Free State of Prussia

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Free State of Prussia
Freistaat Preußen
State of Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany

1918–1947
Flag Coat of arms
Motto
Gott mit uns
"God with us"
The Free State of Prussia in 1925.
Capital Berlin
Languages German
Government Free State
Reichsstatthalter
 -  1933–1935 Adolf Hitler
 -  1935–1945 Hermann Göring
Minister-President
 -  1918 Friedrich Ebert (first)
 -  1933–1945 Hermann Göring (last)
Legislature State Diet
 -  Upper Chamber State Council
 -  Lower Chamber House of Representatives
Historical era Interwar/World War II
 -  German Revolution 9 November 1918
 -  Constitution adopted 30 November 1920
 -  Preußenschlag 20 July 1932
 -  Machtergreifung 30 January 1933
 -  Reichsstatthaltergesetz 30 January 1935
 -  Formally abolished 25 February 1947
Area
 -  1925[1] 292,695.36 km² (113,010 sq mi)
Population
 -  1925[1] est. 38,175,986 
     Density 130.4 /km²  (337.8 /sq mi)
Currency Papiermark (ℳ),
(1918–1923)
Rentenmark (ℛℳ),
(1923–1924)
Reichsmark (ℛℳ)
(1924–1945)

The Free State of Prussia (German: Freistaat Preußen) was a German state formed after the abolition of the Kingdom of Prussia in the aftermath of World War I. It was the major state of the German Reich during the time of the Weimar Republic, comprising almost 58 (62.5%) of its territory and population.[1] Free state is another German term for republic that was coined in contrast to the Latin word, which was associated with the enemy France in the minds of many Germans of that time.

The democratic Free State of Prussia was rendered incapacitated when it was taken over by the Preußenschlag (Prussian coup) of 1932–1933 and Otto Braun was forced from office. His government went to court over this ouster, but in 1933 the Nazi regime seized control of the Prussian government.

From 1933, the Free State was deprived of parliamentary democracy and ruled exclusively under the leadership of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party). Initially, Prussia was administered by high-ranking Nazi Hermann Göring who was appointed Minister-President of Prussia. In 1935, the Free State's territory was dismantled into regional Gaue, some of which incorporated both Prussian and non-Prussian territory, thus effectively ending Prussia as a single territorial unit of Germany. Although the Free State of Prussia continued to exist in name under the premiership of Hermann Göring throughout the Nazi era, by 1935 the Prussian government had been effectively absorbed by the government of the German Reich and Göring's position as Minister-President had been relegated to a titular role in comparison to his more prominent duties in the government of the Third Reich.

After the end of World War II Otto Braun approached US officials to reinstate the legal Prussian government. They and the other Allied Occupation forces, who had occupied all of Germany, were opposed to the idea and declared Prussia abolished in 1947.

History of Prussia after 1918[edit]

Main article: History of Prussia

1918: Aftermath of World War I[edit]

Except for its overseas colonies and Alsace-Lorraine and the Bavarian parts of the Saargebiet, all German territorial losses as a result of World War I were Prussian losses. As specified in the Treaty of Versailles, the former kingdom lost territory to Belgium (Eupen and Malmedy), Denmark (North Schleswig), Lithuania (Memel Territory) and Czechoslovakia (the Hultschin area). The Saargebiet was administered by the League of Nations. The Rhine Province became a demilitarised zone.

The bulk of Prussia's losses were to Poland, including most of the provinces of Posen and West Prussia, and an eastern section of Silesia. Danzig was placed under the administration of the League of Nations as the Free City of Danzig. These losses separated East Prussia from the rest of the country, now only accessible by rail through the Polish corridor or by sea.

Even with these losses, Prussia was still far and away the largest state of the Reich, with more territory and people than the other states combined. The government initially considered breaking Prussia up into smaller and more manageable states, but eventually traditionalist sentiment prevailed and Prussia continued unchanged, apart from its territorial losses.

1918–1932: Democratic bastion[edit]

For most of the first 400 years of its existence, Prussia had been synonymous with oligarchy and militarism. In contrast, during the Weimar Republic Prussia was a pillar of democracy. The restrictive Prussian three-class franchise was abolished shortly after Kaiser William II abdicated. Power now passed from the Junker landowners and great industrialists to "Red Berlin" and the industrialised Ruhr Area – both with working-class majorities. Prussia now became a stronghold of the left.

From 1919 to 1932, Prussia was governed by a coalition of the Social Democrats, Catholic Centre, and German Democrats; from 1921 to 1925, coalition governments included the German People's Party. Unlike in other states of the German Reich, majority rule by democratic parties in Prussia was never endangered. Nevertheless, in East Prussia and some industrial areas, the National Socialist German Workers Party (or Nazi Party) of Adolf Hitler gained more and more influence and popular support, especially from the lower middle class.

Otto Braun, a Social Democrat from East Prussia, served as Prussian minister-president almost continuously from 1920 to 1932. A capable leader, he implemented several trend-setting reforms together with his minister of the interior, Carl Severing, which were also models for the later Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). For instance, a Prussian minister-president could be forced out of office only if there was a "positive majority" for a potential successor. This concept, known as the constructive vote of no confidence, was carried over into the Basic Law of the FRG. Largely because of this provision, the centre-left coalition was able to stay in office because neither the far left nor the far right could possibly put together a majority.

1932: Prussian coup[edit]

Main article: Preußenschlag

All of this changed on 20 July 1932 with the Preußenschlag ("Prussian coup"), where Reich Chancellor Franz von Papen unseated the democratic Free State of Prussia government under Otto Braun under the pretext that it had lost control of public order. This was triggered by a shootout between SA demonstrators and communists in Altona, Hamburg (Altona Bloody Sunday; Altona was still a part of Prussia at that time). After this emergency decree, Papen appointed himself Reich Commissioner for Prussia and took control of the government. This made it easy for Adolf Hitler to assume control over Prussia in the following year.

Otto Braun's government filed suit in the courts, but the cases remained unresolved due to the war and the subsequent Allied occupation and partition of Germany.

Establishment of Nazi rule in Prussia[edit]

Main article: Machtergreifung

On 30 January 1933, Hitler had been appointed chancellor of Germany. As part of the deal, Papen was formally appointed minister-president of Prussia in addition to his role as Vice Chancellor of the Reich. In a little-noticed appointment, Hitler's top lieutenant Hermann Göring became the state's interior minister.

Four weeks later (27 February 1933), the Reichstag was set on fire. At Hitler's urging, President Paul von Hindenburg issued the Reichstag Fire Decree, which suspended civil liberties in Germany. Six days after the fire, the Reichstag election of 5 March 1933 strengthened the position of the Nazi Party, although they did not achieve an absolute majority. However, with their coalition partners, the German National People's Party, Hitler now commanded a bare majority in the Reichstag. Göring figured prominently in this election, as he was commander of the largest police force in the Reich. His police beat and harassed the other parties (especially the Communists and Social Democrats), and only allowed the Nazis and Nationalists to campaign relatively unmolested.

The new Reichstag was opened in the Garrison Church of Potsdam on 21 March 1933 in the presence of President Paul von Hindenburg, who had long since descended into senility. In a propaganda-filled meeting between Hitler and the NSDAP, the "marriage of old Prussia with young Germany" was celebrated, to win over the Prussian monarchists, conservatives, and nationalists and induce them to vote for the Enabling Act. The act was passed on 23 March 1933, legally granting Hitler dictatorial powers.

In April 1933, Papen was visiting the Vatican. The Nazis took advantage of his absence and appointed Göring in his place. With this act, Hitler was able to take power decisively in Germany, since he now had the whole apparatus of the Prussian government, including the police, at his disposal. By 1934 almost all Prussian ministries had been merged with the corresponding Reich ministries.

Dismantlement of Prussia[edit]

In the centralized state created by the Nazis in the "Law on the Reconstruction of the Reich" ("Gesetz über den Neuaufbau des Reiches", 30 January 1934) and the "Law on Reich Governors" ("Reichsstatthaltergesetz", 30 January 1935) the States and Provinces of Prussia were dissolved, in fact if not in law. The federal state governments were now controlled by governors for the Reich who were appointed by the Chancellor. Parallel to that, the organization of the party into districts (Gau) gained increasing importance, as official in charge of a Gau (the infamous Gauleiter) was again appointed by the Chancellor who was at the same time chief of the NSDAP. Hitler appointed himself formally as Governor of Prussia, although his functions were exercised by Göring.

The leadership positions of Reichsstatthalter and Minister-President which were both held by Hermann Göring continued to exist but were subservient to the Nazi regime. Some changes were still made to Prussian provinces after this time. For example, the Greater Hamburg Act of 1937 transferred some territory from the provinces of Hanover and Schleswig-Holstein to Hamburg while at the same time annexing Hamburgian Geesthacht and the Hanseatic City of Lübeck to Schleswig-Holstein as well as Hamburgian Cuxhaven to the Province of Hanover. Other redeployments took place in 1939, involving cessions of Prusso-Hanoveran suburban municipalities to Bremen and in return the annexation of Bremian Bremerhaven to the Province of Hanover. Also Hanoveran Wilhelmshaven was ceded to Oldenburg. In 1942 redeployments involved the provinces of Saxony and Hanover and the Brunswick.

The Prussian lands transferred to Poland after the Treaty of Versailles were reannexed during World War II. However, most of this territory was not reintegrated back into Prussia but assigned to separate Gaue of the Nazi Germany.

Formal dissolution[edit]

Main article: Abolition of Prussia

With the end of National Socialist rule in 1945 came the division of Germany into Zones of Occupation, and the transfer of control of everything east of the Oder-Neisse line to other countries. As was the case after World War I, almost all of this territory had been Prussian territory (a small portion of the land east of the revised border had belonged to Saxony). Most of the land went to Poland and the northern third of East Prussia, including Königsberg, now Kaliningrad was annexed by the Soviet Union. The losses represented nearly two-fifths of Prussian territory and nearly a quarter of territory within Germany's pre-1938 borders. An estimated ten million Germans fled or were forcibly expelled from these territories as part of the German exodus from Eastern Europe.

What remained of Prussia comprised both a little over half of the remaining German territory and a little over half of Prussia's pre-1914 territory. In Law No. 46 of 25 February 1947, the Allied Control Council formally proclaimed the dissolution of the Prussian state.[2] Although the Allies cited Prussia's history of militarism as their main justification for dissolving Prussia, its continued existence would have proven impractical following the onset of the Cold War and that conflict's division of Germany.

Government[edit]

Unlike its authoritarian pre-war predecessor, Prussia was a promising democracy within Germany. The abolition of the aristocracy transformed Prussia into a region strongly dominated by the left wing of the political spectrum, with "Red Berlin" and the industrial centre of the Ruhr Area exerting a major influence. During this period, a coalition of centre-left parties ruled, predominantly under the leadership of East Prussian Social Democrat Otto Braun. While in office he implemented several reforms together with his Minister of the Interior, Carl Severing, which were also models for the later Federal Republic of Germany. For instance, a Prussian prime minister could only be forced out of office if there was a "positive majority" for a potential successor[citation needed]. This concept, known as the constructive vote of no confidence, was carried over into the Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany. Most historians regard the Prussian government during this time as far more successful than that of Germany as a whole.

Similar to other German states both now and at the time, executive power was continued to be vested in a Minister-President of Prussia and laws established by a Landtag elected by the people.

Ministers-President of the Free State of Prussia[edit]

# Name Took office Left office Party
1 Friedrich Ebert 9 November 1918 11 November 1918 SPD
2 Paul Hirsch 11 November 1918 27 March 1920 SPD
3 Otto Braun 27 March 1920 21 April 1921 SPD
4 Adam Stegerwald 21 April 1921 5 November 1921 Centre
Otto Braun 5 November 1921 18 February 1925 SPD
5 Wilhelm Marx 18 February 1925 6 April 1925 Centre
Otto Braun 6 April 1925 20 July 1932a SPD
Position administered by the Reichskommissar between 20 July 1932 and 30 January 1933
6 Franz von Papen 30 January 1933 10 April 1933 Independent
7 Hermann Göring 10 April 1933 24 April 1945 NSDAP
a. Ousted during the Preußenschlag; formally deposed on 30 January 1933.

Subdivisions of Prussia[edit]

Main article: Provinces of Prussia
The provinces of the Free State of Prussia in 1920, before the formation of the separate province of Berlin.


Effects of World War I[edit]

East 
The Memel Region of East Prussia was ceded to Lithuania. The remainder of province of Silesia that was not ceded to Poland and Czechoslovakia was split into the provinces of Upper Silesia and Lower Silesia in 1919 – although they were temporarily recombined (1938–1941).
North 
In the province of Schleswig-Holstein, Allied powers organised two plebiscites in Northern and Central Schleswig on 10 February and 14 March 1920, respectively. In Northern Schleswig 75% voted for reunification with Denmark and 25% for staying with Germany, this new addition to Denmark formed the counties of Aabenraa, Haderslev, Sønderborg, and Tønder, from 1970 to 2007 this ceded areas were merged in South Jutland County. In Central Schleswig the situation was reversed with 80% voting for Germany and 20% for Denmark. No vote ever took place in the southern third of Schleswig.
West 
The southern tip of the Rhine Province was placed under French administration as the Saar by the League of Nations. The Eupen and Malmedy regions in the west of the Rhine Province were ceded to Belgium, forming the region that contains the German-speaking community of Belgium.

Changes prior to the Nazi regime[edit]

In 1920, the Greater Berlin Act was passed to create Greater Berlin, enlarging the Prussian capital at the expense of Brandenburg, from which Berlin had been separated in 1881.[3] The Greater Berlin Act effectively enlarged the size of the city 13-fold, and its borders are largely maintained by the modern German state of Berlin.

The remainder of the provinces of Posen and West Prussia were combined to form Posen-West Prussia in 1922.

Post-war dismemberment[edit]

After the Allied occupation of Germany in 1945, the provinces of Prussia were split up into the following territories/German states:

Ceded to the Soviet Union 
The northern third of East Prussia. Today, the Kaliningrad Oblast is a Russian exclave between Lithuania and Poland.
Ceded to Poland 
Everything east of the Oder-Neisse line plus Stettin. This amounted to most of Silesia, Eastern Pomerania, the Neumark region of Brandenburg, all of Posen-West Prussia, and the remainder of East Prussia not ceded to Russia.
Placed under Soviet administration 
The following states, after merging with other German states, were formed after the war, then abolished in 1952 and finally recreated following the reunification of Germany in 1990:
Placed under Allied administration 
The remainder of Prussia was merged with other German states to become the following states of West Germany:
Berlin 
Divided into East Berlin under Soviet administration and West Berlin under Allied sectors of administration (British, French and American). West Berlin was surrounded by East Germany and ultimately was enclosed by the Berlin Wall. The two-halves were reunited after German reunification to form the modern German state of Berlin. A proposal to merge Berlin with the reformed state of Brandenburg was rejected by popular vote in 1996.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Beckmanns Welt-Lexikon und Welt-Atlas. Leipzig / Vienna: Verlagsanstalt Otto Beckmann. 1931. 
  2. ^ "Council Control Law 46: Abolition of the State of Prussia". 25 February 1947. 
  3. ^ On 1 April 1881 Berlin was disentangled from the province of Brandenburg. Consisting of the mere one city of Berlin its lord mayor (German: Oberbürgermeister) fulfilled in personal union the task of the Landesdirektor and the city council the role of the provincial committee. While the role of the upper president was taken by the Prussian government-appointed chief of police (German: Polizeipräsident in Berlin). Cf. Meyers großes Konversations-Lexikon: 20 vols. – completely rev. and ext. ed., Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut, 1903–08, here vol. 2, article 'Berlin', p 700. No ISBN