Frederick IX of Denmark

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"Frederik IX" redirects here. For the Margrave of Brandenburg, see Frederick IX, Margrave of Brandenburg.
Frederick IX
Frederick IX of Denmark.jpg
King of Denmark
Reign 20 April 1947 – 14 January 1972
Predecessor Christian X
Successor Margrethe II
Spouse Ingrid of Sweden
Issue Margrethe II of Denmark
Benedikte, Princess of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg
Anne-Marie, Queen of Greece
House House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
Father Christian X of Denmark
Mother Alexandrine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
Born (1899-03-11)11 March 1899
Sorgenfri Palace
Died 14 January 1972(1972-01-14) (aged 72)
Amalienborg Palace[1]
Burial Roskilde Cathedral
Religion Lutheranism
Danish Royalty
House of Oldenburg
(Glücksburg branch)
Royal Coat of Arms of Denmark (1948-1972).svg

Christian IX
Children
   Frederick VIII
   Alexandra, Queen of the United Kingdom
   George I of Greece (formerly William)
   Maria Feodorovna, Empress of Russia (formerly Dagmar)
   Thyra, Duchess of Cumberland and Teviotdale
   Prince Valdemar
Frederick VIII
Children
   Christian X
   Haakon VII of Norway (formerly Charles)
   Princess Louise
   Prince Harald
   Ingeborg, Duchess of Västergötland
   Princess Thyra
   Prince Gustav
   Princess Dagmar
Christian X
Children
   Frederick IX
   Hereditary Prince Knud
Grandchildren
    Princess Elisabeth
Frederick IX
Children
   Margrethe II
   Princess Benedikte
   Anne-Marie, Queen of Greece
Margrethe II
Children
(paternally Laborde of Monpezat)
   Crown Prince Frederik
   Prince Joachim
Grandchildren
   Prince Christian
   Princess Isabella
   Prince Nikolai
   Prince Felix
   Prince Henrik

Frederick IX (Christian Frederik Franz Michael Carl Valdemar Georg) (11 March 1899 – 14 January 1972) was King of Denmark from 1947 to 1972.

He was the son of King Christian X of Denmark and Queen Alexandrine, born Duchess of Mecklenburg, and the fourth Danish monarch of the House of Glücksburg.

Birth and family[edit]

Four generations — four kings: King Christian IX, Crown Prince Frederick (VIII), Prince Christian (X) and the little Prince Frederick (IX) in 1903.

Prince Frederick was born on 11 March 1899 at Sorgenfri Palace in Kongens Lyngby on Zealand during the reign of his great-grandfather King Christian IX. His father was Prince Christian of Denmark (later King Christian X), the eldest son of Crown Prince Frederick and Princess Louise of Sweden (later King Frederick VIII and Queen Louise). His mother was Alexandrine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, a daughter of Frederick Francis III, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Grand Duchess Anastasia Mikhailovna of Russia.

He was baptised at Sorgenfri Palace on 9 April 1899. The young prince had 21 godparents, among them his great-grandfather Christian IX of Denmark, Nicholas II of Russia, George I of Greece, Oscar II of Sweden, his grandfather Crown Prince Frederick of Denmark, the Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII of the United Kingdom) and his uncle Frederick Francis IV, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.[2]

Frederick's only sibling, Knud, was born one year after Frederick.

Early life[edit]

Christian IX died on 29 January 1906, and Frederick's grandfather Crown Prince Frederick succeeded him as King Frederick VIII. Frederick's father became crown prince, and Frederick moved up to second in line to the throne.

Crown Prince Frederick in 1914.

Just six years later, on 14 May 1912, King Frederick VIII died, and Frederick's father ascended the throne as King Christian X. Frederick himself now became crown prince.

Frederick was educated at the Royal Danish Naval Academy (breaking Danish royal tradition by choosing a naval instead of an army career) and the University of Copenhagen. Before he became king, he had acquired the rank of Rear Admiral and he had had several senior commands on active service. He acquired several tattoos during his naval service.

In addition, with his great love of music, the king was an able piano player and conductor.

Marriage and Issue[edit]

In 1922, Frederick was engaged to Princess Olga of Greece and Denmark, his second cousin and the daughter of Prince Nicholas of Greece and Denmark; however they never wed.

The newly engaged Princess Ingrid of Sweden and Crown Prince Frederick of Denmark in 1935.

Instead, he married Princess Ingrid of Sweden (1910–2000) at Storkyrkan in Stockholm on 24 May 1935. She was a daughter of Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf (later King Gustaf VI Adolf of Sweden) and his first wife, Princess Margaret of Connaught. They were related in several ways. In descent from Oscar I of Sweden and Leopold, Grand Duke of Baden, they were double third cousins. In descent from Paul I of Russia, Frederick was a fourth cousin of Ingrid's mother.

They had three daughters:

Reign[edit]

King Frederick IX and Queen Ingrid, circa 1950's.

From 1942 until 1943, Frederick acted as regent on behalf of his father who was temporarily incapacitated after a fall from his horse in October 1942.

On 20 April 1947, Christian X died, and Frederick succeeded to the throne. He was proclaimed king from the balcony of Christiansborg Palace by Prime Minister Knud Kristensen.

Frederick IX's reign saw great change. During these years, Danish society shook off the restrictions of an agricultural society and developed a welfare state. And, as a consequence of the booming economy of the 1960s, women entered the labour market. In other words, Denmark became a modern country, which meant new demands on the monarchy.

Succession[edit]

Frederick with his younger brother Prince Knud in 1920.

As he had no sons, it was expected that his younger brother Knud would inherit the throne, in accordance with Denmark's succession law (Royal Ordinance of 1853).

However, in 1953, an Act of Succession was passed, changing the method of succession to cognatic primogeniture. This meant that his daughters could succeed if he had no sons. His eldest daughter, Margrethe, did so, as Queen Margrethe II. By order of 27 March 1953 the succession to the throne was limited to the issue of King Christian X.

Death[edit]

Shortly after the King had delivered his New Year's Address to the Nation at the 1971/72 turn of the year, he became ill with flu-like symptoms. After a few days rest, he suffered cardiac arrest and was rushed to the municipal hospital on 3 January. After a brief period of apparent improvement, the King's condition took a negative turn on 11 January, and he died 3 days later, on 14 January, at 7:50 pm surrounded by his immediate family and closest friends, having been unconscious since the previous day.[3]

Following his death, the King's coffin was transported to his home at Amalienborg Palace, where it stood until 18 January, when it was moved to the chapel at Christiansborg Palace. There the King was placed on castrum doloris, a ceremony largely unchanged since introduced at the burial of Frederick III in 1670, and the last remaining Royal ceremony where the Danish Crown Regalia is used. The King then lay in state for six days until his funeral, during which period the public could pay their last respects.[4]

The funeral took place on 24 January 1972, and was split in two parts. First a brief ceremony was held in the chapel where the king had lain in state, where the Bishop of Copenhagen, Willy Westergaard Madsen said a brief prayer, followed by a hymn, before the coffin was carried out of the chapel by members of the Royal Life Guards and placed on a gun carriage for the journey through Copenhagen to Copenhagen Central Station. The gun carriage was pulled by 48 seamen and was escorted by honor guards from the Danish Army, Air Force, and Navy, as well as honor guards from France, Sweden, United Kingdom, and the United States.

At the Copenhagen Central Station, the coffin was placed in a special railway carriage for the rail journey to Roskilde. The funeral train was pulled by two DSB class E) steam engines. Once in Roskilde, the coffin was pulled through the city by a group of seamen to Roskilde Cathedral where the final ceremony took place.

Previous rulers had been interred in the cathedral, but it was the King's wish to be buried outside.[5]

He was succeeded by his eldest daughter, Queen Margrethe II. Queen Ingrid survived her husband by 28 years. She died on 7 November 2000. Her remains were interred alongside him at the burial site outside Roskilde Cathedral.

Legacy[edit]

On 20 April 1982, a statue of King Frederick IX dressed in the uniform of an admiral was unveiled by the Copenhagen harbour on the 35th anniversary of his accession to the throne in 1947 and in the tenth year after his death.[6]

The Crown Prince Frederick Bridge which spans the Roskilde Fjord between the town of Frederikssund and the peninsula of Hornsherred, as well as the Frederick IX Bridge which spans the Guldborgsund strait between the islands of Falster and Lolland, are both named after Frederick IX.

Titles, styles and honours[edit]

Titles and styles[edit]

Royal Monogram
  • 11 March 1899 – 14 May 1912: His Royal Highness Prince Frederick of Denmark
  • 14 May 1912 – 1 December 1918: His Royal Highness The Crown Prince of Denmark
  • 1 December 1918 – 17 June 1944: His Royal Highness The Crown Prince of Denmark and Iceland
  • 17 June 1944 – 20 April 1947: His Royal Highness The Crown Prince of Denmark
  • 20 April 1947 – 14 January 1972: His Majesty The King of Denmark

Honours[edit]

This article incorporates information from the Italian Wikipedia.
Danish Honours
Foreign Honours

Ancestors[edit]

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
16. Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
8. Christian IX of Denmark
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
17. Princess Louise Caroline of Hesse-Cassel
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4. Frederick VIII of Denmark
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
18. Landgrave William of Hesse-Kassel
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
9. Princess Louise of Hesse-Kassel
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
19. Princess Louise Charlotte of Denmark
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2. Christian X of Denmark
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
20. Oscar I of Sweden
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10. Charles XV of Sweden
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
21. Princess Josephine of Leuchtenberg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
5. Princess Louise of Sweden
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
22. Prince Frederick of the Netherlands
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
11. Princess Louise of the Netherlands
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
23. Princess Louise of Prussia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1. Frederick IX of Denmark
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
24. Paul Frederick, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
12. Frederick Francis II, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
25. Princess Alexandrine of Prussia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
6. Frederick Francis III, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
26. Prince Heinrich LXIII Reuss of Köstritz
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
13. Princess Augusta Reuss of Köstritz
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
27. Countess Eleonore zu Stolberg-Wernigerode
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3. Duchess Alexandrine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
28. Nicholas I of Russia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
14. Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich of Russia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
29. Princess Charlotte of Prussia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
7. Grand Duchess Anastasia Mikhailovna of Russia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
30. Leopold, Grand Duke of Baden
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
15. Princess Cecilie of Baden
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
31. Princess Sophie of Sweden
 
 
 
 
 
 

References[edit]

  1. ^ "thePeerage.com – Person Page 10126". thePeerage.com. Retrieved 2010-12-21. 
  2. ^ "Prinser og Prinsesser kommer også i kirkebogen". The Danish State Archives. Retrieved 2011-08-10. 
  3. ^ Jon Bloch Skipper. Sømandskongen. Pp 300—309. Aschehoug (2005). ISBN 978-87-1111-789-7.
  4. ^ Jon Bloch Skipper. Sømandskongen. Pp 315. Aschehoug (2005). ISBN 978-87-1111-789-7.
  5. ^ Roger Lundgren. Ingrid. Pp 147. People'sPress (2010). ISBN 978-87-7055-826-6.
  6. ^ "King Frederick IX (1899-1972)". The City of Copenhagen. Retrieved 2011-08-10. 
  7. ^ "Reply to a parliamentary question" (pdf) (in German). p. 134. Retrieved 8 October 2012. 
  8. ^ Icelandese Presidency Website , Frederik, Franz Michael Carl V.G ; krónprins ; Danmörk ; 1921-07-03 ; Stórkross (= Frederik, Franz Michael Carl V.G, Crown Prince, Denmark, 3 July 1921, Grand Cross)
  9. ^ Badraie
  10. ^ Badraie
Frederick IX
Cadet branch of the House of Oldenburg
Born: 11 March 1899 Died: 14 January 1972
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Christian X
King of Denmark
1947–1972
Succeeded by
Margrethe II