In mathematics, a supermodule is a Z2-graded module over a superring or superalgebra. Supermodules arise in super linear algebra which is a mathematical framework for studying the concept supersymmetry in theoretical physics.
Supermodules over a commutative superalgebra can be viewed as generalizations of super vector spaces over a (purely even) field K. Supermodules often play a more prominent role in super linear algebra than do super vector spaces. These reason is that it is often necessary or useful to extend the field of scalars to include odd variables. In doing so one moves from fields to commutative superalgebras and from vector spaces to modules.
such that multiplication by elements of A satisfies
for all i and j in Z2. The subgroups Ei are then right A0-modules.
The elements of Ei are said to be homogeneous. The parity of a homogeneous element x, denoted by |x|, is 0 or 1 according to whether it is in E0 or E1. Elements of parity 0 are said to be even and those of parity 1 to be odd. If a is a homogeneous scalar and x is a homogeneous element of E then |x·a| is homogeneous and |x·a| = |x| + |a|.
Likewise, left supermodules and superbimodules are defined as left modules or bimodules over A whose scalar multiplications respect the gradings in the obvious manner. If A is supercommutative, then every left or right supermodule over A may be regarded as a superbimodule by setting
for homogeneous elements a ∈ A and x ∈ E, and extending by linearity. If A is purely even this reduces to the ordinary definition.
is a supermodule homomorphism if
for all a∈A and all x,y∈E. The set of all module homomorphisms from E to F is denoted by Hom(E, F).
In many cases, it is necessary or convenient to consider a larger class of morphisms between supermodules. Let A be a supercommutative algebra. Then all supermodules over A be regarded as superbimodules in a natural fashion. For supermodules E and F, let Hom(E, F) denote the space of all right A-linear maps (i.e. all module homomorphisms from E to F considered as ungraded right A-modules). There is a natural grading on Hom(E, F) where the even homomorphisms are those that preserve the grading
and the odd homomorphisms are those that reverse the grading
If φ ∈ Hom(E, F) and a ∈ A are homogeneous then
That is, the even homomorphisms are both right and left linear whereas the odd homomorphism are right linear but left antilinear (with respect to the grading automorphism).
The set Hom(E, F) can be given the structure of a bimodule over A by setting
With the above grading Hom(E, F) becomes a supermodule over A whose even part is the set of all ordinary supermodule homomorphisms
In the language of category theory, the class of all supermodules over A forms a category with supermodule homomorphisms as the morphisms. This category is a symmetric monoidal closed category under the super tensor product whose internal Hom functor is given by Hom.
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- Manin, Y. I. (1997). Gauge Field Theory and Complex Geometry ((2nd ed.) ed.). Berlin: Springer. ISBN 3-540-61378-1.
- Varadarajan, V. S. (2004). Supersymmetry for Mathematicians: An Introduction. Courant Lecture Notes in Mathematics 11. American Mathematical Society. ISBN 0-8218-3574-2.