Free City of Danzig
|Free City of Danzig
Freie Stadt Danzig (German)
Wolne Miasto Gdańsk (Polish)
|Free City under League of Nations protection|
Für Danzig / Gdańsku
Danzig, surrounded by Germany and Poland.
Location of the Free City of Danzig in 1930 Europe.
32.2% Catholic (1938)
|Historical era||Interwar period|
|-||Established||15 November 1920|
|-||Invasion of Poland||1 September 1939|
|-||Annexed by Germany||2 September 1939|
|-||1923||1,966 km² (759 sq mi)|
|Density||186.5 /km² (483.1 /sq mi)|
|Currency||Papiermark (before 1923)
Danzig gulden (from 1923)
|Today part of||Poland|
The Free City of Danzig (German: Freie Stadt Danzig; Polish: Wolne Miasto Gdańsk) was a semi-autonomous city-state that existed between 1920 and 1939, consisting of the Baltic Sea port of Danzig (today Gdańsk) and surrounding areas. It was created on 15 November 1920 in accordance with the terms of Article 100 (Section XI of Part III) of the 1919 Treaty of Versailles.
The Free City included the city of Danzig and over two hundred nearby towns, villages, and settlements. As the Treaty stated, the region was to remain separated from the nation of Germany and from the newly resurrected nation of Poland, but it was not an independent state; the Free City was under League of Nations protection and put into a binding customs union with Poland. Poland was also given full rights to develop and maintain transportation, communication, and port facilities in the city. The Free City was created in order to give Poland access to a well-sized seaport while respecting the fact that the city's population was roughly ninety-five percent German. The Polish minority in the city continued to be oppressed and Germanized by the local German authorities
In 1933, the City's government was taken over by the local Nazi Party and the democratic opposition was suppressed. Due to anti-Semitic persecution and oppression, many Jews fled. After the German invasion of Poland in 1939, the Free City was abolished and incorporated into the newly formed Reichsgau of Danzig-West Prussia. Anti-Polish measures followed.
During the city's conquest by the Soviet Army in the early months of 1945, many citizens fled or were killed. After the war, a number of remaining ethnic Germans were expelled. The city subsequently became part of Poland, as a consequence of the Potsdam Agreement, and Polish settlers were brought in to replace the German population.
Tradition of independence and autonomy 
Danzig had a long tradition of city-state independence of its own. It was a leading player in the Prussian Confederation directed against the Teutonic Monastic State of Prussia. The Confederation stipulated with the Polish king, Casimir IV Jagiellon, that the Polish Crown would be invested with the role of head of state of western parts of Prussia (Royal Prussia). In contrast, Ducal Prussia remained a Polish fief. Danzig and other cities such as Elbing and Thorn financed most of the warfare and enjoyed a high level of city autonomy, and Danzig used the title Royal Polish City of Danzig.
In 1569, when Royal Prussia's estates agreed to incorporate the region into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth by way of a real union, the city insisted on preserving its special status within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, went through the costly Siege of Danzig in 1577 in order to preserve special privileges, and subsequently insisted on negotiating its issues by sending emissaries directly to the Polish king.
On 9 September 1807 city became the capital of a semi-independent Client state of the French Empire also known as the Free City of Danzig. It remained independent until it was re-incorporated into the Kingdom of Prussia in 1814.
The Free City of Danzig included the city of Danzig (Gdańsk), the towns of Zoppot (Sopot), Oliva (Oliwa), Tiegenhof (Nowy Dwór Gdański), Neuteich (Nowy Staw) and some 252 villages and 63 hamlets, covering a total area of 1,966 square kilometers (754 sq mi).
Polish rights declared by Treaty of Versailles 
The Free City was to be represented abroad by Poland and was to be in a customs union with it. The German railway line that connected the Free City with newly created Poland was to be administered by Poland, as were all rail lines in the territory of the Free City. On November 9, 1920, a convention that provided for the Presence of a Polish diplomatic representative in Danzig was signed between the Polish government and the Danzig authorities. In article 6, the Polish government undertook not to conclude any international agreements regarding Danzig without previous consultation with the Free City's government.
There was also a separate Polish post office established, besides the existing municipal one.
League of Nations High Commissioners 
Unlike Mandatory territories, which were entrusted to member countries, The Free City of Danzig (like the Territory of the Saar Basin) remained under the authority of the League of Nations itself, with representatives of various countries taking on the role of High Commissioner:
|1||Reginald Thomas Tower||1919–1920||United Kingdom|
|2||Edward Lisle Strutt||1920||United Kingdom|
|4||Richard Cyril Byrne Haking||1921–1923||United Kingdom|
|5||Mervyn Sorley McDonnell||1923–1925||United Kingdom|
|6||Joost Adriaan van Hamel||1925–1929||Netherlands|
|7||Manfredi di Gravina||1929–1932||Italy|
|9||Seán Lester||1934–1936||Irish Free State|
|10||Carl Jakob Burckhardt||1937–1939||Switzerland|
The Free City's population rose from 357,000 (1919) to 408,000 in 1929, according to the official census 95% of whom were Germans,:5, 11 with the rest mainly either Kashubians or Poles. According to E. Cieślak the population registers of the Free City show that in 1929 the Polish population at over thirty five thousand or 9.5% of the population[need quotation to verify]
Henryk Stępniak estimates the Polish population up to around 22,000[when?], or around 6% of the population, increasing to around 13% in the 1930s. Based on the assumed voting patterns (according to Stępniak many Poles voted for the catholic Zentrumspartei instead of Polish parties) Stępniak estimates the number of Poles in the city to be 25–30% of Catholics living within it or about 30–36 thousand people[when?] Including around 4,000 Polish nationals who were registered in the city, Stępniak's estimate of Polish population rises to 9.4–11% of population. In contrast Stefan Samerski estimates about 10 percent of the 130,000 Catholics were Polish[when?]. The Polish population faced significant resentment from the German minority, up to ethnic hatred,[need quotation to verify] and local authorities continued policies of discrimination and oppression against the Poles.
The Treaty of Versailles, which had separated Danzig and surrounding villages from Germany, now required that the newly formed state have its own citizenship, based on residency. German inhabitants lost their German Citizenship with the creation of the Free City, but were given the right to re-obtain it within the first two years of the state's existence; however, if they did so they were required to leave their property and make their residence outside of the Free State of Danzig area in the remaining part of Germany.
In 1924, 54.7% of the populace was Protestant (220,731 persons, mostly Lutherans within the united old-Prussian church), 34.5% was Catholic (140,797 persons), and 2.4% Jewish (9,239 persons); furthermore, there were other Protestants such as 5,604 Mennonites, 1,934 Calvinists (Reformed), 1,093 Baptists, 410 Free Religionists, as well as 2,129 dissenters, 1,394 faithful of other religions and denominations and 664 irreligionists. The Jewish community grew from 2,717 in 1910 to 7,282 in 1923, and 10,448 in 1929, many of them immigrants from Poland and Russia.
Regional Synodal Federation of the Free City of Danzig within the old-Prussian Union 
The mostly Lutheran and partially Reformed congregations situated in the territory of the Free City, which previously used to belong to the Ecclesiastical Province of West Prussia of the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union (EKapU), transformed into the Regional Synodal Federation of the Free City of Danzig after 1920. The executive body of that ecclesiastical province, the consistory (est. 1 November 1886), was seated in Danzig and was restricted after 1920 in its competence to those congregations within the Free City's territory. The consistory was presided by General Superintendent Paul Kalweit (1920–1933) and Bishop Johannes Beermann (1933–1945).
Unlike the Second Polish Republic, which opposed the cooperation of the United Evangelical Church in Poland with EKapU, Volkstag and Senate of Danzig approved cross-border religious bodies so that Danzig's Regional Synodal Federation — just as the regional synodal federation of the autonomous Memelland — retained the status of an ecclesiastical province within EKapU. After the German annexation of the Free City in 1939 the EKapU merged the Danzig regional synodal federation in 1940 into the Ecclesiastical Region of Danzig-West Prussia, also comprising the Polish congregations of the United Evangelical Church in Poland in the homonymous Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia and the German congregations in the West Prussia governorate, with Danzig's consistory functioning as executive body for that region. With the flight and expulsion of most Protestant parishioners from the area of the Free City of Danzig between 1945 and 1948 the congregations vanished.
In March 1945, the consistory had relocated to Lübeck and opened there a rescue centre for Danzigers (Hilfsstelle beim evangelischen Konsistorium Danzig) led by Upper Consistorial Councillor Gerhard M. Gülzow. The Lutheran congregation of St. Mary's Church could relocate its valuable parament collection and the presbytery granted it on loan to St. Annen Museum in Lübeck after the war. Other Lutheran congregations of Danzig could reclaim their church bells, which the Wehrmacht had requisitioned as non-ferrous metal for war purposes since 1940, but which had survived, not yet smelted down, in storages (e.g. Glockenfriedhof) in the British zone of occupation. The presbyteries granted them usually to Northwestern German Lutheran congregations which had lost bells due to the war.
Diocese of Danzig of the Roman Catholic Church 
The 36 Catholic parishes in the territory of the Free City in 1922 used to belong in equal shares to the then mostly Polish Diocese of Culm and the then mostly German Diocese of Ermland. While the Second Polish Republic wanted all the parishes within the Free City to form part of Polish Culm, Volkstag and Senate wanted them all to become subject to German Ermland. The Holy See suspended the jurisdictions of both dioceses over their parishes in the Free State and established an exempt apostolic administration for the territory in 1922.
The first apostolic administrator was Edward O'Rourke who became Bishop of Danzig on the occasion of the elevation of the administration to an exempt diocese. He was naturalised as Danziger on the same occasion. In 1938 he resigned after quarrels with the Nazi-dominated Senate of Danzig on appointments of parish priests of Polish ethnicity. The senate also instigated the denaturalisation of O'Rourke, who subsequently became a Polish citizen. O'Rourke was succeeded by Bishop Carl Maria Splett, a native from the Free City area.
Splett remained bishop after the German annexation of the Free City. In early 1941, he applied for admitting the Danzig diocese as member in Archbishop Adolf Bertram's Eastern German Ecclesiastical Province and thus at the Fulda Conference of Bishops; however, Bertram, also speaker of the Fulda conference, rejected the request. Any arguments that the Free City of Danzig had been annexed to Nazi Germany did not impress Bertram since Danzig's annexation lacked international recognition. Until the reorganisation of the Catholic dioceses in Danzig and the formerly eastern territories of Germany the diocesan territory remained unaltered and the see exempt. However, with the replacement of Danzig's population between 1945 and 1948 by mostly Catholic Poles the number of Catholic parishes increased and most formerly Protestant churches were taken over for Catholic services.
Jewish Danzigers 
Since 1883 most of the Jewish congregations in the later territory of Free State had merged into the Synagogal Community of Danzig. Only the Jews of Tiegenhof ran their own congregation until 1938.
Danzig became a centre of Polish and Russian Jewish emigration to North America. Between 1920 and 1925 60,000 Jews emigrated via Danzig to the US and Canada. At the same time, between 1923 and 1929, Danzig's own Jewish population increased from roughly 7,000 to 10,500. Native Jews and newcomers established themselves in the city and contributed to its civic life, culture and economy. Danzig became a venue for international meetings of Jewish organisations, such as the convention of delegates from Jewish youth organisations of various nations, attended by David Ben-Gurion, which founded the World Union of Jewish Youth on 2 September 1924 in the Schützenhaus venue. On 21 March 1926 the Zionistische Organisation für Danzig convened delegates of Hechalutz from all over for the first conference in Danzig using Hebrew as common language, also attended by Ben Gurion.
With the takeover of a Nazi majority in Volkstag and Senate, anti-Semitic persecution and discrimination occurred unsanctioned by the authorities. In contrast to Germany, which exercised capital outflow control since 1931, emigration of Danzig's Jews was nonetheless somewhat easier, with capital transfer enabled by the Bank of Danzig. Moreover, the comparatively few Danzig Jews were offered easier refuge in safe countries due to favorable Free City migration quotas.
After the anti-Jewish riots of the Kristallnacht of 9/10 November 1938 in Germany, similar riots took place on 12/13 November in Danzig. The Great Synagogue was taken over and demolished by the local authorities in 1939. Most Jews had already left the city and the Jewish Community of Danzig decided to organize its own emigration in early 1939.
|№||Name||Took office||Left office||Party|
|Presidents of the Danzig Senate|
|1||Heinrich Sahm||6 December 1920||10 January 1931||None|
|2||Ernst Ziehm||10 January 1931||20 June 1933||DNVP|
|3||Hermann Rauschning||20 June 1933||23 November 1934||NSDAP|
|4||Arthur Karl Greiser||23 November 1934||23 August 1939||NSDAP|
|5||Albert Forster||23 August 1939||1 September 1939||NSDAP|
The Free City was governed by the Senate of the Free City of Danzig, which was elected by the parliament (Volkstag) for a legislative period of four years. The official language was German, although the usage of Polish was guaranteed by law. The political parties in the Free City corresponded with the political parties in Weimar Germany; the most influential parties in the 1920s were the conservative German National People's Party, the Social Democratic Party of the Free City of Danzig and the Catholic Centre Party. A Communist Party was founded in 1921 with its origins in the Spartacus League and the Communist Party of East Prussia. Several liberal parties and Free Voter's Associations existed and ran in the elections with varying success. A Polish Party represented the Polish minority and received between 3% (1933) and 6% (1920) of the vote (in total, 4,358 votes in 1933 and 9,321 votes in 1920).
Initially, the Nazi Party had only a small amount of success (0.8% of the vote in 1927) and was even briefly dissolved. Its influence grew with the onset of difficult economic times and the increasing popularity of the Nazi Party in Germany proper. Albert Forster became the Gauleiter in October 1930. The Nazis won 50 percent of votes in the Volkstag elections of 28 May 1933, and took control of the Senate in June 1933, with Hermann Rauschning becoming President of the Senate of Danzig.
Rauschning was removed from his position by Forster and replaced by Arthur Greiser in November 1934. He later appealed to the public not to vote for the Nazis in the 1935 elections. Political opposition to the Nazis was repressed with several politicians being imprisoned and murdered. The economic policy of Danzig's Nazi-led government, which increased the public issues for employment-creation programs and the retrenchment of financial aid from Germany led to a devaluation of more than 40% of the Danziger Gulden in 1935. The Gold reserves of the Bank of Danzig declined from 30 million Gulden in 1933 to 13 million in 1935 and the foreign asset reserve from 10 million to 250,000 Gulden. In 1935, Poland protested when Danzig's Senate reduced the value of the Gulden so that it would be the same as the Polish Zloty.
As in Germany, the Nazis introduced an "Enabling Act" and the racialist Nuremberg laws (November 1938); existing parties and unions were gradually banned. The presence of the League of Nations however still guaranteed a minimum of legal certainty. In 1935, the opposition parties, except for the Polish Party, filed a law suit to the Danzig High Court in protest against the manipulation of the Volkstag elections. The opposition also protested to the League of Nations, as did the Jewish Community of Danzig.
German-Polish tensions 
The rights of the Second Polish Republic within the territory of the Free City were stipulated in the Treaty of Paris of 9 November 1920 and the Treaty of Warsaw of 24 October 1921. The details of the Polish privileges soon became a permanent matter of disputes between the local populace and the Polish State. While the representatives of the Free City tried to uphold the City's autonomy and sovereignty, Poland sought to extend its privileges.
Throughout the Polish–Soviet War, local dockworkers went on strike and refused to unload ammunition supplies for the Polish Army. While the ammunition was finally unloaded by British troops, the incident led to the establishment of a permanent ammunition depot at the Westerplatte and the construction of a trade and naval port in Gdynia, whose total exports and imports surpassed those of Danzig in May 1932. In December 1925, the Council of the League of Nations agreed to the establishment of a Polish military guard of 88 men on the Westerplatte peninsula to protect the war material depot.
Several disputes between Danzig and Poland occurred in the sequel. The Free City protested against the Westerplatte depot, the placement of Polish letter boxes within the City and the presence of Polish war vessels at the harbour. The attempt of the Free City to join the International Labour Organization was rejected by the Permanent Court of International Justice at the League of Nations after protests of the Polish ILO delegate.
After Adolf Hitler came to power in Germany, the Polish military doubled the number of troops at Westerplatte breaking international law in order to test the reaction of the new chancellor. After international protests the additional troops were withdrawn. Fears of Polish aggression produced by this and other disputes further stoked by Nazi propaganda would give the local Nazis an absolute majority in the May 1933 Volkstag elections.
Until June 1933, the High Commissioner decided in 66 cases of dispute between Danzig and Poland; in 54 cases one of the parties appealed to the Permanent Court of International Justice. Subsequent disputes were resolved in direct negotiations between the Senate and Poland after both had agreed to abstain from further appeals to the International Court in the summer of 1933 and bilateral agreements were concluded.
In the aftermath of the German-Polish Non-Aggression Pact of 1934, Danzig–Polish relations improved and Adolf Hitler instructed the local Nazi government to cease anti-Polish actions. In return, Poland did not support the actions of the anti-Nazi opposition in Danzig. The Polish Ambassador to Germany, Józef Lipski, stated in a meeting with Hermann Göring:
... that a National Socialist Senate in Danzig is also most desirable from our point of view, since it brought about a rapprochement between the Free City and Poland, I would like to remind him that we have always kept aloof from internal Danzig problems. In spite of approaches repeatedly made by the opposition parties, we rejected any attempt to draw us into action against the Senate. I mentioned quite confidentially that the Polish minority in Danzig was advised not to join forces with the opposition at the time of elections.
When Carl J. Burckhardt became High Commissioner in February 1937, both Poles and Germans openly welcomed his withdrawal, and Polish Minister of Foreign Affairs Józef Beck notified him not to "count on the support of the Polish State" in the case of difficulties with the Senate or the Nazi Party.
While the Senate appeared to respect the agreements with Poland, the "Nazification of Danzig proceeded relentlessly" and Danzig became a springboard for anti-Polish propaganda among the German and Ukrainian minority in Poland. The Catholic Bishop of Danzig, Edward O'Rourke, was forced to withdraw after he had tried to implement four additional Polish nationals as parish priests in October 1937.
The German policy openly changed immediately after the Munich Conference in October 1938, when German Minister of Foreign Affairs Joachim von Ribbentrop demanded the incorporation of the Free City into the Reich. In April 1939, High Commissioner Burckhardt was told by the Polish Commissioner-General that any attempt to alter its status would be answered with armed resistance on the part of Poland.
Second World War and aftermath 
World War II began with the shelling of the Westerplatte on 1 September 1939. Gauleiter Forster entered the High Commissioner's residence and ordered him to leave the City within two hours, and the Free City was formally incorporated into the newly formed Reichsgau of Danzig-West Prussia. Polish civilian Post Office employees had received military training and were in possession of a cache of weapons – mostly pistols, three light machine guns, and some hand grenades – and were thus able to defend the Polish Post Office for fifteen hours. Upon their surrender, they were tried and executed. (The sentence was officially revoked by a German court as illegal in 1998.) The Polish military forces in the city held out until the 7th September.
By the end of the Second World War, nearly all the city had been reduced to ruins. On 30 March 1945, the city was taken by the Red Army. It is estimated that nearly all the pre-war inhabitants were either dead or had fled. A number of inhabitants of the city perished when the evacuation ship Wilhelm Gustloff was sunk. It had up to 10,000 refugees on board at the time, including about 1,000 seriously wounded soldiers and sailors.
At the Yalta Conference in February 1945, the Allies had been unclear as to the fate of the former Free State. At the Potsdam Conference after the end of the war in Europe, they agreed that it would become part of Poland.
By 1950, around 285,000 fled and expelled citizens of the former Free City were living in Germany, and 13,424 citizens of the former Free City had been "verified" and granted Polish citizenship. By 1947, 126,472 Danzigers of German ethnicity were expelled to Germany from Gdańsk, and 101,873 Poles from Central Poland and 26,629 Poles from Soviet-annexed Eastern Poland took their place.
In fiction 
See also 
- Danzig Corridor
- Alfons Flisykowski
- Danzig Research Society
- History of Gdańsk
- Administrations of Danzig before April 1945
- Loew, Peter Oliver (2011-02). Danzig – Biographie einer Stadt (in German). C.H. Beck. p. 189. ISBN 978-3-406-60587-1.
- Samerski, Stefan (2003). Das Bistum Danzig in Lebensbildern (in German). LIT Verlag. p. 8. ISBN 3-8258-6284-4.
- Kaczorowska, Alina (2010-07-21). Public International Law. Routledge. p. 199. ISBN 0-203-84847-0.
- Yale Law School. "The Versailles Treaty June 28, 1919: Part III". The Avalon Project. Retrieved May 3, 2007.
- Chestermann, Simon (2004). You, the People; United Nations, Transitional Administration and State building. Oxford University Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-19-926348-6. Retrieved 2011-04-26.
- Wolne Miasto Gdańsk 1920-1939 page 109 Józef Wójcicki - 1976 Formalnie tylko działali oni według nowych praw Wolnego Miasta, a faktycznie według starych pruskich zarządzeń. Stosowali też jak dawniej wobec ludności polskiej metody ucisku i germanizacji jedynie z tą różnicą, że nie tak otwarcie
- Studia Polonijne - Volumes 22-23 - Page 239 2001 -
- Matull, Wilhelm (1973). "Ostdeutschlands Arbeiterbewegung: Abriß ihrer Geschichte, Leistung und Opfer" (in German). Holzner. p. 419.
- Text in League of Nations Treaty Series, vol. 6, pp. 190–207.
- "Danzig subsection of Poland entry from World Statesmen.org".
- Mason, John Brown (1946). The Danzig Dilemma, A Study in Peacemaking by Compromise. Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-2444-9. Retrieved 2011-04-26.
- Cieślak, E Biernat, C (1995) History of Gdánsk, Fundacji Biblioteki Gdanskiej, P455
- Zapiski historyczne: Volume 60, page 256, Towarzystwo Naukowe w Toruniu. Wydział Nauk Historycznych – 1995
- Ludność polska w Wolnym Mieście Gdańsku, 1920–1939, page 37, Henryk Stępniak, Wydawnictwo "Stella Maris", 1991"Przyjmując, że Polacy gdańscy stanowili 25 — 30% ogólnej liczby ludności katolickiej Wolnego Miasta Gdańska, liczącej w 1920 r. około 110 000 osób, można ustalić, że w liczbach bezwzględnych stanowiło można ustalić, że w liczbach bezwzględnych stanowiło to 30- – 36 tyś. osób. Jeśli do liczby tej dodamy ok. 4 tyś. ludności obywatelstwa polskiego, otrzymamy łącznie ok. 9,4–11% ogółu ludności."
- Samerski, Stefan (2003). Das Bistum Danzig in Lebensbildern (in German). LIT Verlag. p. 8. ISBN 3-8258-6284-4.
- Mit Gdańska, mit Grassa Zdzisław Krasnodębski 03-10-2007, Rzeczpospolita
- Die Freie Stadt Danzig(German)
- Dr. Juergensen, Die freie Stadt Danzig, Danzig: Kafemann, 1925.
- Bacon, Gershon C.; Vivian B. Mann, Joseph Gutmann, Jewish Museum (New York, N.Y.) (1980). Danzig Jewry:A short History. Jewish Museum (New York). p. 31. ISBN 978-0-8143-1662-7.
- While those congregations in Polish-annexed West Prussia (Pomeranian Voivodeship) merged into the new United Evangelical Church in Poland, which emerged from the old-Prussian Posen ecclesiastical province, with its consistory seated in Poznań.
- In June 1922 the Senate of Danzig and the old-Prussian executive body, the Evangelical Supreme Ecclesiastical Council (Evangelischer Oberkirchenrat, EOK) concluded a contract to that end. Cf. Adalbert Erler, Die rechtliche Stellung der evangelischen Kirche in Danzig, Berlin: 1929, simultaneously Univ. of Greifswald, Department of Law and Politics, doctor thesis of 21 February 1929, pp. 36 seqq.
- Georg May. Ludwig Kaas: der Priester, der Politiker und der Gelehrte aus der Schule von Ulrich Stutz. John Benjamins Publishing. p. 175. ISBN 978-90-6032-197-3.
- Samerski, Stefan; Reimund Haas, Karl Josef Rivinius, Hermann-Josef Scheidgen (2000). Ein aussichtsloses Unternehmen – Die Reaktivierung Bischof Eduard Graf O’Rourkes 1939 (in German). Böhlau Verlag Köln Weimar. p. 378. ISBN 3-412-04100-9.
- Hans-Jürgen Karp; Joachim Köhler (2001). Katholische Kirche unter nationalsozialistischer und kommunistischer Diktatur: Deutschland und Polen 1939–1989. Böhlau Verlag Köln Weimar. p. 162. ISBN 978-3-412-11800-6.
- *Ruhnau, Rüdiger (1971). Danzig: Geschichte einer Deutschen Stadt (in German). Holzner Verlag. p. 94.
- Sodeikat, Ernst (1966). "Der Nationalsozialismus und die Danziger Opposition" (in German). Institut für Zeitgeschichte. p. 139 ff.
- Grass, Günther; Mann, Vivian B.; Gutmann, Joseph; Vivian B. Mann, Joseph Gutmann, Jewish Museum (New York, N.Y.) (1980). Danzig 1939, treasures of a destroyed community. The Yewish Museum, New York. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-8143-1662-7.
- Gdansk at the Jewish Virtual Library.
- Lemkin, Raphael (2008-06-30). Axis Rule in Occupied Europe. The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. p. 155. ISBN 978-1-58477-901-8.
- (German) Constitution of Danzig
- Matull, "Ostdeutschlands Arbeiterbewegung", p. 419.
- (German) Die Freie Stadt Danzig, Wahlen 1919–1935
- Ratner, Steven R. (1995-02-15). The new UN peacekeeping. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 94. ISBN 0-312-12415-5.
- Sodeikat, p.170, p. 173, Fn.92
- Matull, "Ostdeutschlands Arbeiterbewegung", p. 440, 450.
- Burckhardt, Carl Jakob. Meine Danziger Mission (in German). p. 39.
Lichtenstein, Erwin (1973). Die Juden der Freien Stadt Danzig unter der Herrschaft des Nationalsozialismus (in German). p. 44.
- Loew, Peter Oliver (2011-02). Danzig – Biographie einer Stadt (in German). C.H. Beck. p. 206. ISBN 978-3-406-60587-1.
- Loose, Ingo (2007). Kredite für NS-Verbrechen (in German). Institut für Zeitgeschichte. p. 33. ISBN 978-3-486-58331-1.
- Andrzejewski, Marek (1994). Opposition und Widerstand in Danzig (in German). Dietz. p. 99. ISBN 9783801240547.
- Cieslak, Edmund; Biernat, Czeslaw (1995). History of Gdańsk. Fundacji Biblioteki Gdánskiej. p. 454. ISBN 9788386557004.
- Matull, "Ostdeutschlands Arbeiterbewegung", pp. 417, 418.
- Intelligence Service Economic Intelligence Service (2007-03-01). Commercial Banks 1929–1934. League of Nations. p. LXXXIX. ISBN 978-1-4067-5963-1. More than one of
- Schwartze-Köhler, Hannelore (2009-06). "Die Blechtrommel" von Günter Grass:Bedeutung, Erzähltechnik und Zeitgeschichte (in German). Frank & Timme GmbH. p. 396. ISBN 978-3-86596-237-9.
- Kreutzberger, Max (1970). Leo Baeck Institute New York Bibliothek und Archiv (in German). Mohr Siebeck. p. 67. ISBN 978-3-16-830772-3.
- Bacon, Gershon C. "Danzig Jewry: A Short History". Jewish Virtual Library.
- Hannum, Hurst (2011-10-12). Autonomy, Sovereignty and Self-Determination. University of Pennsylvania. p. 375. ISBN 978-0-8122-1572-4.
- Stahn, Carsten (2008-05-22). The Law and Practice of International Territorial Administration. Cambridge University Press. p. 173 ff, 177. ISBN 978-0-521-87800-5.
- Hutt, Alan (2006-05-30). The Post-War history of the British Working Class. READ BOOKS. p. 38. ISBN 978-1-4067-9826-5.
- Buell, Raymond Leslie (2007-03-31). Poland – Key to Europe. READ BOOKS. p. 159. ISBN 978-1-4067-4564-1.
- Eugene van Cleef, "Danzig and Gdynia," Geographical Review, Vol. 23, No. 1. (Jan., 1933): 106.
- Cieślak, E Biernat, C (1995) History of Gdańsk, Fundacji Biblioteki Gdanskiej. p. 436
- By a decision of the League Council in December 1925, the guard which the Poles were entitled to maintain on this spot [Westerplatte peninsula] was limited to 88 men, though the number might be increased with the consent of the High Commissioner. Geoffrey Malcolm Gathorne-Hardy. A Short History of International Affairs, 1920 to 1934. Royal institute of international affairs (1934). Oxford University Press. p. 384.
- worldcourts.com PCIJ, Advisory Opinion No. 11
- worldcourts.com PCIJ, Advisory Opinion No. 22
- worldcourts.com PCIJ, Advisory Opinion No. 18
- Lauterpacht, H (1936). "International Law Reports 1929–1930". Advisory Opinion No 18: Free City of Danzig and International Labour Organization on August 26, 1930, Collection of Advisory Opinions: Free City of Danzig and International Labour Organization, No. 18 Series B File F (1930) (H. Lauterpacht). ISBN 978-0-521-46350-8. Retrieved 2009-08-30.
- Hargreaves, R (2010) Blitzkrieg Unleashed: The German Invasion of Poland, 1939 P31-2
- Epstein, C (2012) Model Nazi: Arthur Greiser and the Occupation of Western Poland, Oxford University Press P58
- Hurst Hannum, p. 377.
- Schlochauer, Hans J.; Krüger, Herbert; Mosler, Hermann (1960-05-01). Wörterbuch des Völkerrechts; Aachener Kongress – Hussar Fall (in German). de Gruyter Verlag. pp. 307, 309. ISBN 978-3-11-001030-5.
- Hiden, John; Lane, Thomas; Prazmowska, Anita J. (1992). The Baltic and the Outbreak of the Second World War. Cambridge University Press. p. 74 ff, 80. ISBN 0-521-40467-3.
- Prazmowska, p. 80.
- Prazmowska, p. 81.
- Prazmowska, p. 85.
- Prazmowska, p. 83.
- Wasserstein, Bernard (2007). Barbarism and Civilization. Oxford University Press. p. 279. ISBN 978-0-19-873074-3.
- Woodward, E.L., Butler, Rohan, Orde, Anne, editors, Documents on British Foreign Policy 1919–1939, 3rd series, vol.v, HMSO, London, 1952:25
- Bleimeier, John Kuhn (1990-03-01). Hague Yearbook of International Law. Martinus Nijhoff Publ. p. 91. ISBN 0-7923-0655-4.
- Dieter Schenk (1995). Die Post von Danzig: Geschichte eines deutschen Justizmords. p. 150. ISBN 3-498-06288-3.
- Dieter Schenk, Die Post von Danzig
- Bykowska, Sylwia (2005). "Gdańsk – Miasto (Szybko) Odzyskane". Biuletyn Instytutu Pamięci Narodowej (in Polish) 9–10 (56–57): 35–44. ISSN 1641-9561. Retrieved 2009-07-24.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Free City of Danzig|
- Extensive Prussian/ Danzig Historical Materials (many in German)
- Map of the Free City
- Jewish community history
- History of Gdańsk / Danzig
- Danzig Online
- Gdańsk history
- Celebration of Gdańsk's centenary in 1997
- History & Hallucination, Wanderlust, Salon.com, January 5, 1998.
- The power of Gdansk
- 1933 Danzig passport, from passportland.com.
- First hand account of growing up in Danzig in the 1930s, a video interview.