Frederick, Maryland

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Frederick, Maryland
City
City of Frederick
A view of downtown Frederick on June 22, 2014
A view of downtown Frederick on June 22, 2014
Motto: "The City of Clustered Spires"[1]
Location in Maryland
Location in Maryland
Coordinates: 39°25′35″N 77°25′13″W / 39.42639°N 77.42028°W / 39.42639; -77.42028
Country  United States of America
State  Maryland
County Frederick
Founded 1745
Government
 • Mayor Randy McClement (R-MD)
 • Police Chief Thomas Ledwell
Area[2]
 • City 59.89 km2 (23.13 sq mi)
 • Land 59.41 km2 (22.94 sq mi)
 • Water 0.48 km2 (0.19 sq mi)
Elevation 92 m (302 ft)
Population (2010)[3]
 • City 66,382
 • Estimate (2014[4]) 67,159
 • Density 1,145.5/km2 (2,966.8/sq mi)
 • Metro 5,860,342[dubious ]
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
Area code(s) 301, 240
FIPS code 24-30325
GNIS feature ID 0584497
Website www.CityOfFrederick.com
[5]

Frederick is the county seat of Frederick County, the largest county by area in the U.S. state of Maryland. Frederick has been an important crossroads community since it was located in colonial times at the intersection of an important north-south Indian trail, and east-west routes to the Chesapeake Bay both at Baltimore and what became Washington, D.C. and across the Appalachian mountains to the Ohio River watershed. The gateway to western Maryland is now within the Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is part of a greater Washington-Baltimore-Northern Virginia, DC-MD-VA-WV Combined Statistical Area. The city's population was 65,239 people at the 2010 United States Census, making it the second-largest incorporated city in Maryland, behind only Baltimore.

Frederick is home to Frederick Municipal Airport (IATA: FDK), which primarily accommodates general aviation traffic, and to the county's largest employer U.S. Army's Fort Detrick bioscience and communications research installation.[6]

History[edit]

A view of Catoctin Mountain from the south of Frederick

Prehistory[edit]

Located where the Catoctin Mountains (the first foothills of the Appalachian mountains) meet the coastal plain, the Frederick area became a crossroads even before European explorers and traders arrived. Native American hunters (known to Virginia colonists as "Susquehannocks", which might be Algonquian-speaking Shawnee or more likely Seneca or Tuscarora or other members of the Iroquois Confederation) followed the Monocacy River from the Susquehanna River watershed in Pennsylvania to the Potomac River watershed and the lands of the more agrarian and maritime Algonquian peoples, particularly the Lenape of the Delaware valley or the Piscataway or Powhatan of the lower Potomac watershed and Chesapeake Bay. This became known as the Monocacy Trail or even the Great Indian Warpath, with some travelers continuing southward through the "Great Appalachian Valley" (Shenandoah Valley, etc.) to the western Piedmont in North Carolina, or traveling down other watersheds in Virginia toward the Chesapeake Bay, such as those of the Rappahannock, James and York Rivers.

Colonial era[edit]

The earliest European settlement was slightly north of Frederick in Monocacy, Maryland. Founded before 1730, when the Indian trail became a wagon road, Monocacy was abandoned before the American Revolutionary War, perhaps due to the river's periodic flooding or hostilities predating the French and Indian War, or simply Frederick's better location with easier access to the Potomac River near its confluence with the Monocacy.

Daniel Dulany — a land speculator — laid out “Frederick Town” by 1745.[7] Three years earlier, All Saints Church had been founded on a hilltop near a warehouse/trading post of what soon became the Ohio Company of Virginia.[8] Sources disagree as to which Frederick the town was named for, but the likeliest candidates are Frederick Calvert, 6th Baron Baltimore (one of the proprietors of Maryland[9]), Frederick Louis, Prince of Wales,[10] or Frederick "The Great" of Prussia. Most sources favor Calvert.[citation needed]

In 1742, Maryland's General Assembly made Frederick the county seat of Frederick County, which then extended to the Appalachian mountains (areas further west being disputed between the colonies of Virginia and Pennsylvania until 1789). The current town's first house was built by a young German Reformed schoolmaster from the Rhineland Palatinate named Johann Thomas Schley (died 1790), who led a party of immigrants (including his wife, Maria Winz) to the Maryland colony. The Palatinate settlers bought land from Dulany on the banks of Carroll Creek, and Schey's house stood at the northwest corner of Middle Alley and East Patrick Street into the 20th century. Schley's settlers also founded a German Reformed Church (today known as Evangelical Reformed Church, and part of the UCC). Probably the oldest house still standing in Frederick today is Schifferstadt, built in 1756 by German settler Joseph Brunner and now the Schifferstadt Architectural Museum.

Schley's group was among the many Pennsylvania Dutch (ethnic Germans) (as well as Scots-Irish and French and later Irish) who migrated south and westward in the late-18th century. Frederick was an important stop along the migration route that became known as the Great Wagon Road, which came down from Gettysburg, Pennsylvania and Emmitsburg, Maryland and continued south following the Great Appalachian Valley through Winchester and Roanoke, Virginia. Another important route continued along the Potomac River from near Frederick, to Hagerstown, where it split. One branch crossed the Potomac River near Martinsburg, West Virginia and continued down into the Shenandoah valley. The other continued west to Cumberland, Maryland and ultimately crossed the Appalachian Mountains into the watershed of the Ohio River. Thus, British General Edward Braddock marched his troops (including the youthful George Washington) west in 1755 through Frederick on the way to their fateful ambush near Fort Duquesne (later Fort Pitt, then Pittsburgh) during the French and Indian War. However, the British after the Proclamation of 1763 restricted that westward migration route until after the American Revolutionary War. Other westward migrants continued south from Frederick to Roanoke along the Great Wagon Road, crossing the Appalachians into Kentucky and Tennessee at the Cumberland Gap near the Virginia/North Carolina border.

Other German settlers in Frederick were Evangelical Lutherans, led by Rev. Henry Muhlenberg. They moved their mission church from Monocacy to what became a large complex a few blocks further down Church Street from the Anglicans and the German Reformed Church. Methodist missionary Robert Strawbridge accepted an invitation to preach at Frederick town in 1770, and Francis Asbury arrived two years later, both helping to found a congregation which became Calvary Methodist Church, worshiping in a log building from 1792 (although superseded by larger buildings in 1841, 1865, 1910 and 1930).[11] Frederick also had a Catholic mission, to which Rev. Jean DuBois was assigned in 1792, which became St. John the Evangelist Church (built in 1800).

To control this crossroads during the American Revolution, the British garrisoned a German Hessian regiment in the town; the war (the stone, L-shaped "Hessian Barracks" still stand). Afterward, many former Hessians stayed on and married into the town's families, strengthening the town's German identity.[citation needed]

Early-19th century[edit]

All Saints Church, erected 1813, Principal Parish Church until 1855

As the county seat for Western Maryland, Frederick not only was an important market town, but also the seat of justice. Although Montgomery County and Washington County were split off from Frederick County in 1776, Frederick remained the seat of the smaller (though still large) county. Important lawyers who practiced in Frederick included John Hanson, Francis Scott Key and Roger B. Taney.

Church Street with All Saints and Reformed Church spires, Frederick

Frederick was also known during the nineteenth century for its religious pluralism, with one of its main thoroughfares, Church Street, hosting about a half dozen major churches. In 1793, All Saints Church hosted the first confirmation of an American citizen, by the newly consecrated Episcopal Bishop Thomas Claggett. That original colonial building was replaced in 1814 by a brick classical revival structure. It still stands today, although the principal worship space has become an even larger brick gothic church joining it at the back and facing Frederick's City Hall (so the parish remains the oldest Episcopal Church in western Maryland).[12] The main Catholic church, dedicated to St. John the Evangelist, was built in 1800, then rebuilt in 1837 (across the street) one block north of Church Street on East Second Street, where it still stands along with a school and convent established by the Visitation Sisters.[13] The stone Evangelical Lutheran Church of 1752 was also rebuilt and enlarged in 1825, then replaced by the current twin-spired structure in 1852[14]

The oldest African-American church in the town is Asbury United Methodist Church, founded as the Old Hill Church, a mixed congregation in 1818. It became an African-American congregation in 1864, renamed Asbury Methodist Episcopal Church in 1870, and built its current building on All Saints Street in 1921.[15]

Church Street, Frederick Maryland with Evangelical Lutheran Church spires

Together, these churches dominated the town, set against the backdrop of the first ridge of the Appalachians, Catoctin Mountain. The abolitionist poet John Greenleaf Whittier later immortalized this view of Frederick in his poem to Barbara Fritchie: "The clustered spires of Frederick stand / Green-walled by the hills of Maryland."[16]

When U.S. President Thomas Jefferson commissioned the building of the National Road from Baltimore toward St. Louis (eventually built to Vandalia, then the state capital of Illinois), the "National Pike" ran through Frederick along Patrick Street. (This later became U.S. Route 40.) Frederick's Jacob Engelbrecht corresponded with Jefferson in 1824 (receiving a transcribed psalm in return), and kept a diary from 1819-1878 which remains an important first-hand account of 19th century life from its viewpoint on the National Road.[17][18] An important house remaining from this era is the Tyler Spite House, built in 1814 at 112 W. Church Street by a local doctor to prevent the city from extending Record Street south through his land to meet West Patrick Street.[19][20]

Frederick also became one of the new nation's leading mining counties in the early 19th century. It exported gold, copper, limestone, marble, iron and other minerals. As early as the American Revolution, Catoctin Furnace near Thurmont became important for iron production.[21] Other mining areas split off into Washington County, Maryland and Allegheny County, Maryland but continued to ship their ore through Frederick to Eastern cities and ports.

Frederick had easy access to the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, which began operations in 1831 and continued hauling freight until 1924. Also in 1831, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O) completed its Frederick Branch line from the Frederick (or Monocacy) Junction off the main Western Line from Baltimore to Harpers Ferry, Cumberland, and the Ohio River. The railroad reached Chicago and St. Louis by the 1850s.[22]

When the first wave of Irish refugees from the potato famine settled in Frederick in 1846, the Schley family intermarried into the Wilson family from Ireland. Some Schleys converted to Catholicism, and residents of Frederick began to speak English for the first time in the town's history – up until then, the language had been German.[citation needed]

Civil War[edit]

Confederate troops marching west on East Patrick Street, September 12, 1862

Frederick became Maryland's capital city briefly in 1861, as the legislature moved from Annapolis to vote on the secession question. President Lincoln arrested several members, and the assembly was unable to convene a quorum to vote on secession.

As a major crossroads, Frederick, like Winchester, Virginia and Martinsburg, West Virginia, saw considerable action during the American Civil War.[23] Slaves also escaped from or through Frederick (since Maryland was still a "slave state" although an unseceeded border state) to join the Union forces, work against the Confederacy and seek freedom. During the Maryland campaigns, both Union and Confederate troops marched through the city. Frederick also hosted several hospitals to nurse the wounded from those battles, as is related in the National Museum of Civil War Medicine on East Patrick Street.

1896 print illustrating the legend of Barbara Fritchie.

A legend related by John Greenleaf Whittier claimed that Frederick's Pennsylvania Dutch women (including Barbara Fritchie who reportedly waved a flag) booed the Confederates in September, 1862, as General Stonewall Jackson led his light infantry division through Frederick on his way to the battles of Crampton's, Fox's and Turner's Gaps on South Mountain and Antietam near Sharpsburg. Union Major General Jesse L. Reno's IX Corps followed Jackson's men through the city a few days later on the way to the Battle of South Mountain, where Reno died. The sites of the battles are due west of the city along the National Road, west of Burkittsville. Confederate troops under Jackson and Walker unsuccessfully attempted to halt the Federal army's westward advance into the Cumberland Valley and towards Sharpsburg. Gathland State Park has the War Correspondents' Memorial stone arch erected by reporter/editor George Alfred Townsend (1841-1914). The 1889 memorial commemorating Major General Reno and the Union soldiers of his IX Corps is on Reno Monument Road west of Middletown, just below the summit of Fox's Gap, as is a 1993 memorial to slain Confederate Brig. Gen. Samuel L. Garland, Jr., and the North Carolina troops who held the line.

President Abraham Lincoln, on his way to visit Gen. George McClellan after the Battle of South Mountain and the Battle of Antietam, delivered a short speech at what was then the B. & O. Railroad depot at the current intersection of East All Saints and South Market Streets. A plaque commemorates the speech (at what is today the Frederick Community Action Agency, a Social Services office).

At the Prospect Hall mansion off Jefferson Street to Buckeystown Pike near what is now Butterfly Lane, in the early morning hours of June 28, 1863, a messenger arrived from President Abraham Lincoln and General-in-Chief Henry Halleck, informing General George Meade that he would be replacing General Joseph Hooker after the latter's disastrous performance at Chancellorsville in May. The Army of the Potomac camped around the Prospect Hall property for the several days as skirmishers pursued Lee's Confederate Army of Northern Virginia prior to Gettysburg. A large granite rectangular monument made from one of the boulders at the "Devil's Den" in Gettysburg to the east along the driveway commemorates the midnight change-of-command.

In July 1864, in the third Southern invasion, Confederate troops led by Lieutenant General Jubal Early fought through Frederick on their way to Washington D.C. Union troops under Major General Lew Wallace defeated what became last significant Confederate advance at the Battle of Monocacy Junction, also known as the "Battle that saved Washington." The Monocacy National Battlefield lies just southeast of the city limits, along the Monocacy River at the B. & O. Railroad junction where two bridges cross the stream - an iron-truss bridge for the railroad and a covered wooden bridge for the Frederick-Urbana-Georgetown Pike, which was the site of the main battle of July 1864. Some skirmishing occurred further northeast of town at the stone-arched "Jug Bridge" where the National Road crossed the Monocacy; and an artillery bombardment occurred along the National Road west of town near Red Man's Hill and Prospect Hall mansion as the Union troops retreated eastward. Antietam National Battlefield and South Mountain State Battlefield Park which commemorates the 1862 battles and Gettysburg National Battlefield of 1863 lie approximately 35 miles (56 km) to the west and northeast, respectively.

The reconstructed home of Barbara Fritchie stands on on West Patrick Street, just past Carroll Creek linear park. Fritchie, a significant figure in Maryland history in her own right, is buried in Frederick's Mount Olivet Cemetery. British Prime Minister Winston Churchill quoted Whittier's poem to President Franklin D. Roosevelt when they stopped here in 1941 on a car trip to the presidential retreat, then called "Shangra-La" (now "Camp David") on Catoctin Mountain near Thurmont.

Late-19th century[edit]

Admiral Winfield Scott Schley (1839-1911) was born at "Richfields", the mansion home of his father. He became an important naval commander of the American fleet on board his flagship and heavy cruiser U.S.S. Baltimore along with Admiral William T. Sampson in the Battle of Santiago de Cuba off the shores of the Spanish island colony of Cuba in the Spanish-American War in 1898. Major Henry Schley's son, Dr. Fairfax Schley, was instrumental in setting up the Frederick County Agricultural Society and the Great Frederick Fair.[24] Gilmer Schley served as Mayor from 1919 to 1922, and the Schleys remained one of the town's leading families into the late-20th century.

Nathaniel Wilson Schley, a prominent banker, and his wife Mary Margaret Schley helped organize and raise funds for the annual Great Frederick Fair, one of the two largest agricultural fairs in the State. Since the 1960s, the fair has featured many outstanding country-western singers and become a major music festival.[25] Schley Avenue commemorates the family's role in the city's heritage.

The Frederick and Pennsylvania Line railroad ran from Frederick to the Pennsylvania–Maryland State line, a/k/a Mason–Dixon line.[26] Chartered in 1867, construction began in 1869 and the line opened October 8, 1872. However, it defaulted on its interest payments in 1874 and acquired by the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1875, which formed a new division to operate the rail line. In the spring of 1896, the Frederick and Pennsylvania Line railroad was liquidated in a judicial sale to the Pennsylvania Railroad for $150,000. The railroad survived through mergers and the Penn-Central bankruptcy. However, the State of Maryland acquired the Frederick and Pennsylvania Line in 1982. As of 2013, all but two miles (3.2 km) at the southern terminus at Frederick still exist, operated by either the Walkersville Southern, or the Maryland Midland Railway (MMID) railroads.

Jewish pioneers Henry Lazarus and Levy Cohan settled in Frederick in the 1740s as merchants. Mostly German Jewish immigrants organized a community in the mid-19th century, creating the Frederick Hebrew Congregation in 1858. Later the congregation lapsed, but was reorganized in 1917 as a cooperative effort between the older settlers and more recently arrived Eastern European Jews under the name Beth Sholom Congregation.

In 1905, Rev. E.B. Hatcher started the First Baptist Church of Frederick.

After the Civil War, the Maryland legislature established racially segregated public facilities by the end of the 19th century, re-imposing white supremacy. Black institutions were typically underfunded in the state, and it was not until 1921 that Frederick established a public high school for African Americans. First located at 170 West All Saints Street, it moved to 250 Madison Street, where it eventually was adapted as South Frederick Elementary. The building presently houses the Lincoln Elementary School.

Geography[edit]

Carroll Creek running through Baker Park, with the Joseph Dill Baker Carillon in the background

Frederick is located in Frederick County in the northern part of the state of Maryland, and is occasionally considered part of Western Maryland. The city has served as a major crossroads since colonial times. Today it is located at the junction of Interstate 70, Interstate 270, U.S. Route 340, U.S. Route 40, U.S. Route 40 Alternate and U.S. Route 15 (which runs north-south). In relation to nearby cities, Frederick lies 46 miles (74 km) west of Baltimore, 49 miles (79 km) north and slightly west of Washington, D.C., 24 miles (39 km) southeast of Hagerstown, Maryland, and 71 miles (114 km) southwest of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. The city's coordinates are 39°25'35" North, 77°25'13" West (39.426294, -77.420403).[27]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 23.13 square miles (59.91 km2), of which, 22.94 square miles (59.41 km2) is land and 0.19 square miles (0.49 km2) is water.[2] The city's area is predominantly land, with small areas of water being the Monocacy River, which runs to the east of the city, Carroll Creek (which runs through the city and causes periodic floods, such as that during the summer of 1972 and fall of 1976), as well as several neighborhood ponds and small city owned lakes, such as Culler Lake, a man-made small body of water in the downtown area.[citation needed]

Climate[edit]

The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and generally mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Frederick has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps.[28]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1820 3,640
1830 4,427 21.6%
1840 5,182 17.1%
1850 6,028 16.3%
1860 8,142 35.1%
1870 8,526 4.7%
1880 8,650 1.5%
1890 8,193 −5.3%
1900 9,296 13.5%
1910 10,411 12.0%
1920 11,066 6.3%
1930 14,134 27.7%
1940 15,802 11.8%
1950 18,142 14.8%
1960 21,744 19.9%
1970 23,641 8.7%
1980 28,086 18.8%
1990 40,148 42.9%
2000 52,767 31.4%
2010 65,239 23.6%
Est. 2012 66,382 1.8%
U.S. Decennial Census
2012 estimate.

2010 census[edit]

As of the 2010 U.S. census[29], there were 65,239 people residing in Frederick city and roughly 27,000 households. The city's population grew by 23.6% in the ten years since the 2000 census, making it the fastest growing incorporated area in the state of Maryland with a population of over 50,000 for 2010.[citation needed]

2010 census data put the racial makeup of the city at 61% White, 18.6% Black or African American, 0.2% Native American, 5.8% Asian American, and 14.4% Hispanic or Latino of any race. Roughly 4% of the city's population was of two or more races.

In regard to minority group growth, the 2010 census data show the city's Hispanic population at 9,402, a 271 percent increase compared with 2,533 in 2000, making Hispanics/Latinos the fastest growing race group in the city and in Frederick county (267 percent increase). Frederick city had 3,800 Asian residents in 2010, a 128 percent increase from the city's 1,664 Asian residents in 2000. The city's black or African-American population increased 56 percent, from 7,777 in 2000 to 12,144 in 2010.[30]

For the roughly 27,000 households in the city, 30.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.7% were married couples living together, 12.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41% were non-families. Approximately 31% of all households were made up of individuals living alone and 8.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 3.11.

2009 American Community Survey[edit]

As of 2009, 27.5% of the city’s population was under the age of 19, 24.5% were between 20 and 34, 28.1% were between 35 and 54, 9.0% were between 55 and 64, and 10.5% were 65 years of age or older. The median age of a Frederick city resident for 2009 was 34 years. For adults aged 18 or older, the population was 48.6% male and 51.4% female.[31]

According to U.S. census data for 2009, the median annual income for a household in Frederick city was $64,833, and the median annual income for a family was $77,642. Males had a median annual income of $49,129 versus $41,986 for females. The per capita income for the city was $31,123. Approximately 7.7% of the total population, 5.3% of families, and 5.2% of adults aged 65 and older were living below the poverty line. The unemployment rate in the city for adults over the age of 18 was 5.1%.

In regard to educational attainment for individuals aged 25 or older as of 2009, 34% of the city's residents had a bachelor's or advanced professional degree, 29.6% had some college or an associate's degree, 21.6% had a high school diploma or equivalency, 6.8% had between a 9th and 12th grade level of education, and 3.6% had an 8th grade or lower level of education.

The median value of a home in Frederick city as of 2009 was $303,900, with the bulk of owner-occupied homes valued at between $300,000 and $500,000. The median cost of a rental unit was $1,054 per month, with the bulk of rental units priced between $1,000 and $1,500 per month. The value of the housing stock in Frederick is above the national average and significantly higher than small nearby cities such as Hagerstown, Maryland; and Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.[32][dubious ] This discrepancy likely reflects Frederick's location as a desirable and growing commuter suburb of Washington, D.C. (and related areas in Montgomery County, Maryland, such as Bethesda), one of the most expensive housing and rental markets in the nation.[33][dubious ]

2009 census data indicated that roughly 89% of the workforce commuted to work by automobile, with an average commute time of approximately 30 minutes.[34] This suggests that a substantial portion of those residing in Frederick city are, in fact, commuting out of the county for work.[citation needed]

Government[edit]

City Hall in Frederick
Fountain in Frederick

City executive[edit]

In 2009, Randy McClerment became the city's mayor.

Previous mayors include:

  • Lawrence Brengle (1817)
  • Hy Kuhn (1818–1820)
  • George Baer, Jr. (1820–1823)
  • John L. Harding (1823–1826)
  • George Kolb (1826–1829)
  • Thomas Carlton (1829–1835)
  • Daniel Kolb (1835–1838)
  • Michael Baltzell (1838–1841)
  • George Hoskins (1841–1847)
  • M. E. Bartgis (1847–1849)
  • James Bartgis (1849–1856)
  • Lewis Brunner (1856–1859)
  • W. G. Cole (1859–1865)
  • J. Engelbrecht (1865–1868)
  • Valerius Ebert (1868–1871)
  • Thomas M. Holbruner (1871–1874)
  • Lewis M. Moberly (1874–1883)
  • Hiram Bartgis (1883–1889)
  • Lewis H. Doll (1889–1890)
  • Lewis Brunner (1890–1892)
  • John E. Fleming (1892–1895)
  • Aquilla R. Yeakle (1895–1898)
  • William F. Chilton (1898–1901)
  • George Edward Smith (1901–1910)
  • John Edward Schell (1910–1913)
  • Lewis H. Fraley (1913–1919)
  • Gilmer Schley (1919–1922)
  • Lloyd C. Culler (1922–1931)
  • Elmer F. Munshower (1931–1934)
  • Lloyd C. Culler (1934–1943)
  • Hugh V. Gittinger (1943–1946)
  • Lloyd C. Culler (1946–1950)
  • Elmer F. Munshower (1950–1951)
  • Donald B. Rice (1951–1954)
  • John A. Derr (1954–1958)
  • Jacob R. Ramsburg (1958–1962)
  • E. Paul Magaha (1962–1966)
  • John A. Derr (1966–1970)
  • E. Paul Magaha (1970–1974)
  • Ronald N. Young (1974–1990)
  • Paul P. Gordon (1990–1994)
  • James S. Grimes (1994–2002)
  • Jennifer Dougherty (2002–2006)
  • W. Jeff Holtzinger (2006–2009)
  • Randy McClement (since 2009)

Representative body[edit]

Frederick has a Board of Aldermen of six members (one of whom is the mayor) which serves as its legislative body. Elections are held every four years. The current board was elected November 3, 2009, and consists of Shelley Aloi, Carol Krimm, Michael O'Connor, Kelly Russell, and Karen Young. The most recent elections were held on November 5, 2013. Democrats Kelly Russell, Michael O'Connor, Josh Bokee, and Donna Kuzemchak were elected along with Republican Philip Dacey. Republican Randy McClement was reelected Mayor.[35]

Police[edit]

The city has its own police department.

Economy[edit]

According to the city's 2013 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[36] the top employers in the city are:

# Employer # of Employees
1 Fort Detrick 10,000
2 Frederick County Board of Education 5,538
3 Frederick Memorial Healthcare System 2,800
4 Frederick County Government 2,130
5 Wells Fargo Home Mortgage 1,881
6 Leidos Biomedical Research (formerly SAIC - Frederick) / National Cancer Institute-Frederick 1,800
7 Frederick Community College 899
8 Frederick City Government 852
9 United Health Care 832
10 State Farm Insurance 793

Frederick's relative proximity to Washington, D.C., has always been an important factor in the development of its local economy and has greatly affected its growth, particularly in recent years. More recently, its economy has been influenced by it being a center for cancer research, as evidenced by the presence of Fort Detrick, its main employer. Its economy has also been strongly influenced by education, government, health care, mortgage and insurance, banking, science and engineering, tourism, transportation, retail and construction.

Frederick is the home of Riverside Research Park, a large biomedical research park being developed on Frederick's east side. Tenants include relocated offices of the National Cancer Institute (Fort Detrick) as well as Charles River Labs. As a result of continued and enhanced federal government investment, the Frederick area will likely maintain a continued growth pattern over the next decade.[37] Frederick has also been impacted by recent national trends centered on the gentrification of the downtown areas of cities across the nation (particularly in the northeast and mid-Atlantic), and to re-brand them as sites for cultural consumption.

The Frederick Historic District in the city's downtown houses more than 200 retailers, restaurants and antique shops along Market, Patrick and East Streets.[38] Restaurants feature a diverse array of cuisines, including Italian American, Thai, Vietnamese, and Cuban, as well as a number of regionally recognized dining establishments, such as Volt and The Tasting Room. Outside of the downtown area are chain dining establishments that comprise a typical suburban landscape (Famous Dave's BBQ; The Olive Garden; Red Lobster; Denny's; etc.) as well as several independently owned restaurants.

In addition to retail and dining, downtown Frederick is home to 600 businesses and organizations totaling nearly 5,000 employees. A growing technology sector can be found in downtown's historic renovated spaces, as well as in new office buildings located along Carroll Creek Park.

Carroll Creek Park began as a flood control project in the late 1970s.[38] It was an effort to reduce the risk to downtown Frederick from the 100-year floodplain and restore economic vitality to the historic commercial district. Today, more than $150 million in private investing is underway or planned in new construction, infill development or historic renovation in the park area.[38]

The first phase of the park improvements, totaling nearly $11 million in construction, run from Court Street to just past Carroll Street.[38] New elements to the park include brick pedestrian paths, water features, planters with shade trees and plantings, pedestrian bridges and a 350-seat amphitheater for outdoor performances.

A recreational and cultural resource, the park also serves as an economic development catalyst, with private investment along the creek functioning as a key component to the park's success. More than 400,000 sf of office space; 150,000 sf of commercial/retail space; nearly 300 residential units; and more than 2,000 parking spaces are planned or under construction.

Completed projects include:

  1. Creekside Plaza, a 90,000 sf office/commercial/residential building on the northeast corner of Court Street along Carroll Creek. This building is home to The Green Turtle and Wells Fargo Bank on the first floor, three floors of office space which is home to Warner Construction, R&J Builders, America East Mortgage, United Title Services, LLC. and, Real Estate Teams. The top two floors house 11 residential condominiums.
  2. The new South Market Center, on the north side of the creek between Market Street and Carroll Street. The 3-story, 43,000+ sf building offers two floors of office condominiums and ground-floor retail and restaurant space offering outside patio seating. Office tenants occupy the upper two floors and Ben & Jerry's, Five Guys Hamburgers, Hinode Japanese Restaurant & The Wine Kitchen are on the ground floor.

On the first Saturday of every month, Frederick hosts an evening event in the downtown area called "First Saturday". Each Saturday has a theme, and activities are planned around those themes in the downtown area (particularly around the Carroll Creek Promenade). The event spans a ten-block area of Frederick and takes place from 5 p.m. to 9 p.m. During the late spring, summer, and early fall months, this event draws particularly large crowds from neighboring cities and towns in Maryland, and nearby locations in the tri-state area (Virginia and Pennsylvania). The average number of attendees visiting downtown Frederick during first Saturday events is around 11,000, with higher numbers from May to October.[39]

Culture[edit]

Cityscape[edit]

A panorama of downtown Frederick along North Court Street.
The Community Bridge mural.

Frederick is well known for the "clustered spires" skyline of its historic downtown churches. These spires are depicted on the city's seal and many other city-affiliated logos and insignia.

Another view of downtown Frederick

The housing stock of downtown Frederick is mostly composed of 19th- and 20th-century row housing and duplexes.[citation needed] The scale of this older part of the city is dense, with streets and sidewalks suitable for pedestrians, and a variety of shops and restaurants, comprising what Forbes magazine in 2010 called one of the United States' "Greatest Neighborhoods".[40] Adjacent to downtown are many older communities composed of larger, detached housing built mostly in the early 20th century.[citation needed] Beyond that is housing from the mid-20th century and beyond, becoming suburban in character the further one travels out. The most extensive growth is to the south of the downtown area, including the business corridor along Maryland highway 85 (Buckeystown Pike) outside the city.

Frederick has a bridge painted with a mural titled Community Bridge. The artist William Cochran has been acclaimed for the trompe l'oeil realism of the mural. Thousands of people sent ideas representing "community", which he painted on the stonework of the bridge. The residents of Frederick call it "the mural", "painted bridge", or more commonly, the "mural bridge".[41]

Arts[edit]

The Frederick Arts Council is the designated arts organization for Frederick County. The organization is charged with promoting, supporting, and advocating the arts. There are over ten art galleries in downtown Frederick, and three theaters are located within 50 feet of each other (Cultural Arts Center, Weinberg Center for the Arts, and the Maryland Ensemble Theatre). Frederick is the home of The Delaplaine Visual Arts Education Center, a leading non-profit in the region,[42] as well as the Maryland Shakespeare Festival.

In August 2007, the streets of Frederick were adorned with 30 life-size fiberglass keys as part of a major public art project entitled "The Keys to Frederick". In October 2007, artist William Cochran created a large-scale glass project titled The Dreaming. The project is in the historic theater district, across from the Wienberg Center for the Arts.[43]

The film Blair Witch Project (1999) was set in the woods west of Burkittsville, Maryland, in western Frederick County, but it was not filmed there.

Theater[edit]

The Maryland Ensemble Theatre (MET), a professional theater company, is housed on the lower level of the Francis Scott Key Hotel. The MET first produced mainstage theater in 1997, but the group began performing together with its creation of The Comedy Pigs sketch comedy/improv troupe in April 1993.[44]

Music[edit]

Frederick has a community orchestra, the Frederick Symphony Orchestra, that performs five concerts per year consisting of classical masterpieces. Other musical organizations in Frederick include the Frederick Chorale, the Choral Arts Society of Frederick, the Frederick Regional Youth Orchestra, and the Frederick Symphonic Band. The Frederick Children's Chorus has performed since 1985. It is a five-tier chorus, with approximately 150 members ranging in age from 5 to 18.

A weekly recital is played on the Joseph Dill Baker Carillon the first and third Sundays each month at 12:30 p.m. for half an hour. The carillon can be heard from anywhere in Baker Park, and the City Carillonneur can be seen playing in the tower, which is open each week at that time.

Frederick is home to the Frederick School of Classical Ballet, the official school for Maryland Regional Ballet. Approximately 30 dance studios are located around the city. Each year, these studios perform at the annual DanceFest event.

Frederick also has a large amphitheatre in Baker Park, which features regular music performances of local and national acts, particularly in the summer months.

Frederick was home to defunct indie-rock band Silent Old Mtns.

Clutch, a successful rock band formed in 1990 and calls Frederick their home. The band rehearses for each album and tour in Frederick while drummer Jean-Paul Gaster has been a resident of Frederick since 2001. One of the band's biggest hits, "50,000 Unstoppable Watts", was written about Fort Detrick and Frederick.[45]

Retail[edit]

The city's main mall is the Francis Scott Key Mall.[citation needed] The Frederick Towne Mall is another mall in Frederick soon to be replaced with a Walmart.[46][47]

Cultural organizations[edit]

Frederick organizations include the Peace Resource Center of Frederick County, a chapter of Women in Black, and the Frederick Progressive Action Coalition or FredPac.

The UNESCO Center for Peace has been working since 2004 in the city and around the state to promote the ideals of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The O Center for Peace is partner to County's Public Schools, Hood College, Frederick Community College, Maryland School for The Deaf (MSD), Frederick County Public Libraries, on a variety of community projects that include various after-school programs, Ambassador Speaker Series, Regional Model United Nations, International Model United Nations, celebrations of major United Nations International Days, the Frederick Stamp Festival, and exchange programs for high school and college-level students and schools.

Religion[edit]

There are numerous religious denominations in Frederick: the first churches were established by early Protestant settlers, followed by Irish Catholics and other European Catholics.

St. Paul African Methodist Episcopal Church in Della, is one of the oldest active African-American churches in Frederick County, Maryland.[citation needed] The church started in the Black communities of Della and Greenfield Mills.[citation needed] Members of the communities were attending the Methodist Church in Point of Rocks or the Catholic Church in Buckeystown, but these churches were too far away to be easily accessible.[citation needed]

Around 1898, services were held in the homes of various members and the church then organized as The Della Mission.[citation needed] They were granted the use of a privately owned hall in Greenfield, where Reverend Edwards served as pastor. It is speculated that the affiliation with the African Methodist Episcopal Conference began at this time.[who?] Eventually the hall was sold and services were held in the home of church member Richard Harris.[citation needed]

By 1908, the Della Mission African Methodist Episcopal Church was formed and purchased a half-acre of land from Nathan and Agnes Bell.[citation needed] The deed to the property was recorded on October 26, 1908. Trustees were Nathan Bell, Frank Chase, Charles Naylor, William Simms, and Hacklus Williams.[citation needed]

In Frederick City proper, Lutheran, Evangelical (German) Reformed, Presbyterian, Roman Catholic (East Second Street), Methodist (West Second Street), Episcopal Church (United States) and United Church of Christ (Congregationalist) churches predominate.[citation needed] Mount Olivet Cemetery is the largest[citation needed] cemetery in the City and is Roman Catholic. Maryland was originally founded as a Catholic colony by Cecil Calvert, a Roman Catholic supporter of England's King Charles I. Frederick County also retains ties to the Pennsylvania Dutch and some Old Order Amish cultivate land as small-scale truck farmers.[citation needed] Other denominations represented in Frederick City and in the surrounding county include large numbers of Brethren, as well as some Pentecostal churches.[48] Quinn Chapel, of the African Methodist Episcopal (A.M.E.) Church, is located on East Third Street. The AME Church, founded in Philadelphia in the early 19th century by free blacks, is the first black independent denomination in the United States.[49] The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon) has had a presence in Frederick since the 1970s when the first congregation was organized and now includes four congregations in two buildings within the city.[50]

Beth Sholom Congregation, an unaffiliated synagogue, has been in Frederick since 1917. Congregation Kol Ami, a Reform synagogue, was founded in 2003. Chabad Lubavitch of Fredrick, a Chabad, was founded in 2009.

The Islamic Society of Frederick, founded in the early 1990s, serves Frederick's Muslim community.[51]

Media[edit]

Television[edit]

Frederick is licensed one Maryland Public Television station affiliate: WFPT 62 (PBS/MPT).

Radio[edit]

The city is home to WWFD/820 (the former WZYQ/1370), relaying WFED/1500; WFMD/930AM broadcasting a news/talk/sports format; WFRE/99.9 broadcasting Country Music; and WAFY/103.1 which has an adult contemporary format. The following box details all of the radio stations in the local market.

Print[edit]

Frederick's newspaper of record is the Frederick News-Post.

Sports[edit]

  • Frederick Keys, a "high-A" minor league baseball affiliate of the Baltimore Orioles. The Keys are named after Francis Scott Key, who was a resident of Frederick, and play in Harry Grove Stadium.
  • "Frederick Flying Dogs", an adult amateur baseball team in the Mid-Maryland Semi-Pro Baseball League. The Flying Dogs are named after their primary sponsor, the Flying Dog Brewery, a local craft brewer.
  • "Frederick Rugby", a group of local rugby teams in the Mid-Atlantic Rugby Football Union. The group consists of a Men's team which originated in 1990, and was subsequently followed by an Old Boy's Team (Over 35), a Women's team, and an Under-17 Youth Program. The Men's team has had some national success, finishing 2nd in the Division 2 National Play-Offs in 1998, and returning to the Sweet 16 the following 2 years, finishing 5th in 1999 and 6th in 2000. The club's all welcome both experienced and new players to their programs.
  • FACKA (Frederick Adult Coed Kickball Association) Established in 2006, FACKA is the biggest and best in adult kickball for Frederick County. 21 and over, two divisions and levels of competition. Spring/Summer & Fall Ball seasons. Summer championship "SuperBall Rings". FACKA provides team building, networking, making new friends, singles, families and Frederick. FACKA takes part in many charity events throughout Frederick County including FACKA's own JoAnn Garrett Classic (benefiting local cancer charities). Past performers included, Rival Schools, Biz Markie and G. Love & Special Sauce. FACKA is also the only kickball league to be affiliated with Major League Kickaball.

Education[edit]

C. Burr Artz Public Library

Library[edit]

The main library for Frederick County is located in downtown Frederick, with several branches across the county.[52]

Public schools[edit]

Frederick County Public Schools (FCPS) operates area public schools.

FCPS ranks number one in the state of Maryland in the 2012 School Progress Index accountability data, which includes overall student performance, closing achievement gaps, student growth and college and career readiness.[53] FCPS holds the second-lowest dropout rate in the state of Maryland at 3.84%,[53] with a graduation rate at 93.31%.[53] In 2013, FCPS's SAT average combined mean score was 1538,[53] which is 55 points higher than Maryland's combined average of 1483 and 40 points higher than the nation's average of 1498.[53] All of FCPS's high schools, except for Oakdale High School, which was not open to all grade levels at the time of the survey, are ranked in the top 10% of the nation for encouraging students to take AP classes.[53]

High schools serving Frederick City students:

Other high schools in Frederick County:

Other public schools: Adult Education, Career and Technology Center, Heather Ridge School, Outdoor School, Rock Creek School, and The Earth and Space Science Laboratory. Frederick County was long-time home to a highly innovative outdoor school for all sixth graders in Frederick County.[54] This school was located at Camp Greentop, near the presidential retreat at Camp David and Cunningham Falls State Park.[54]

Private K–8 schools[edit]

K–12 schools[edit]

Private high schools[edit]

Colleges and universities[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Frederick's location as a crossroads has been a factor in its development as a minor distribution center both for the movement of people in Western Maryland, as well as goods. This intersection has created an efficient distribution network for commercial traffic and movement in and out, as well as through the city.

Major roads and streets in Frederick are intersected by Interstate 70, and Interstate 270, as well as U.S. Route 15 and U.S. Route 340.

From 1896 to 1961, Frederick was served by the Hagerstown & Frederick Railway, an interurban trolley service that was among the last surviving systems of its kind in the United States.

The city is served by MARC commuter rail service, which operates several trains daily on the old B&O line to Washington, D.C.; Express bus route 991, which operates to the Shady Grove Metrorail Station, and a series of buses operated by TransIT services of Frederick, Maryland. Greyhound Lines and Megabus (North America) also serve the city.[citation needed]

Frederick Municipal Airport has a mile-long runway and a second 3600' runway.[56] It is the home airport of the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association due to its proximity to Washington and ability to handle small twin engine jets.[citation needed]

In recent years beginning in the 1990's, Frederick has invested in several urban infrastructure projects, including streets cape, new bus routes, as well as mutli-use paths [57] A circular road known as Monocacy Boulevard around Frederick, is an important component to the revitalization of it's historic core.[58]

In 2012 Frederick received the bronze level Bicycle-Friendly Community award from the League of American Bicyclists. In 2013 the "Mayor’s Ad-hoc Bicycle Committee", which had been formed in 2010, was renamed the Frederick Bicycle Coalition. The Frederick Bicycle Coalition is attempting to get Frederick the silver level Bicycle-Friendly Community award.[59]

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "City of Frederick". City of Frederick. Retrieved August 25, 2012. 
  2. ^ a b "US Gazetteer files 2013". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 5, 2014. 
  3. ^ "American FactFinder". Frederick County Government. Retrieved July 2, 2014. 
  4. ^ "Population Estimates - April 2014". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved April 1, 2014. 
  5. ^ Borda, Patti S.; Rodgers, Bethany (September 7, 2012). "City grows by 552 acres". Frederick News-Post. Retrieved September 20, 2012. 
  6. ^ Department of Finance. Comprehensive Annual Financial Report. City of Frederick, Maryland. p. 87. Retrieved September 24, 2012. 
  7. ^ See for example the Overall history of Frederick, pp. 2-6.
  8. ^ Herb Wolf III, Houses of Worship in Frederick, Maryland: a 250 Year History 1745-1995 (Baltimore: Gateway Press, Inc., 1995) p. 3
  9. ^ "Fort Frederick State Park History". Maryland Department of Natural Resources. Archived from the original on October 5, 2007. Retrieved October 7, 2007. 
  10. ^ "Frederick, Maryland". Maryland Municipal League. Retrieved October 9, 2007. 
  11. ^ http://www.calvaryumc.org/about-us/our-building
  12. ^ http://www.allsaintsmd.org/history.php
  13. ^ "St. John the Evangelist, Roman Catholic Church – Frederick, Maryland". Retrieved December 16, 2007. 
  14. ^ tablet inscription on wall
  15. ^ http://www.asburyumcfmd.org/about-us/who-we-are/
  16. ^ Dana, Charles Anderson, ed. (1879). The Household Book of Poetry. D. Appleton. pp. 381–382. 
  17. ^ http://rotunda.upress.virginia.edu/founders/default.xqy?keys=FOEA-print-04-02-02-4075
  18. ^ http://www.hsfcinfo.org/bookstore/frederick.htm
  19. ^ Williams, N. (April 2, 1990). "This Maryland House was built just for spite". Los Angeles Times.
  20. ^ "A Matter of Spite". Frederick News-Post.
  21. ^ J. Thomas Scharf, History of Western Maryland, Vol. I. Philadelphia: Louis H. Everts. 1882. p. 629.
  22. ^ Dilts, James D. (1996). The Great Road: The Building of the Baltimore and Ohio, The Nation's First Railroad, 1828-1853. Palo Alto, California: Stanford University Press. p. 146. ISBN 978-0-8047-2629-0. 
  23. ^ http://www.civilwartrails.org
  24. ^ Scharf, J. Thomas. History of Western Maryland, Vol. I. Philadelphia: Louis H. Everts. 1882. pp. 418–419.
  25. ^ The Great Frederick Fair Official Website
  26. ^ http://goo.gl/maps/4A6FB
  27. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  28. ^ Climate Summary for Frederick, Maryland.
  29. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  30. ^ "Racial, ethnic groups grow in city, county". Frederick News-Post. Retrieved March 27, 2011. 
  31. ^ "Frederick city, Maryland ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates: 2005-2009 Data Set: 2005-2009 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates Survey: American Community Survey". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 27, 2011. 
  32. ^ "City Data: Frederick, Maryland". Retrieved April 6, 2011. 
  33. ^ "City Data: Washington, DC". Retrieved April 6, 2011. 
  34. ^ "Selected Economic Characteristics: 2005-2009 Data Set: 2005-2009 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates Survey: American Community Survey". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 27, 2011. 
  35. ^ [1]. Frederick News-Post.
  36. ^ Department of Finance. Comprehensive Annual Financial Report. City of Frederick, Maryland. Retrieved November 6, 2013. 
  37. ^ "Riverside Research Park/National Cancer Institute". Retrieved September 7, 2011. 
  38. ^ a b c d "Economic Development: Carroll Creek Park". Retrieved March 27, 2011. 
  39. ^ "First Saturday Attendee Profile Study". Retrieved March 27, 2011. 
  40. ^ Wingfield, Brian (November 3, 2010). "America's Best Neighborhoods 2010". Forbes. 
  41. ^ [2]. Fodor's.
  42. ^ [3].
  43. ^ [4].
  44. ^ "About MET". Maryland Ensemble Theatre. Retrieved July 26, 2010. 
  45. ^ [5]. Frederick News-Post.
  46. ^ Lawrence, Adrienne (September 30, 2013). "The Future of Frederick Towne Mall". Frederick Gorilla. Retrieved March 26, 2014. 
  47. ^ Bondeson, Jen (July 19, 2013). "City makes way for Wal-Mart on Frederick Towne Mall site". Frederick News-Post. Retrieved March 26, 2014. 
  48. ^ [6].
  49. ^ [7].
  50. ^ [8].
  51. ^ [9].
  52. ^ http://www.fcpl.org/
  53. ^ a b c d e f "Fast Facts / Fast Facts About FCPS". Frederick County Public Schools. Retrieved March 26, 2014. 
  54. ^ a b [10]. Frederick County Public Schools.
  55. ^ [11]. Mount St. Mary's University.
  56. ^ "Airport Information". Frederick Airport Association. Retrieved March 29, 2013. 
  57. ^ [12] including streetsscape, new bus routes, as well as mutli-use paths. City of Frederick.
  58. ^ [13].
  59. ^ "Frederick: A Bicycle-Friendly Community". Frederick News Post. 9 July 2013. Retrieved 10 July 2014. 
  60. ^ [14]. Mount St. Mary's University.
  61. ^ Nassour, Ellis. Honky Tonk Angel: The Intimate Story Of Patsy Cline. St. Martin's. 1994. pp. 35, 118.
  62. ^ Charlie Keller ex-Yankee dies
  63. ^ The Associated Press (March 23, 1958). "King Kong Keller Breeding Line of 'Yankee' Trotters". Miami News. 
  64. ^ O'Conner, Thomas H. (May 10, 2004). "Breaking the religious barrier". The Boston Globe.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 39°25′35″N 77°25′13″W / 39.426294°N 77.420403°W / 39.426294; -77.420403