Freedom from Fear (painting)
Freedom from Fear is the last of the well-known Four Freedoms oil paintings produced by the American artist Norman Rockwell. The series was based on the four goals called the Four Freedoms enunciated by the President of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt in his State of the Union Address delivered on January 6, 1941. This work from the series was published in the March 13, 1943 issue of The Saturday Evening Post alongside an essay by a prominent thinker of the day Stephen Vincent Benét. The painting is generally described as depicting the American children being tucked in by their parents during the The Blitz.
Freedom from Fear is the last of a series of four oil paintings entitled, Four Freedoms painted by Norman Rockwell. The works were inspired by the United States President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, in a State of the Union Address, known as Four Freedoms, delivered to the 77th United States Congress on January 6, 1941. The Four Freedoms' theme was eventually incorporated into the Atlantic Charter, and it became part of the charter of the United Nations. The series of paintings ran in The Saturday Evening Post accompanied by essays from noted writers on four consecutive weeks: Freedom of Speech (February 20), Freedom of Worship (February 27), Freedom from Want (March 6) and Freedom from Fear (March 13). Eventually, the series became widely distributed in poster form and became instrumental in the U. S. Government's Second War Bond Drive.
The Blitz was a period of sustained strategic bombing of the United Kingdom by Germany during the Second World War. Between 7 September 1940 and 21 May 1941 there were major aerial raids on 16 British cities. Starting on 7 September 1940, London was bombed by the Luftwaffe for 57 consecutive nights. More than one million London houses were destroyed or damaged, and more than 40,000 civilians were killed, almost half of them in London.
The painting shows children resting safely in their beds, not knowing about the perils of this world, as their parents look on. The mother is tucking them in while the father holds a newspaper describing the horrors of war, but his attention is fully on his children and not the alarming stories. Although the painting is generally described as depicting American children being tucked in by their parents, the children are already asleep. The parents are checking in on them in their shared narrow bed before they themselves turn in for the night. The mother is seen adjusting the bed sheet. The father appears as the "classic Rockwell onlooker" who serves as a viewer within the painting. Since he is holding his glasses, we assume he has finished reading the Bennington Banner in his hand. The newspaper's headline reads "Bombings Ki ... Horror Hit", referencing the Blitz. In the background is a lit hallway and a stairway connecting it to the first floor.
According to Rockwell, who did not really care much for the work, the theme "was based on a rather smug idea. Painted during the bombing of London, it was supposed to say, 'Thank God we can put our children to bed with a feeling of security, knowing they will not be killed in the night'".
The models for the work were Jim Martin, Mrs. Edgar Lawrence (Dorothy), and two children of Rockwell's carpenter Walt Squires, all neighbors of Rockwell in Arlington, Vermont. At Rockwell's request, the Bennington Banner produced a dummy edition to use for this work. Freedom from Fear was published in the March 13, 1943 Issue of The Saturday Evening Post with a matching essay by Stephen Vincent Benét as part of the Four Freedoms series. Coincidentally, the day it was published, poet, novelist, and short-story writer Benét passed away.
This painting is the only one of the Four Freedoms which had been newly created prior to the commissioning of the series. It had originally been created to depict the Battle of Britain, but went unpublished by The Saturday Evening Post. The United States Department of the Treasury toured Rockwell's Four Freedoms paintings around the country after their publication in 1943. The Four Freedoms Tour raised over $130,000,000 in war bond sales. Rockwell's Four Freedoms paintings were also reproduced as commemorative covers for postage stamps sold during the War Bond shows.
The scene has been described as overly intimate. Both the arrangement of the furniture and the lighting contribute to this intimacy. Deborah Solomon describes the scene as having "some of the feeling of a French interior, with lovely haut-art touches. Bruce Cole of The Wall Street Journal stated "This reference to the war is so specific that it conveys little about fear or Roosevelt's plan for universal disarmament. Rockwell just could not get his hands around these airy abstractions."
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- Richards 1954, p. 217.
- Solomon, p. 210.
- Murray and McCabe
- Meyer, p. 133.
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- Murray and McCabe, p. 62.
- Hennessey and Knutson, p. 102
- Claridge, p. 313.
- Cole, Bruce (2009-10-10). "Free Speech Personified: Norman Rockwell's inspiring and enduring painting". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2013-12-31.
- Claridge, Laura (2001). "21: The Big Ideas". Norman Rockwell: A Life. Random House. pp. 303–314. ISBN 0-375-50453-2.
- Hennessey, Maureen Hart and Anne Knutson (1999). "The Four Freedoms". Norman Rockwell: Pictures for the American People. Harry N. Abrams, Inc. with High Museum of Art and Norman Rockwell Museum. pp. 94–102. ISBN 0-8109-6392-2.
- Meyer, Susan E. (1981). Norman Rockwell's People. Harry N. Abrams. pp. 128–133. ISBN 0-8109-1777-7.
- Richards, Denis. Royal Air Force 1939–1945: Volume I The Fight at Odds. London: HMSO, 1953. (No ISBN)
- Solomon, Deborah (2013). "Fifteen: The Four Freedoms (May 1942 to May 1943)". American Mirror: The Life and Art of Norman Rockwell. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. pp. 201–220. ISBN 978-0-374-11309-4.
- Full text and audio of the Four Freedoms speech. An excerpt of the Four Freedoms section is also available.
- Full text of the Four Freedoms speech.