to the distaste of most housewives.[6] Children learned that candy supplies were reduced to save shipping space.[7]

Woolton kept food prices down by subsidizing eggs and other items. He promoted recipes that worked well with the rationing system, most famously the "Woolton pie", which consisted of carrots, parsnips, potatoes and turnips in oatmeal, with a pastry or potato crust and served with brown gravy. Woolton's business skills made the Ministry of Food's difficult job a success and he earned a strong personal popularity despite the shortages.[8]

He joined the Privy Council in 1940 and became a Companion of Honour in 1942. In 1943 Woolton entered the War Cabinet as Minister of Reconstruction, taking charge of the difficult task of planning for post-war Britain and in this role he appeared on the cover of Time on the issue of 26 March 1945.

Conservative Party manager[edit]

In May 1945 he was included in Churchill's "Caretaker" government as Lord President of the Council, but in July the government fell when Churchill lost the 1945 general election. The very next day Woolton joined the Conservative Party and was soon appointed Party Chairman, with the job of improving the party's organisation in the country and revitalising it for future elections. Under Woolton many sweeping reforms were carried out and when the Conservatives returned to government in 1951, Woolton served in the Cabinet for the next four years.

In May 1950, Woolton, with Churchill's approval, called for a kind of coalition with the Liberal Party based on nine principles he said they agrees upon:[9]

  1. opposition to “the over-encroaching power of the State over the lives of individuals and of the processes which this commercial nation lives”
  2. opposition to the nationalization of the means of production, distribution, and exchange, “which is the creed of socialism”;
  3. opposition to “the centralization of government in Whitehall and the weakening of the influence of local authorities”;
  4. belief in “the establishment, under private enterprise, of partnership in industry, whereby all ranks engaged in it shall ... share in the increased yield that comes from greater effort or increased skill”;
  5. belief in the maintenance of a high and stable level of employment,
  6. belief that “the best purposes of the State are served when there is economy in public administration and when Government conducted with rigorous avoidance of waste”;
  7. belief in high standards of health, housing, and education, coupled with religious freedom;
  8. recognition of the national duty of maintaining sufficient defence forces, of the danger of militant Communism, and of the necessity for close economic and political co-operation with America and Western Europe;
  9. “tolerance, comradeship, and unity among all classes.”

The Liberal leadership rejected the coalition as one that the Conservatives would control. Labour had recently narrowly won the 1950 general election. The Conservatives without Liberal help won the 1951 general election.

In the 1953 Coronation honours he became Viscount Woolton.

In 1955 he was further honoured when he became Earl of Woolton with the subsidiary title Viscount Walberton in the New Year's honours list.

Death[edit]

He died in 1964 at his home, Walberton House, in Arundel. His titles passed to his son, Roger. He is buried at St Mary's Church, Walberton.[10]

References[edit]

Citations

  1. ^ Robert Blake, The Conservative Party from Peel to Major (1997) pp. 259–264
  2. ^ Angus Calder, The People's War: Britain 1939–45 (1969) pp. 380–87 excerpt and text search
  3. ^ Keesing's Contemporary Archives Volume III-IV, (June, 1940) p. 4117
  4. ^ Keesing's Contemporary Archives Volume III-IV, (September, 1940) p 4260
  5. ^ Keesing's Contemporary Archives, Volume IV, (February, 1941) p. 4474
  6. ^ Lacey (1994), pp. 108–109
  7. ^ Keesing's Contemporary Archives, Volume IV, (March, 1942) p. 5080
  8. ^ Longmate (2010), p. 152
  9. ^ Keesing's Contemporary Archives, Volume VII-VIII, May, 1950 Page 10717
  10. ^ Delorme (1987), p. 54

Bibliography

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
William Morrison
Minister of Food
1940–1943
Succeeded by
John Llewellin
New office Minister of Reconstruction
1943–1945
Office abolished
Preceded by
Clement Attlee
Lord President of the Council
1945
Succeeded by
Herbert Morrison
Preceded by
The Viscount Addison
Lord President of the Council
1951–1952
Succeeded by
The Marquess of Salisbury
Preceded by
The Viscount Swinton
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
1952–1955
Succeeded by
The Earl of Selkirk
Preceded by
Sir Arthur Salter
Minister of Materials
1953–1954
Office abolished
Party political offices
Preceded by
Ralph Assheton
Chairman of the Conservative Party
1946–1955
Succeeded by
Oliver Poole
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New creation Earl of Woolton
1956–1964
Succeeded by
Roger Marquis
Viscount Woolton
1953–1964
Baron Woolton
1939–1964