Freedom of the City of Dublin

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The Freedom of the City of Dublin is awarded by Dublin City Council after approving a person nominated by the Lord Mayor. Eighty people have been honoured under the current process introduced in 1876. Most honorees have made a contribution to the life of the city or of Ireland in general, including politicians, public servants, humanitarians, artists and entertainers; others were distinguished members of the Irish diaspora and foreign leaders, honoured visiting Dublin. Honorees sign the roll of freedmen in a ceremony at City Hall or the Mansion House and are presented with an illuminated scroll by the Lord Mayor.

Ancient privileges and duties[edit]

In ancient boroughs such as Dublin, a royal charter established the privileges of the "burgesses" (or "citizens" in places like Dublin with city status). Admission as a freeman or citizen was by principally granted to members of the guilds represented on Dublin Corporation and others by "special grace", as well as by marriage or descent from existing citizens. The wealthy could buy freedom by paying a "fine", and some of the penal laws facilitated Protestant immigrants' becoming freemen.[1][2]

Ancient charters were superseded for municipal governance purposes by the Municipal Corporations (Ireland) Act 1840 and for all other non-ceremonial purposes by the Local Government Act 2001.[3] Nevertheless, ancient privileges and duties of freemen are sometimes cited in relation to the modern award. Rights included:[4]

Freedmen had a duty to defend the city and could be called into the militia at short notice.[4] In 1454, apprentices to be admitted freemen needed a bow and sword, while merchants additionally needed a coat of mail and helmet.[4][7][8]

Honorary Freedom[edit]

While the Representation of the People Act 1918 abolished the franchise rights of freemen, the Municipal Privileges Ireland Act 1876 allowed the creation of "Honorary Freemen".[1] This was retained by Local Government Act 1991[9] and currently the Local Government Act 2001.[10][1]

Recipients of the Freedom of Dublin since the Municipal Privileges Ireland Act 1876[11]
No.
[fn 1]
Name Resolution Signature Country[fn 2] Field Notes
1 Butt , IsaacIsaac Butt 4 September 1876 16 October 1876 Ireland Politics
2 Gladstone , William EwartWilliam Ewart Gladstone 1 November 1877 7 November 1877 England Politics
3 Grant , Ulysses S.Ulysses S. Grant 30 December 1878 3 January 1879 United States Politics / Military Former President and General in the Union Army
4 Potter , Edward E.Edward E. Potter 26 April 1880 4 May 1880 United States Diplomacy / Military Former General in the Union Army; captained the USS Constellation carrying relief aid for the 1879 Irish famine.[13]
5 Parnell , Charles StewartCharles Stewart Parnell 3 January 1882 16 August 1882 Ireland Politics
6 Dillon , JohnJohn Dillon 3 January 1882 16 August 1882 Ireland Politics
7 OdohertyKevin Izod O'Doherty 10 August 1885 1 September 1885 Ireland / Australia Politics Had just returned from Australia to contest North Meath in the November general election.
8 Collins , Patrick A.Patrick A. Collins 22 July 1887 2 August 1887 United States Politics
9 ObrienWilliam O'Brien 22 July 1887 2 August 1887 Ireland Politics
9a Sullivan , Timothy DanielTimothy Daniel Sullivan 10 December 1887 24 October 1893 Ireland Politics
9b Sexton , ThomasThomas Sexton 28 December 1887 Did not sign roll Ireland Politics
10 RiponGeorge Robinson, 1st Marquess of Ripon 16 January 1888 2 February 1888 England Politics For supporting the First Home Rule Bill[14][15]
11 Morley , JohnJohn Morley 16 January 1888 2 February 1888 England Politics For supporting the First Home Rule Bill as Chief Secretary for Ireland[14]
12 Moran , Patrick F.Patrick F. Moran 1 October 1888 4 October 1888 Ireland / Australia Religion: Catholic Cardinal, Archbishop of Sydney
13 Sandhurst , MargaretMargaret Sandhurst 19 September 1889 20 September 1889 England Activism / Politics Suffragist who had just had her election to London County Council overturned.[16]
14 Stansfeld , JamesJames Stansfeld 19 September 1889 20 September 1889 England Politics / Activism Radical MP and suffragist
15 Salmon , GeorgeGeorge Salmon 14 March 1892 30 June 1892 Ireland Education / Religion: Church of Ireland Provost of Trinity College, Dublin during its tercentenary
16 Knill , StuartStuart Knill 23 December 1892 2 January 1893 England Politics Then Lord Mayor of London. of the Knill baronets.
17 Redmond , JohnJohn Redmond 18 December 1901 3 April 1902 Ireland Politics
18 MachughPatrick Aloysius McHugh 30 October 1901 3 April 1902 Ireland Politics
19 Hyde , DouglasDouglas Hyde 29 June 1906 7 August 1906 Ireland Culture: Irish language Under his pen name An Craoibhín Aoibhín
20 Harty , Emanuel SpencerEmanuel Spencer Harty 2 September 1907 Did not sign roll Ireland Public service: civil engineering Dublin City Engineer[17]
20a Lane , HughHugh Lane 10 February 1908 Did not sign roll Ireland (Dublin) / England Culture: art : collector Had established the Municipal Gallery of Modern Art
21 Croker , RichardRichard Croker 1 July 1907 24 August 1908 United States Politics Tammany Hall boss
22 OmeagherEdward O'Meagher Condon 28 September 1909 4 October 1909 Ireland Activism Co-accused of the Manchester Martyrs
23 Cameron , CharlesCharles Cameron 30 September 1910 20 February 1911 Ireland (Dublin) Public service: medicine
24 Meyer , KunoKuno Meyer 18 July 1911 22 April 1912 Germany Culture: Irish language Expunged 15 March 1915 due to anti-German feeling in World War I; restored 19 April 1920.[18]
25 UalaoghairePeadar Ua Laoghaire 18 July 1911 22 April 1912 Ireland Culture: Irish language Priest
25a Mannix , DanielDaniel Mannix 5 August 1920 Did not sign roll Australia / Ireland Religion: Catholic Archbishop of Melbourne
26 MaccormackJohn McCormack 3 September 1923 6 September 1923 Ireland / United States Culture: music
27 HunefeldEhrenfried Günther Freiherr von Hünefeld 30 June 1928 3 July 1928 Germany Aviation Bremen transatlantic aircraft owner
28 KohlHermann Köhl 30 June 1928 3 July 1928 Germany Aviation Bremen transatlantic aircraft pilot
29 Fitzmaurice , JamesJames Fitzmaurice 30 June 1928 3 July 1928 United States Aviation Bremen transatlantic aircraft navigator
30 Kellogg , Frank B.Frank B. Kellogg 25 August 1928 30 August 1928 United States Politics / Diplomacy United States Secretary of State who had recently instigated the Kellogg–Briand Pact
31 Lauri , LorenzoLorenzo Lauri 2 May 1932 27 June 1932 Italy Religion: Catholic Cardinal, papal legate during 1932 Eucharistic Congress in Dublin
32 Lavery , JohnJohn Lavery 12 August 1935 17 September 1935 Ireland / England Culture: art : painter
33 Griffith , John PurserJohn Purser Griffith 4 May 1936 8 June 1936 Ireland Public service: civil engineering
34 Shaw , George BernardGeorge Bernard Shaw 4 March 1946 28 August 1946 Ireland / England Culture: literature / drama
35 Cushing , RichardRichard Cushing 16 September 1949 16 September 1949 United States Religion: Catholic Cardinal, Archbishop of Boston
36 Dever , Paul A.Paul A. Dever 16 September 1949 16 September 1949 United States Politics Governor of Massachusetts
37 OkellySeán T. O'Kelly 4 May 1953 2 June 1953 Ireland Diplomacy Then President of Ireland
38 DaltonJohn D'Alton 4 May 1953 2 June 1953 Ireland Religion: Catholic Cardinal Archbishop of Armagh
39 OharaGerald O'Hara 12 July 1954 27 July 1954 United States Religion: Catholic Apostolic Nuncio to Ireland
44[fn 1] Beatty , ChesterChester Beatty 7 November 1955 26 July 1956 United States / Ireland (Dublin) Culture: art : collector
45 Norton , John F.John F. Norton 11 August 1958 28 October 1958 Australia Religion: Catholic Bishop of Bathurst
46 Agagianian , Grégoire-PierreGrégoire-Pierre Agagianian 1 May 1961 22 June 1961 Armenia Religion: Catholic: Armenian Cardinal, papal legate for the Patrician Year Congress held at Croke Park.[19]
47 Browne , MichaelMichael Browne 16 July 1962 23 August 1962 Ireland Religion: Catholic Cardinal, former Master General of the Dominican Order; received freedom of Limerick[20] and Drogheda[21] on the same trip to Ireland.
48 Kennedy , John F.John F. Kennedy 27 May 1963 28 June 1963 United States Politics / Diplomacy During state visit to Ireland
49 Edwards , HiltonHilton Edwards 11 June 1973 22 June 1973 England / Ireland (Dublin) Culture: drama Co-founder of the Gate Theatre
50 MacliammoirMicheál Mac Liammóir 11 June 1973 22 June 1973 England / Ireland (Dublin) Culture: drama Co-founder of the Gate Theatre
51 DevaleraÉamon de Valera 3 February 1975 7 March 1975 Ireland Politics / Diplomacy Former Taoiseach and President
52 Costello , John A.John A. Costello 3 February 1975 7 March 1975 Ireland (Dublin) Politics Former Taoiseach, alternately with de Valera
53 John Paul IIPope John Paul II 24 September 1979 29 September 1979 Poland / Vatican Religion: Catholic / Diplomacy During official visit
54 Purcell , NoelNoel Purcell 22 June 1984 28 June 1984 Ireland (Dublin) Culture: drama Actor
55 Potter , MaureenMaureen Potter 22 June 1984 28 June 1984 Ireland (Dublin) Culture: drama Actress
56 AkihitoAkihito 20 February 1985 4 March 1985 Japan Diplomacy Then Crown Prince, during official visit[22]
57 MichikoMichiko 20 February 1985 4 March 1985 Japan Diplomacy Then Crown Princess, during official visit[22]
58 Roche , StephenStephen Roche 28 September 1987 29 September 1987 Ireland (Dublin) Sport: cycling After winning 1987 Tour de France
59 Mandela , NelsonNelson Mandela 18 July 1988 1 July 1990 South Africa Activism Awarded on 70th birthday, while in prison; enrolled by proxy by Oliver Tambo on 21 September 1988; signed in person after his release.[12][23][24]
60 Hillery , PatrickPatrick Hillery 4 March 1991 22 April 1991 Ireland Diplomacy Former President of Ireland
61 TeresaMother Teresa of Calcutta 1 February 1993 2 June 1993 Albania / India Religion: Catholic / Activism
62 Charlton , JackJack Charlton 11 April 1994 26 May 1994 England Sport: soccer Then manager of the Republic of Ireland national team
63 Clinton , BillBill Clinton 6 November 1995 1 December 1995 United States Politics / Diplomacy During official visit during the Northern Ireland peace process
64 Byrne , GayGay Byrne 12 April 1999 11 May 1999 Ireland (Dublin) Culture: broadcasting
65 Suu Kyi , Aung SanAung San Suu Kyi 1 November 1999 18 June 2012 Burma Activism Awarded while under house arrest; signed in person after her release .[25]
66 MacguinnessPaul McGuinness 1 November 1999 18 March 2000 Ireland (Dublin) Culture: music U2 manager
67 Edge , TheThe Edge 1 November 1999 18 March 2000 Ireland (Dublin) / Wales Culture: music U2 member
68 Mullen Jr. , LarryLarry Mullen Jr. 1 November 1999 18 March 2000 Ireland (Dublin) Culture: music U2 member
69 Clayton , AdamAdam Clayton 1 November 1999 18 March 2000 Ireland (Dublin) / England Culture: music U2 member
70 BonoBono 1 November 1999 18 March 2000 Ireland (Dublin) Culture: music U2 member
71 Gorbachev , MikhailMikhail Gorbachev 3 December 2001 9 January 2002 Russia Politics / Diplomacy / Activism
72 Heffernan , KevinKevin Heffernan 1 March 2004 17 May 2004 Ireland (Dublin) Sport: gaelic football Player and manager of the Dublin intercounty team
73 Delany , RonnieRonnie Delany 5 September 2005 5 March 2006 Ireland (Dublin) Sport: athletics Won the 1956 Olympic 1500 m[26]
74 Geldof , BobBob Geldof 5 September 2005 5 March 2006 Ireland (Dublin) Activist / Culture: music Live Aid organiser and Boomtown Rats lead singer[26]
75 Kinsella , ThomasThomas Kinsella 5 February 2007 24 May 2007 Ireland (Dublin) Culture: literature : poetry
76 LebrocquyLouis le Brocquy 5 February 2007 24 May 2007 Ireland (Dublin) Culture: art : painter
77 MacverryPeter McVerry 4 November 2013 22 March 2014 Ireland (Dublin) Activism / Religion: Catholic Jesuit homeless campaigner[27]
78 OdriscollBrian O'Driscoll 4 November 2013 22 March 2014 Ireland (Dublin) Sport: rugby union Captain of the Ireland national team[27]
79 Crowley , KevinKevin Crowley 1 September 2014 28 February 2015 Ireland (Dublin) Activism / Religion: Catholic Capuchin homeless campaigner
80 Giles , JohnnyJohnny Giles 1 September 2014 28 February 2015 Ireland (Dublin) Sport: soccer Former captain and manager of the Republic of Ireland national team
Notes
  1. ^ a b The missing numbers 40 to 43 correspond to the four earlier non-numeric values, inserted for those who signed the roll late or never. Since 1955, numbering is from resolution rather than signature.[12]
  2. ^ Those associated with Dublin in particular are noted

Sources[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Clark (2000) p.34
  2. ^ Royal Commission appointed to inquire into the municipal corporations in Ireland (1835). First report, appendix: Report on the City of Dublin, Part I. Command papers. Vol.27 No. 23. William Clowes for HMSO. pp. 17–19, §§60–63. 
  3. ^ "Local Government Act, 2001, Section 11 (16)". Irish Statute Book. 21 July 2001. Retrieved 2 April 2015. Subject to this Act, royal charters and letters patent relating to local authorities shall continue to apply for ceremonial and related purposes in accordance with local civic tradition but shall otherwise cease to have effect. 
  4. ^ a b c "Freedom of the City of Dublin". Dublin City Council. Retrieved 2011-02-08. 
  5. ^ AP (20 March 2000). "Bono asserts public sheep-grazing right". Rome News-Tribune (Rome, Georgia: via Google News). Retrieved 2 April 2015. 
  6. ^ Edge, Adam Clayton, Larry Mullen Jr. U2 by U2. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-077674-9. [page needed]
  7. ^ Berry, Henry F. (1900). "The Records of the Dublin Gild of Merchants, known as the Gild of the Holy Trinity, 1438-1671.". The journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 10 (5th ser.) 30 (continuing) (1): 59. 
  8. ^ Gilbert, John T. (1889). "Dublin Assembly Roll, 1454". Calendar of ancient records of Dublin in the possession of the municipal corporation of that city. Vol.1. Joseph Dollard. p. 283. 
  9. ^ "Local Government Act, 1991, Section 48". Irish Statute Book. Retrieved 26 March 2015. 
  10. ^ "Local Government Act, 2001, Section 74". Irish Statute Book. Retrieved 26 March 2015. 
  11. ^ "Previous Recipients of Keys to the City". Dublin City Council. Retrieved 26 March 2015. 
  12. ^ a b Clark (2000) p.37
  13. ^ "Report of the Commander of the Relief Ship Constellation". Irish Emigration Database. DIPPAM. 15 June 1880. Retrieved 27 March 2015. 
  14. ^ a b "The Freedom of Dublin". Chicago Tribune. 4 February 1888. p. 9. Retrieved 30 March 2015. 
  15. ^ Omond, George William Thomson. "Robinson, George Frederick Samuel, 1st Marquess of Ripon". Dictionary of National Biography. Second Supplement, Vol.2. p. 220. Retrieved 30 March 2015. 
  16. ^ Haggard, Robert F. (2001). The Persistence of Victorian Liberalism: The Politics of Social Reform in Britain, 1870-1900. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 134–135. ISBN 9780313313059. Retrieved 27 March 2015. 
  17. ^ "Harty, Emanuel Spencer". Dictionary of Irish Architects. Retrieved 26 March 2015. 
  18. ^ Clark (2000) p.36
  19. ^ "Cardinal Gregory Peter Agagianian, Oak Room, Mansion House". Digital Collections » Freedom of the City. Dublin City Council libraries. 22 June 1961. p. FOC001. Retrieved 27 March 2015. 
  20. ^ "50 Years Ago: Cardinal to be Freeman of city" (PDF). Limerick Leader. 13 August 2012. p. 19. Retrieved 30 March 2015. 
  21. ^ "Cardinal Browne receives Freedom of Borough of Drogheda". Holdings. National Library of Ireland. Retrieved 30 March 2015. 
  22. ^ a b "Lord Mayor Michael O'Halloran, Crown Prince Akihito and Princess Michiko of Japan, Oak Room, Mansion House". zzz. zzz. 4 March 1985. p. FOC019. Retrieved 27 March 2015. 
  23. ^ FOC032 Mandela 1990 Dublin City Public Libraries & Archive, 2013-01-16.
  24. ^ Happy memories of asking the Nelson Mandela about his first vote Irish Times, 2013-12-06.
  25. ^ Burma's Aung San Suu Kyi leaves Ireland after awards RTÉ News, 2012-06-18.
  26. ^ a b "Minutes of Special Meeting held on 5 March 2006 outside the Mansion House at 4.00 pm" (PDF). Dublin City Council. 5 March 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 December 2010. Retrieved 2 April 2015. 
  27. ^ a b [1] Irish Independent, 2014-23-03.

External links[edit]