Free-fall atomic model
The free-fall atomic model was introduced in 1965 by Michał Gryziński (1930-2004), a Polish nuclear and plasma physicist, as a result of adding electron's magnetic moment to Bohr's atomic picture. Gryziński proposed the model as a consequence of his classical scattering theory. In this classical approximation, electrons don't circulate as in the Bohr model, but enter in almost radial free-fall towards the nucleus. Due to their magnetic moment, the Lorentz force bends the electron trajectories to return them to their initial radius. This model has never been part of mainstream physics.
For simplicity, most of these considerations neglect small changes of orientation of the spin (physics) axis of electron, assuming that it is firmly oriented in space - it's called rigid top approximation. Magnetic moment of nucleus is thousands of times smaller than electron's, so such hyperfine corrections can be neglected in basic models.
Finally the basic considered Lagrangian for dynamics of single electron in these models is:
The last term describes interaction between magnetic field of traveling electron's magnetic moment and electric field of nucleus (spin-orbit interaction).
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- M. Gryziński (1959). "Classical Theory of Electronic and Ionic Inelastic Collisions". Physical Review 115 (2): 374–383. Bibcode:1959PhRv..115..374G. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.115.374.
- M. Gryziński (1965). "Classical Theory of Atomic Collisions. I. Theory of Inelastic Collisions". Physical Review A 138 (2A): 336–358. Bibcode:1965PhRv..138..336G. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.138.A336.
- M. Gryziński (1965). "Radially Oscillating Electron-the Basis of the Classical Model of the Atom". Physical Review Letters 14 (26): 1059–1059. Bibcode:1965PhRvL..14.1059G. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.14.1059.
- M. Gryziński (1970). "Ramsauer Effect as a Result of the Dynamic Structure of the Atomic Shell". Physical Review Letters 24 (2): 45–47. Bibcode:1970PhRvL..24...45G. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.24.45.
- M. Gryziński, J. Kunc, M. Zgorzelski (1972). "Ionization of atomic hydrogen by electron impact. Numerical calculations for the "free-fall" atomic model". Physics Letters A 38: 35–36. Bibcode:1972PhLA...38...35G. doi:10.1016/0375-9601(72)90964-4.
- M. Gryziński (1975). "Low energy scattering and the "free-fall" atomic model". Journal of Chemical Physics 62 (7): 2629. Bibcode:1975JChPh..62.2629G. doi:10.1063/1.430847.
- M. Gryziński (1987). "Spin-dynamical theory of the wave-corpuscular duality". International Journal of Theoretical Physics 26 (10): 967. Bibcode:1987IJTP...26..967G. doi:10.1007/BF00670821.
- M. Gryziński (27 April 1989). "Cold fusion: what's going on?". Nature 338 (6218): 712. Bibcode:1989Natur.338..712G. doi:10.1038/338712a0.
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