Frederick Whitaker

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For the civil engineer, see Frederick Arthur Whitaker.
The Honourable
Sir Frederick Whitaker
MP
Frederick Whitaker, ca 1870s.jpg
Frederick Whitaker, ca 1870s
5th Premier of New Zealand
In office
30 October 1863 – 24 November 1864
21 April 1882 – 25 September 1883
Monarch Victoria
Governor George Grey
Arthuer Hamilton-Gordon
William Jervois
Preceded by Alfred Domett (1863)
John Hall (1882)
Succeeded by Frederick Weld (1864)
Harry Atkinson (1883)
Constituency Legislative Council
Member of the New Zealand Parliament
for Parnell
In office
1866 – 1867
Member of the New Zealand Parliament
for Waikato
In office
1876 – 1879
2nd Speaker of the Legislative Council
In office
1855–1856
Preceded by William Swainson
Succeeded by Thomas Bartley
1st Attorney-General
In office
7 May 1856 – 20 May 1856
In office
2 June 1856 – 12 July 1861
Personal details
Born (1812-04-23)23 April 1812
Bampton, Oxfordshire, England
Died 4 December 1891(1891-12-04) (aged 79)
Auckland, New Zealand
Political party Independent
Spouse(s) Jane Augusta Griffith
Relations Frederick Alexander Whitaker
Alexander Shepherd (father-in-law)
Children 8
Religion Anglican

Sir Frederick Whitaker, KCMG (23 April 1812 – 4 December 1891) was an English-born New Zealand politician who served twice as the Prime Minister of New Zealand and six times as Attorney-General.

Early life[edit]

Whitaker was born at the Deanery Manor House, Bampton, Oxfordshire, England on 23 April 1812, the son of Frederick Whitaker and Susanna Whitaker (née Humfrey). Frederick junior undertook a legal education and became a solicitor and attorney at the age of 27. A year later he sailed to Australia and then New Zealand.[1] He married Jane Augusta Griffith, stepdaughter of Alexander Shepherd (Colonial Treasurer) at St. Paul's Church in Auckland on 4 March 1843.[1]

Whitaker lived in Auckland and was appointed a County Court judge until this position was abolished in 1844, at which time he returned to work as a lawyer. He was appointed to the General Legislative Council on 3 March 1845 until 22 December of that year.[2] He was then appointed to the Legislative Council of New Ulster Province, but that Council had not met when the new Constitution arrived.[3] He transferred to the new Legislative Council on 26 May 1853 and remained a member until his resignation on 19 December 1864. He was again appointed on 8 October 1879 and remained a member until his death 12 years later.[4] He also served as a major in the militia.

He was elected onto the Auckland Provincial Council on 19 October 1854 for the Suburbs of Auckland electorate, and he served until 25 September 1855.[5] He was appointed to the Auckland Executive Council from 14 March 1854 to 22 January 1855 and was the provincial law officer.[6]

Attorney-General[edit]

Whitaker became the first Attorney-General of New Zealand in the Sewell Ministry led by Henry Sewell in 1856. He did not serve as Attorney-General in the subsequent Fox Ministry that was in power for a fortnight, but was again appointed to this position in the Stafford Ministry from 2 June 1856 onwards. He served as Attorney-General until the defeat of the Stafford Ministry on 12 July 1861 and went back to the law.[7] In October 1863 Whitaker was called upon to form a government to replace Premier Domett following his defeat at a vote of no-confidence.[8]

First Premiership[edit]

Whitaker's term as Premier lasted just over a year until November 1864. His term ended due to differences between himself and Governor Grey over the conduct of the New Zealand Wars. Whitaker also resigned as a member of the Legislative Council. He served briefly as the member of Parliament for Parnell from 1866 to 1867.

In October 1865 he was elected Superintendent of Auckland Province, which office he held until 1867. Then for nine years he stayed away from public office.

Second Premiership[edit]

Parliament of New Zealand
Years Term Electorate Party
1866–1867 4th Parnell Independent
1876–1879 6th Waikato Independent

In 1876 he became MP for Waikato and later Attorney-General again in Atkinson's government; the Atkinson Ministry lasted until October 1877. Whitaker lost his seat in the House in 1879, when he was defeated for Eden. However when Premier Hall wanted him to serve as Attorney-General again, he was appointed once more to the Legislative Council in 1879. When Hall resigned in April 1882, Whitaker became Premier for the second time, serving until September 1883.

Whitaker was made a KCMG in 1884 and served again as Attorney-General, and as leader of the Legislative Council from 1887 to 1890. By then his health was failing, and he died on 4 December 1891.

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

Government offices
Preceded by
Alfred Domett
Premier of New Zealand
1863–1864
Succeeded by
Frederick Weld
Political offices
Preceded by
William Swainson
Speaker of the New Zealand Legislative Council
1855–1856
Succeeded by
Thomas Bartley
New office Attorney-General
1856
1856–1861
1863–1864
1876–1877
1882–1883
1887–1891
Succeeded by
William Fox
Preceded by
William Fox
Succeeded by
William Fox
Preceded by
Henry Sewell
Succeeded by
Henry Sewell
Preceded by
James Prendergast
Succeeded by
Robert Stout
Preceded by
Robert Stout
Succeeded by
Henry Sewell
Preceded by
Edward Conolly
Succeeded by
Patrick Buckley
Preceded by
Robert Graham
Superintendent of Auckland Province
1865–1867
Succeeded by
John Williamson